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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1937 




(Publication 3480) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1938 



£Be Boxi) QBattimoti (pveec 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

The present pamphlet is intended as a preliminary announcement 
of Smithsonian field expeditions during the calendar year 1937. A 
large percentage of the Institution's researches are concerned with the 
sciences of geology, biology, and anthropology, and in these sciences 
field-work plays an important role. Many investigations in the natural 
sciences depend largely upon data which can only be obtained through 
actual work in the field. Such expeditions are necessary also to fill 
in gaps in the study collections of the National Museum, which form 
the basis for much of the Institution's research. 

Some of the expeditions herein described were financed wholly by 
the Institution, but others were cooperative undertakings with other 
organizations interested in the promotion of the same sciences. The 
technical results of these expeditions and of the investigations to 
which they relate will later appear in one of the other series of pub- 
lications issued by the Institution and two of its branches, the National 
Museum and the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

W. P. True, Editor. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Bartlett, Robert A. Greenland expedition of 1937 51 

Bartsch, Paul. Smithsonian-Roebling expedition to Cuba 65 

Bartsch, Paul. Heredity experiments in Virginia and West Virginia 69 

Beach, William N. With the moose and caribou in Alaska 45 

Bushnell, David I., Jr. Ancient sites on the banks of the Rappahannock in 

Virginia 107 

Chapin, Edward A. Collecting insects on the Island of Jamaica 73 

Clark, Austin H. The butterflies of Virginia 77 

Conger, Paul S. Exploring the lakes of northern Wisconsin 81 

Cooper, G. Arthur. Collecting fossils in Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, 

and Canada 9 

Deignan, H. G. Exploring Siam 41 

Gilmore, Charles W. Fossil hunting in Utah and Arizona 1 

Henderson, E. P. Minerals of Russia 13 

Hrdlicka, Ales. Anthropological explorations on the Aleutian and Com- 
mander Islands 87 

Krieger, Herbert W. Archeology of the Virgin Islands 95 

Mann, W. M. The National Geographic Society-Smithsonian expedition to 

the East Indies 35 

Michelson, Truman. Studies among the Montagnais-Naskapi Indians of 

the northern shore of the St. Lawrence River 119 

Miller, Gerrit S., Jr. Collecting animals and plants in Panama, 1937 27 

Perrygo, Watson M. Collecting birds and mammals in Tennessee 31 

Resser, Charles E. The Cambrian rocks of New York, Vermont, and 

Quebec 5 

Roberts, Frank H. H., Jr. The Lindenmeier site in northern Colorado con- 
tributes additional data on the Folsom complex 115 

Schmitt, Waldo L. The Smithsonian-Hartford expedition to the West 

Indies, 1937 57 

Swanton, John R. Picking up De Soto's Trail 1 1 1 

Wedel, Waldo R. Inaugurating an archeological survey in Kansas 103 

Wetmore, Alexander. With the birds of northwestern Venezuela 19 



FOSSIL HUNTING IN UTAH AND ARIZONA 

By CHARLES W. GILMORE 

Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, U. S. National Museum 

The 1937 Smithsonian Paleontological Expedition for fossil verte- 
brates had as its main objective the exploration of certain geological 
formations that occurred on and around North Horn Mountain in 
central Utah. This area had been brought to our attention by mem- 
bers of the U. S. Geological Survey because of the fact that some 
1,650 vertical feet of beds originally mapped as Wasatch, Eocene, 
were later found to carry fragmentary dinosaur and mammalian fos- 
sils. The hope of obtaining identifiable specimens that would accu- 
rately date these deposits and also the hope of opening up a new field 
for horned and other dinosaurian specimens were the motives which 
actuated this undertaking. 

The party, consisting of Messrs. George F. Sternberg and George 
B. Pearce under the direction of the writer, established camp at the 
Olsen Ranch in " Joes Valley " in the Manti National Forest on 
June 15. On the following day under the guidance of Dr. E. M. 
Spieker, of Ohio State University, who had mapped the geology of 
the region and was therefore conversant with all aspects of the field, 
collecting was begun. 

On the very first day Pearce made the amazing discovery of an 
articulated skeleton of a very large sauropodous dinosaur, a totally 
unexpected find in an Upper Cretaceous formation in which also 
occurred the remains of ceratopsian dinosaurs. Only once before has 
such an association been found, and that in the San Juan Basin in 
New Mexico, where Dr. John B. Reeside, Jr., in 1921 found the type 
specimen of Almnosaiirus sanjuanensis Gilmore, which the present 
specimen appears to resemble closely. Although subsequent study 
may modify such a conclusion, the inference at present is that these 
Utah deposits containing dinosaurian remains on North Horn Moun- 
tain are equivalent in age to those in New Mexico. 

The Alamosaurus skeleton was found in a badland area at the south 
end of North Horn Mountain. It was lying on its back with the 
anterior part of the skeleton projecting from the outcrop. The head 
and neck had long since been eroded away and destroyed. The dorsal 
series, owing to its proximity to the surface, was so soft and disinte- 
grated as to be valueless and therefore was not collected. The left 
fore limb and foot in the articulated position as found (fig. 2) 
measured 9 feet in length, which gives some idea of the great size of 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. i. — Camp at Olsen ranch in Joes Valley, Emery County, Utah. 
(Photograph by G. F. Sternberg.) 



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Fig. 2. — Articulated skeleton of sauropod dinosaur partly uncovered as it lay in 
the ground. (Photograph by G. F. Sternberg.) 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 




Fir.. 3. — Plastered blocks of sauropod skeleton. North Horn Mountain in the 
background. (Photograph by G. F. Sternberg.) 




Fig. 4. — Hauling bones of sauropod dinosaur. (Photograph by G. F. Sternberg.) 



4 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

the individual. In the 3 weeks of continuous work required to exca- 
vate and prepare the bones for shipment to the National Museum 
about one-third of the skeleton was recovered. 

Another specimen found in these same deposits, also worthy of 
special mention, is the disarticulated skull and parts of skeleton of a 
horned dinosaur. When the scattered elements are prepared and 
assembled it is estimated the skull will have a length of more than 
6 feet. It appears to represent a form new to science, and further 
interest attaches to this discovery as it greatly extends the western 
geographical range of the Ceratopsia in North America. 

Later in the season special search was made of the overlying beds, 
in which a single skull fragment of a mammal had previously been 
found by Messrs. Reeside and Spieker. This work was rewarded by 
the recovery of a small collection of identifiable skull and jaw frag- 
ments carrying teeth, which was sufficient to indicate definitely for 
the first time the Paleocene age of this part of the geologic section. 

Just as the season drew to a close in this area, the discovery of six 
more or less complete articulated skeletons of a small lizard made a 
fitting climax to our explorations. These lizard specimens represent 
an undescribed form, and they so thoroughly supplement one another 
that a knowledge will be gained of practically the entire skeletal 
anatomy. These specimens are among the oldest lizards known from 
North America and the most perfectly preserved of any yet discovered. 

The work of collecting in this area, especially of dinosaurian re- 
mains, was particularly arduous. The steepness of the exposures, 
the 8,000-feet elevation, and the inaccessibility of much of the terrain 
to the motor car, added much manual labor to the collector's task. 

On August 1, after having boxed and shipped the collections made, 
we proceeded by motor from Price, Utah, to Holbrook, Ariz., where 
according to our original plan for the season's work, 3 weeks were 
spent in the exploration of the Chinle division of the Triassic for its 
fossil vertebrates. 

Here most of our work was in the badland areas bordering the 
Petrified Forest. Our work here was greatly facilitated by the gen- 
erous assistance given by Ranger Naturalist M. V. Walker of the 
National Park Service. In the short time at our disposal we were 
fortunate in accumulating a representative collection from the Chinle, 
material that was badly needed to round out the Triassic part of the 
paleontological collections of the National Museum. Three phytosaur 
and two stegocephalian skulls are worthy of special mention. 

In all, the specimens collected on this expedition filled 13 large 
cases, which had a combined weight of 5,729 pounds. 



THE CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF NEW YORK, VERMONT, 
AND QUEBEC 

By CHARLES E. RESSER 
Curator, Division of Invertebrate Paleontology, U. S. National Museum 

Cambrian rocks were studied during the past field season in New 
York, Vermont, and Quebec, and the work was doubly interesting 
because it was done in very attractive portions of America. On the 
way to the first objective in the Adirondack Mountains, Cambrian 
outcrops in central Pennsylvania were briefly studied. Folds and 
faults here bring up old rocks, exposing a sequence which matches 
that of the southern Appalachians and which constitutes the most 
northerly outcrops of the older Paleozoic beds west of the 
Appalachian Valley. 

The first objective of the season was examination of the Potsdam 
and related Cambrian formations on the flanks of the Adirondack 
Mountains. During Upper Cambrian times marine waters entering 
the continent surrounded an old rock mass, now the Adirondacks. 
These present uplands were then evidently low islands in the Cambrian 
sea. Today the Cambrian formations flank the mountains on the 
northern and eastern sides but are absent by overlap of younger 
strata on the south and west. However, the outcrops do not form a 
continuous belt around the mountains as they must have when de- 
posited. Inliers show that formerly the Cambrian beds extended 
much farther in toward the center of the mountain mass than they 
do now. Radial faults, possibly formed during the building of the 
Appalachian Mountains to the east, separated the margins of the 
Adirondacks into blocks, which were moved up or down with respect 
to each other. The down-dropped blocks were protected from the 
full force of erosion agents, particularly recent glaciation, and hence 
retain the layers of Cambrian rocks. At many places glacial drift 
covers large areas. Through removal of the Cambrian beds in some 
areas and covering by glacial drift in others, only isolated patches of 
the rocks remain for study. 

Fossils are rare in the sandstones which comprise much of the Cam- 
brian sequence and which rest on the granitic foundation of the Adi- 
rondacks. These sandstones grade upward into calcareous beds. Since 
the calcareous material is chiefly magnesium, the rocks are dolomite, 
a type of matrix which seldom preserves fossils. 

After the melting of the ice sheets, the streams radiating from the 
higher portions of the Adirondacks flowed in new channels. Those 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 5. — Ausable Chasm, New York. 




Fig. 6. — St. Lawrence River. Montmorency Falls in center, Laurentian Mountains 

in background. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 










Fig. 7. — Trois Pistoles, Quebec. 





Fig. 8. — Perce, Quebec from the top of Mount St. Ar 



8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

which had to cross a belt or patch of the sedimentary Cambrian 
rocks were able to cut valleys rapidly, producing vertical-walled 
canyons. Most of these are picturesque, the best being Ausable Chasm, 
annually visited by thousands of people. 

A second major objective was study of the Cambrian sequence in 
northwestern Vermont. Conditions there contrast strongly with those 
in the Adirondack area across Lake Champlain. The Green Moun- 
tains and hills of Vermont belong to the Appalachian Mountain 
system, hence the rocks are strongly folded and overthrust. In the 
Adirondack Mountains marine waters first flooded the flanks of the 
old land mass to deposit Upper Cambrian beds which still remain 
as more or less horizontal layers. In Vermont, however, the Cam- 
brian sequence begins with the much older Lower Cambrian, and 
intensive folding and faulting have given both the landscape and the 
outcrops quite a different aspect. The earth movements altered the 
limestones and shales into marbles and slates, which in turn gave rise 
to one of Vermont's chief industries. 

The third major objective of the summer's work was study of the 
Lower Cambrian deposits in the St. Lawrence valley. Outcrops begin 
at Levis, directly opposite Quebec City, and extend intermittently 
along the river for more than 200 miles, as very peculiar occurrences. 
The rocks are limestones like those in the Straits of Belle Isle, Labra- 
dor, but occur here only as boulders in limestone conglomerate. Out- 
crops of such bedded rock are unknown along this vast stretch of 
the river. Why and how these deposits came into existence is an 
unsolved geological problem even though studied for about 100 years. 

Some of the limestone pebbles yield excellent fossils, but collect- 
ing is difficult because both the pebbles and matrix are composed of 
limestone so that both disintegrate simultaneously. Fossiliferous peb- 
bles may be seen but, since they are not on the edge of the rock mass, 
cannot be broken out. 

Near the tip of Gaspe Peninsula Cambrian strata have been found 
in two small areas. These occurrences are intensely folded strata, 
a continuation of the Appalachian system, and show thereby that the 
seaways extended the great distance from central Alabama. Perce on 
the tip of the Gaspe Peninsula is one of the most attractive places in 
the world. Vertical cliff's of red, cream, and gray rocks, grassy slopes, 
forested mountains, fish-drying racks, attractive homes, fishing boats, 
and the sea combine to produce a beautiful picture. For years an 
artist colony has tried to put some of this beauty on canvas, and 
travelers are rejoiced by spending a few days at Perce. 



COLLECTING FOSSILS IN MICHIGAN, PENNSYLVANIA, 
NEW YORK, AND CANADA 

By G. ARTHUR COOPER 

Assistant Curator, Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology, 
U. S. National Museum 

To collect fossils needed in current investigations in the Division 
of Stratigraphic Paleontology, the writer made three separate field 
trips during the summer of 1937 : a month in Michigan, a week in 
Pennsylvania, and 2 weeks in the Champlain Valley of New York and 
southern Canada. 

Michigan. — During three previous trips to Alpena and Petoskey 
the writer studied the strata and collected fossils from Middle 
Devonian rocks. The month of June was spent in the vicinity of 
Alpena, Petoskey, and Onaway in an effort to correct suspected 
errors in stratigraphy and to collect better specimens of certain kinds 
of fossils. The results of the work were satisfactory in data collected 
and important additions to the collection. 

Pennsylvania. — The Tully formation is a stratum lying at the base 
of the Upper Devonian. Although this formation and its contained 
fossils are well known in New York, it is largely through the efforts 
of Dr. Bradford Willard, of the Pennsylvania Topographic and Geo- 
logic Survey, that rocks of Tully age have been identified in Pennsyl- 
vania. The writer, because of his familiarity with the New York 
Tully, was invited by Dr. Willard to examine rocks of this formation 
in Pennsylvania. A pleasant week was spent with Dr. Willard in 
tracing this formation from a point near Everett in south-central 
Pennsylvania northeastward to a point not far south of Pottsville 
in the east-central part of the State. The Tully outcrop extends from 
this latter point to Milford near the New York-Pennsylvania line. 

Unlike New York, where the Devonian rocks are nearly flat, these 
strata in Pennsylvania have been thrown into gigantic folds having 
in general a northeast-southwest trend. The great anticlines and syn- 
clines are also complicated by cross-folds, causing the northeast- 
southwest trending structures to pitch under the surface at places. 
The outcrops of Devonian rocks thus form elongate and canoe-shaped 
patterns. 

Dr. W 7 illard and the writer started their studies about 40 miles 
north of the Maryland State line at the settlement of Eichelburger- 
town. Here the Tully is 3 feet thick and is composed mainly of lime- 
stone. The limestone thickens along the Alleghany Front to 35 feet 



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12 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

near Mount Eagle and to nearly 250 feet at Lock Haven. To the east 
and southwest the limestone thins to 35 feet at Danville and to a few 
inches near Mandatta. Southwest of this place on the Juniata River, 
about 30 miles northwest of Harrisburg, the formation is composed 
of a thin calcareous layer and about 15 feet of shale. Traced east- 
ward from here the lime content disappears and the Tully fauna has 
been found in shale and sandstone in eastern Pennsylvania. During 
this investigation a number of good collections were made from this 
little-known formation and also from the underlying Hamilton rocks. 
New York and Canada. — This trip was undertaken with Dr. Josiah 
Bridge of the United States Geological Survey. The purpose was 
threefold : to study Ordovician (Chazyan) rocks at their type section, 
Chazy, N. Y. ; to collect fossils from the Mystic conglomerate of 
southern Quebec ; and to study type fossils from the Chazy formation 
in the National Museum of Canada at Ottawa, Ontario. 

1. The Chazy formation is well exposed at its type section in 
Chazy, N. Y., which lies just below the Canadian border on the shores 
of Lake Champlain. These rocks are also well exposed at Crown 
Point, N. Y. In fact the walls of the old French fort and those of 
the later English fort at Crown Point were built of blocks of this 
limestone quarried from nearby ledges. 

At Chazy the rocks are mostly massive limestones broken into 
blocks by faults. Nearly the entire sequence is present at Chazy and 
can be seen just west of the village. Fossils are common, particularly 
a large flat snail known as Maclurca. Collections were made at Chazy 
and also at Crown Point. 

2. From Chazy the party moved to Bedford in southern Quebec. 
Here occur outcrops of a peculiar conglomerate made of large boulders 
of limestone containing fossils of different geologic ages. One type 
of boulder contains fossils related to species found farther south at 
Phillipsburg, Quebec, and in Vermont. Another type of boulder con- 
tains a fauna whose nearest relative is found in Newfoundland. Good 
collections of peculiar fossils were taken from two large boulders of 
this latter type. 

3. After two days in Bedford the party went on to Ottawa with a 
short stop at McGill University in Montreal. Between Hawkesbury 
and Ottawa small collections of Chazyan fossils were made in road- 
side cuts and quarries. Two days were spent in studying type speci- 
mens in the National Museum of Canada. On the return trip to 
Washington a short stop was made at a large quarry on the Colgate 
University Campus at Hamilton, N. Y., where a few fine Devonian 
fossils were collected. 



MINERALS OF RUSSIA 

By E. P. HENDERSON 

Assistant Curator, Division of Physical and Chemical Geology, 

U. S. National Museum 

The International Geological Congress was held in Moscow in 1937, 
and it was my good fortune to represent the Smithsonian Institution 
at the meetings. As is customary at these congresses, several pre- and 
post-congress excursions were offered, and advantage was taken of 
one of each to see the geology as well as the countryside of Russia. 
Before the congress I spent a profitable month in visiting the museums 
and scientific institutions in England, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, and 
Finland. On June 30, I crossed the Finnish-Russian boundary just 
one day before the pre-congress excursion departed from Leningrad 
to the Kola Peninsula, the northernmost point of European Russia. 

Now at last I was within a vast country whose language and eco- 
nomic structure differed from any other I had heretofore visited. 
Being in possession of much advance advice and instruction, yes, even 
warnings, 1 found myself always interpreting everything I encoun- 
tered or experienced in accordance with knowledge gained by some- 
one else. I believe most newcomers to Russia experience this same 
mental confusion, and it was not until I had been there several days — 
in fact, about as many days as the average American tourist stays — 
that I began to see Russia as it really is. I found the Russians easy 
people to meet and be friendly with, so that even the lack of a com- 
mon language did not altogether hinder the making of friends or the 
exchange of many simple courtesies. 

The trip to the Kola Peninsula was made by train, supplemented 
by boat and motor car. The entire trip can be made by train, but it 
was our wish to see the geology and mineral resources of this coun- 
try, and many interesting side trips were arranged for us. There are 
two political subdivisions in this territory, Karelia, and the Murmansk 
District of the Leningrad Province ; much of the latter lies north of 
the Arctic Circle. 

Karelia is essentially a wooded country, about 90 percent of the 
country being covered with fine timber. Lumbering has been and 
perhaps will remain for years the principal industry of this district. 
The mining industry of Karelia, although very young, is growing 
rapidly. The region is not richly mineralized with metallic deposits, 
but there are abundant sandstones and igneous rocks which are being 
extensively used in Leningrad and Moscow for building and paving 

13 



14 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. II. — En route to visit an island in the White Sea. 




Fig. 12. — Reworking the platinum placer ground at Nizhny Tagil in northern 

Cral Mountains. 




Did Russia. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



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l6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

stone. After several days in Leningrad one senses the magnitude of 
the extensive reconstruction work in progress, and since Karelia is 
the nearest source of essential material, it is only natural that this area 
will continue to expand and develop its mineral resources. 

The general features of Karelia resemble those of Finland ; it is 
essentially a lowland with many lakes, rivers, and marshes. In the 
northern portion there are some hills 2,000 feet in elevation, but the 
elevation of the larger portion of the district is less than half that 
figure, and to the east along the White Sea the country flattens out to 
a marshy lowland. There are thousands of small lakes and one very 
large one, Lake Onega, which covers about 10,000 square miles. 

North of Karelia lies the Kola district, and although north of the 
Arctic Circle, it has a comparatively moderate climate. Murmansk, 
a city of over 100,000 people and the largest town in the Arctic, is 
the only seaport of Russia on the north that is free from ice all the 
year round. The water about Leningrad, over a thousand miles to 
the south, is frozen solidly during the winter. The same warm ocean 
current that furnishes England, Norway, and Sweden with a mild 
climate spends almost the last of its warmth keeping ice from form- 
ing on this northern shore. Murmansk, therefore, with rich resources 
of lumber and minerals and with all-year-round access to the open 
sea, will certainly become an important city. 

The mining industry centered around Kirovsk is one of the most 
recent developments in Russia. There is one of the world's great 
deposits of phosphate ore, apatite, which is closely connected with 
the intrusion of the nepheline syenites, and in and around this peculiar 
igneous complex are many rare minerals, some of them found in 
rather large quantities. The Soviet geologists have done a large 
amount of systematic prospecting to uncover these minerals, and the 
area is a veritable paradise for mineralogists. 

Kola Peninsula also supports other important activities. Off shore 
is a fine fishing ground, and every day trainloads of fish leave the 
north for the larger cities farther south. The region is by no means 
a barren, bleak waste as many suppose, but does have agricultural 
possibilities. We ate potatoes, green vegetables, and strawberries that 
had been raised on experimental farms and also saw a good herd of 
dairy cattle grazing in the fields. The country looks promising, espe- 
cially when visited during the period of 24-hour sunshine. What it 
is like in winter may be a different story, but the Soviets are making 
serious efforts to develop the entire area. 

Following the northern excursion, several days were spent in Mos- 
cow, where the scientific meetings of the Congress were held, and a 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



17 




Fig. 16. — View of glaciated valley in Khibine Mountain, Kola district, 
U. S. S. R. The plateau is about 3,000 feet above sea level. Photograph taken 
in mid July. 




Fig. 17. — Bazhenov deposit of asbestos on the east slope of Ural Mountains 
near Sverdlovsk. A very rich and extensive deposit of high grade asbestos. 




Fig. 18. — A typical Russian village street. 



IS SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

special trip was made to Leningrad to visit the museums and institu- 
tions. The delegates were well entertained and extended many cour- 
tesies not ordinarily given to tourists. To me, even more interesting 
than the meetings, were the museums and other special exhibits pre- 
pared for us. A certain similarity exists among mineral collections in 
whatever part of the world they are found, but when one first enters a 
Russian museum he is at once impressed by the many new occurrences 
of minerals with which the rest of the world is altogether too un- 
familiar. The Soviets have been very active geologically and have 
many prospecting parties out each year. It is only natural, therefore, 
that such activity should bring to light many fine mineral specimens 
and new localities. 

Of the post-congress excursions, that to the Ural Mountains was 
the most interesting. The Urals for years have been known as a highly 
mineralized area, and today their mineral resources are being de- 
veloped at a greatly accelerated rate. These mountains are not high, 
nor did we see many peaks, but here is some of the finest scenery of 
Russia. One approaches the Urals by crossing a long plateau about 
1,000 feet in elevation, on which are many vast wheat fields and 
abundant timber. 

The Ilmen Mountains were visited and our respects paid to some 
of the old classical mineral localities. Chrome, asbestos, talc, mag- 
nesite, iron, nickel, coal, and platinum deposits were examined, as well 
as many local quarry outcrops, and at every locality members of the 
congress were permitted to collect mineral specimens. 

Geologically Russia is the most active country I have ever seen, 
thousands of geologists and prospectors being in the field each year. 
It is therefore logical to expect that many new discoveries will be 
made, as the Soviet Union is one of the largest unexplored and unde- 
veloped areas in the world. The Soviets will consume most of their 
mineral production in developing their own country and will possibly 
need to supplement some of their metalliferous production with im- 
ports from abroad. Today, however, Russia has asbestos, phosphates, 
and magnesite in huge quantities to export, as well as some petroleum. 

Returning to Moscow from the Ural Mountains, I turned over my 
collections to the officials for shipment to America and departed for 
Odessa on the Black Sea. Thence my journey led across the Black 
Sea, through the beautiful Bosphorus, and on to the Island of Ceylon, 
where a week was spent visiting the sapphire districts and graphite 
mines. Finally, before returning to America, I visited Japan, where ' 
several weeks were spent in the scientific laboratories and institutions. 



WITH THE BIRDS OF NORTHWESTERN VENEZUELA 

By ALEXANDER WETMORE 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian- Institution 

After a field acquaintance of a year with the birdlife of the southern 
republics of South America it has long been my desire to make simi- 
lar studies in the northern part of that great continent. Opportunity 
for this finally came when on October 16, 1937, I arrived in Caracas, 
Venezuela. Through the friendly cooperation of the American Minis- 
ter, Mr. Meredith Nicholson, and the gracious assistance of Dr. E. Gil 
Borges, Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores of Venezuela, the neces- 
sary permissions for travel and for collecting specimens were quickly 
arranged. The Minister of the Departmento de Agricultura y Cria, 
Sr. H. Parra Perez, and the Director de Tierras Baldias, Bosques 
y Aguas, Sr. Miguel Parra Sanoja of the same department, were 
deeply interested in my proposed studies and afforded the fullest 
cooperation. 

Field-work began at Maracay on October 21 in company with Mr. 
Ventura Barnes, who accompanied me on many days afield and whose 
knowledge of local conditions was invaluable. The following day 
Dr. Henri Pittier, the veteran botanist, strong and active at the age 
of 80, took me into the great Parque Nacional recently established 
by the Venezuelan Government as a wild life reserve. 

Beginning near Guamitas 14 kilometers northwest of Maracay, this 
huge reservation extends over the mountain range of the Cordillera 
de la Costa, and down across the northern lowlands to the sea. The 
far-sighted policy on the part of the Government in establishing this 
park at the present time must have the highest commendation of all 
interested in conservation since it will preserve for the future areas 
of forest and other natural resources that would otherwise have been 
lost forever through commercial exploitation. 

My quarters here were first in a house belonging to the Department 
of Agriculture, located back of the beach near Ocumare de la Costa. 
Rocky headlands extended into the sea on either side, and a rushgrown 
lagoon lay back of the wave-washed sands of the beach. Inland a 
level, open plain led to steep, rocky hills, grown with huge cacti and 
thorny shrubs. 

The open brush swarmed with birds, abundant not only individually 
but with great variety in species. Tiny hummingbirds, brilliant green 
in color, and yellow-breasted honey creepers swarmed about the deli- 

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SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



21 




Fig. 21. — Shore of the lagoon near Ocumare de la Costa, with the rest house 
on the beach in the background. October 25, 1937. 




Fig. 22. 



-A view of the mountains near Rancho Grande, from the shore of 
the lagoon at Ocumare de la Costa. October 27, 1937. 



22 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

cate, scented flowers of small mimosas. Curious flycatchers of many 
species, ranging from those half the size of a chickadee to the robust 
Derby flycatcher as large as a robin, frequented the open forest or 
its brushy borders. Small pigeons flew up on every hand as I traveled 
the cattle trails, and occasionally I came across long-billed jacamars 
or stolid puff-birds resting quietly on open limbs. 

Excursions in the hilly country toward the base of the mountains 
took me into more humid sections with dense, green plant growth in 
whose somber shades lived short-tailed woodland wrens, brown wood- 
hewers — perching birds with stiffened tail-feathers that climb on trees 
like woodpeckers — hummingbirds, tanagers, brilliant manakins with 
black breasts, red crowns, and light blue backs, and many other 
interesting birds. 

The lagoon was always attractive, with its groups of long-toed 
jaganas that walked about on the grassy banks like chickens, its tiny 
grebes that floated on its surface, and its herons and egrets that waded 
in its shallows. Red-breasted vermilion flycatchers frequented trees 
on its borders, and white-breasted marsh flycatchers (Fluvicola pica) 
hawked like swallows over its surface. 

While the native birds were always strange and curious I found 
equal interest in the many migrants from North America that dur- 
ing the latter part of October were arriving daily from their long 
flight across the Caribbean sea for a winter in the Tropics. Barn 
swallows rested on wires or cruised for insects over the open plain, 
black-poll warblers, redstarts, and an occasional black-throated blue 
warbler came into trees near the house or were found in the brush 
inland, and flocks of pectoral, white-rumped, and Baird's sandpipers, 
en route from nesting grounds near the Arctic Circle to a winter home 
in Patagonia, ranged over the muddy shallows of the lagoon. On the 
lagoon itself were little flocks of blue-winged teal. One morning at 
dawn while watching through powerful binoculars a long-winged 
man-o'-war bird far out at sea I saw in the distance beyond it a tiny 
moving speck driving in from the north toward the land. Gradually 
this object became larger until finally as it reached the beach and rose 
a little to pass over it I identified it as a swiftly flying blue-winged 
teal. I realized then that I was actually observing one of our northern 
birds as it made a landfall on the Venezuelan coast after its long 
flight across the ocean. 

The first of November I moved to a country house in the mountains 
near Rancho Grande at an elevation of 3,200 feet, a short distance 
below El Portachuelo where the road crosses the pass to descend to 
the coastal area on the north. The mountain slopes were grown with 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



23 




Fig. 2.2). — The precipitous peaks from which the town of San Juan de los 
Morros takes its name. November 21, 1937. 




Fig. 24. — Farmhouse at Hato Paya, in the northern Llanos. November 12, 

1937- 



24 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

dense rain forest where huge trees rose from buttressed roots to 
heights of 150 feet or more. Their trunks were wound with climbing 
figs and other vines, masses of parasitic plants covered their limbs, 
and from their tops long, slender lianas hung like ropes, sometimes 
dropping 50 to 75 feet without leaf or branch to break their straight, 
symmetrical lines. Below there were dense growths of shrubbery, 
palms with trunks set closely with long, black, needle-shaped spines 
that reminded me always of spine-covered sea-urchins, and masses of 
vines and creepers. The vegetation everywhere was saturated with 
water from the daily afternoon rains. 

In this great, uninhabited forest birds were as abundant as in the 
lowlands, though sometimes they were found with difficulty because 
of the dense growth. Walking quietly, aided by the wet leaves under- 
foot, I came across long-legged, stub-tailed ant-birds (Grallaria 
haplonota) that ran alertly on the ground like robins, but that at any 
noise slipped silently away. Brilliant cotingas (Euchlornis formosa) 
with bright green backs, yellow underparts, and a large spot of deep 
red in the center of the breast ate the drupes of berry-bearing shrubs 
in company with a brilliant company of small tanagers whose colors 
embraced the most vivid hues of the spectrum. Musical-voiced wood 
wrens (Henicorhina) sang from shadowy tangles, while in the bushes 
above were ant-shrikes, flycatchers, and allied species in almost end- 
less variety. The tree tops were given to warblers, honey-creepers, 
parrots, small hawks and trogons, while in the sky above were swifts 
and swallows. Often the report of my gun brought answer from 
hoarse-voiced howler monkeys ranging wooded ridges a mile away 
across deep valleys. 

In early November with Mr. Ventura Barnes I left Maracay one 
morning at dawn and traveled southward. We drove slowly until 
noon, watching for birds, our road traversing a broad, open valley 
bounded by rolling hills, and crossing many shallow streams. After 
many years of anticipation I was at last to see something of the Llanos, 
the great, level plains that extend down to the Rio Orinoco. We came 
out of the hills below Ortiz, to find the land level but grown with 
dense thorn scrub. The elevation ran from 360 to 400 feet above sea 
level though we were far in the interior. That night we reached the 
little settlement of El Sombrero where I remained while Mr. Barnes 
returned to Maracay. 

The town was placed beside the Rio Guarico, a swiftly flowing, 
shallow, muddy stream. Here there were open prairies, some of them 
more than a mile in extent, on which I found the spur-winged plover 
(Belonopterus), an old friend of previous expeditions farther south. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 937 25 




Fig. 25. — An open savanna near El Sombrero in the Llanos. November 15, 

1937- 




Fig. 26. — Evening on the Rio Guarico at El Sombrero. November 16, 1937. 



26 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The thorn scrub extended on every hand like a level sea until, 15 or 
20 miles farther south, there opened vast savannas with stony soil 
grown with low bunch grass across which autos were driven during 
the dry season in any direction without regard to roads. 

In this primitive region with its small human population the general 
conditions reminded me strongly of the Chaco of northern Argentina, 
Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here I found birds in great abundance, many 
of kinds not encountered previously. Large, yellow -headed, yellow- 
breasted blackbirds (Gymnomystax mexicanns) ranged in flocks 
over the prairies ; pigeons, large and small, abounded ; and speckled, 
crested quail rose with roaring wings to dash away through the bushes. 
One little brown-cheeked parrakeet was known to the native boys as 
cara sucia, or "dirty face." Hawks and falcons were abundant, and it 
was instructive to note that other birds, both of game and nongame 
varieties, did not seem to suffer in the least from the large numbers 
of these predators. Those who have destroyed our hawks in the 
United States would do well to study such a situation. 

After the shade of the dark forests of Rancho Grande the brilliant 
sun of the Llanos was almost oppressive for the first two days. 
Though the rainy season was at an end, torrential rains came nearly 
every afternoon so that the air was constantly humid. 

Along the Rio Guarico were dense lowland forests where parrots, 
flycatchers, warblers, and hosts of other birds abounded. One tiny 
tropical vireo (Pachysylvia aurantiifrons) sang clearly research, 
research, research, a scientific reminder that there was much to learn 
in this fascinating region. Along small channels running back from 
the river to my surprise I found the uncouth hoatzin, a species that I 
had not expected so far from the Orinoco. This is a bird related to 
the fowls, that lives in low trees and bushes over water, flies only 
when necessary, and feeds on leaves, for which it has developed a 
large crop with curious muscular walls. When young, the hoatzin 
with claw-armed wings climbs about in the branches near its nest like 
some reptile. 

The northern Llanos marked my final point for work, and I re- 
mained here until the last possible moment. There followed a day in 
Maracay, devoted to packing the nearly 450 birds that I had secured, 
and two days in Caracas for official calls and visits. On November 25 
1 came down again to La Guaira, and sailed for the north on the Grace 
Line boat Caracas. All through the afternoon from the sundeck of the 
ship I watched the dim outline of the steadily receding coast range 
with the hope that some day I might return for further studies of 
Venezuelan birds. 



COLLECTING ANIMALS AND PLANTS IN PANAMA, 1937 

By GERRIT S. MILLER, JR. 

Curator, Diz'ision of Mammals, U. S. National Museum 

During the dry season of 1937 I visited Panama in order to become 
acquainted with a typical area in the continental tropics and to collect 
vertebrates and plants needed to supplement the large series of speci- 
mens from this region already in the National Museum. Accompanied 
by my wife and Charles M. Wheeler, a recent Harvard graduate in 
biology, I spent three months and three days in and near the Canal 
Zone, January-April, 1937, as the guest of Colonel Stuart C. Godfrey, 
in command of the Eleventh Engineers who are charged with the 
maintenance and defense of the Canal. 

Living at Colonel Godfrey's headquarters in Corozal, with its roomy 
screened porch for a laboratory, and enjoying the cordial cooperation 
of the military and civil authorities, we found ideal conditions for our 
work. In the time at our disposal we were able to see the greater part 
of the Canal Zone, something of the Madden Lake region, where we 
camped on the Indio River surrounded by magnificent rain forest, 
and parts of the less humid Pacific slope drainage area from the Rio 
Jagua and Chepo toward the northeast (toward Colombia) to Venado 
Beach and El Valle toward the southwest (toward Costa Rica). We 
also visited the Pearl Island Archipelago and the islands of Taboga 
and Taboguilla. On the Indio River and Pearl Island trips our camp- 
ing at each place was made comfortable and agreeable by Mrs. Miller's 
skillful cooking and her care of our sleeping arrangements. 

The general characteristics of this region have already been so 
fully dealt with in Smithsonian publications, notably in Goldman's 
report on the mammals (Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. 69, no. 6, Apr. 
24, 1920) and in Standley's report on the plants (Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herbarium, vol. 27, 1928) that it does not seem necessary to rede- 
scribe them here. I need merely say that the toucans and woodhewers 
in the rain forest on the shores of Madden Lake enjoy a yearly rain- 
fall of about 70 inches, while the pipits and meadowlarks on the savan- 
nahs 30 miles away to the southeast must be content with only about 
half as much. With this great difference in water supply, the two 
regions present striking contrasts in both flora and fauna, contrasts 
whose appreciation is made easy by automobiles and good roads. 

Two visits to Barro Colorado Island, with its clearly marked trails 
and well equipped laboratory, were especially enjoyable. Dr. Zetek, 
the able director, and Dr. Chapman, the island's most distinguished 
guest, easily convinced us that there could be no better place for the 

3 27 



28 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 27. — Leaving New York. 




Fig. 28. — Ships going through the Panama Canal. 




Fig. 29. — The farthest point of our journey. A village in the Pearl Islands. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



2 9 





Fig. 30. — A tame spider monkey at the Old Panama zoo. 




Fig. 31. — A tame marmoset at Corozal. 




Fig. 32. — Porpoises in the Gulf of Panama. 



30 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

study of tropical life. But our commission to obtain birds for skeleton- 
izing brought us into conflict with wise restrictions on the use of guns, 
and made it necessary for us to go elsewhere for such collecting. 

Through the cooperation of Dr. Herbert C. Clark, director of the 
Gorgas Memorial Laboratory in Panama City, and the expert boat- 
manship and harpoon work of Ernest Stahler of Balboa, C. Z., we 
obtained eight specimens of one of the several species of porpoise 
that inhabit the Gulf of Panama. Two individuals, adult and immature, 
of this animal swimming near the surface of calm water, between 
Pedro Gonzales Island and Taboga Island, are shown in the very 
unusual photograph contributed by Otis Barton (fig. 32). The 
handling and preparing of these bulky specimens were made easy by 
the facilities of the Gorgas Laboratory and the unfailingly efficient 
cooperation of Dr. Clark and the members of his staff. It was also to 
Dr. Clark that we owed the planning of our trip to the Pearl Islands, 
on the motor boat operated by R. O. Shuey. 

In the small but interesting zoological garden conducted by D. D. H. 
March at Old Panama I had an unusual opportunity to observe the 
manner in which a tame spider monkey stood and walked in the upright 
position. This manner of walking for considerable distances, often 
resorted to by some individuals, but less frequently by others, seems to 
be peculiar to the spider monkeys among those members of the tribe 
that occur in Panama. I, at least, have never seen it except in this one 
kind. When walking erect a spider monkey uses its foot in the same 
manner as a chimpanzee or a gorilla ; that is to say with the great toe 
widely separated from the other toes and serving as one of the prongs 
of a fork w T hen the heel muscles pull the back part of the foot upward 
during the forward step, or when the foot is resting flat on the ground. 
The photograph at the right of figure 30 shows how different this is 
from the action of the human foot with all its toes working nearly 
parallel with each other. 

Again I want to record my appreciation of the man}- opportunities 
and facilities for collecting that Colonel Godfrey and Dr. Clark- 
arranged and for the many comforts and conveniences they provided. 
Mr. Wheeler's untiring enthusiasm and industry combined with his 
biological interest and knowledge made his volunteer contribution an 
essential part of the success of the trip. 

As the result of our work we brought home about 480 mammals, 
about 150 each of birds and reptiles, and about 250 plants. In addi- 
tion there are a few interesting mammals presented by Dr. Zetek, and 
about 50 mammal skulls and skeletal parts presented by Dr. Clark. 
On Taboga and Taboguilla we collected numerous samples of the 
Indian artifacts that are to be found at the aboriginal village sites. 



COLLECTING BIRDS AND MAMMALS IN TENNESSEE 

By WATSON M. PERRYGO 
Scientific Aid, Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museum 

In continuation of work begun last year in West Virginia, the col- 
lection of birds and mammals was undertaken this year in Tennessee 
to obtain material lacking in the collections of the National Museum. 
We had the cooperation of Howell Buntin, Director, Game and Fish, 
Department of Conservation, Nashville, Tenn., who granted the neces- 
sary permits, and also of officials everywhere concerned with game 
or with the care of National Forests or State Game Preserves. 

With Carleton Lingebach as assistant, I left in the early part of 
April 1937 to begin the work in the Austroriparian life zone in the 
Mississippi River bottoms in the vicinity of Memphis, where we re- 
mained for about 2 weeks collecting in the cypress swamps, obtaining 
many interesting specimens of birds and mammals. Leaving here, we 
went to the northwestern part of the State for work around Reelf oot 
Lake, one of the most interesting spots in Tennessee for nature lovers, 
nimrods, and anglers, as ducks, fish, and other game abound, as well 
as wild creatures in general. This lake was formed in the winter of 
1811-12 by a series of earthquakes that caused the low land to sink 
over an area approximately 4 miles wide and 14 miles long. During 
our successful 2 weeks here we were joined by Dr. Herbert Fried- 
mann, curator of birds of the National Museum. 

As the spring season was now farther advanced we moved to a 
higher area in the densely forested, rolling hills of Wayne County. It 
is said that the last wolves taken in the State were killed here a num- 
ber of years ago, and, to judge from the many sites we saw along the 
creeks, the region evidently was once well populated by Indians. 

Continuing north, we stopped during the latter part of May at Cross- 
ville on the Cumberland plateau, where we obtained a variety of birds, 
although mammals were very scarce. On June 1 we moved into the 
high mountain area of the northeastern part of the State, where we 
camped in beautiful, fertile Shady Valley which lies between the 
Holston and Iron Mountains at an altitude of 2,900 feet. Dr. Alex- 
ander Wetmore joined us here for a few days. In the glade in the 
center of the valley we obtained many desirable specimens. Grouse 
were very abundant on the mountains, and among the many interest- 
ing birds collected was a Swainson's warbler taken in a miniature bog 
on the Holston Mountains. 

Through the cooperation of the National Park Service we had per- 
mission for work in the Smoky Mountains National Park. On the 

31 



32 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 33. — Falls Creek Falls on the Cumberland Plateau. 




Fig. 34. — Looking across Shady Valley. Tennessee, with Iron Mountain in the 
background. June 7, 1937. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



33 




Fig. 35. — Camp in the Cherokee National Forest on Big Frog Mountain. 




Fig. 36. — Looking east from Roan Mountain, altitude 6,313 feet. 



34 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

advice of Mr. Stupka, Park Naturalist, we located near Cosby, where 
we remained for the latter half of June collecting in the Canadian 
zone on Mount Guyot, the second highest peak in the Park, at an alti- 
tude of 6,600 feet, and on the adjoining knobs. 

Mount Guyot proved to be most fruitful for Canadian zone birds 
and mammals. In the deeply shaded woodlands of this high moun- 
tain we heard the beautiful song of the winter wren, and found many 
nesting warblers and the olive-sided flycatcher. The Cloudland red 
squirrel was scarce, and we were unsuccessful in an attempt to find 
the Canadian flying squirrel. Two black bears were seen. 

We spent the first half of July in the Cherokee National Forest, 
camping at the base of Big Frog Mountain near the southern border 
of the State. From here we collected on Big Frog, Little Frog, and 
Beans Mountains, obtaining a fair number of specimens. On July 19 
we returned to Washington. 

I left Washington for the autumn collecting trip on September 9 
accompanied by Henry R. Schaefer as assistant. At Bristol we ob- 
tained permission from the Forest Ranger to collect on Roan Moun- 
tain, which is about 6,300 feet high, located on the North Carolina- 
Tennessee border. After about 8 miles of climbing in low gear along 
a rough, winding mountain road we reached the top and pitched our 
tent on the leeward side. This is said to be one of the coolest spots in 
summer in the southeastern United States. Each morning ravens 
passed over our camp flying north, and many other unusual birds and 
mammals were seen. In spite of the fogs and other adverse weather 
conditions we added materially to the collection while in this region. 
We obtained one specimen of the northern flying squirrel at an alti- 
tude of 5,500 feet in the birch woods. 

At the end of September we moved for about a week to Clinch 
Mountain, where the forest consists of second and third growth pine 
and hardwoods, and made a fairly representative collection. 

The first week in October we returned to the Mississippi lowlands 
at Reelfoot Lake to follow the fall migration in the cotton-growing 
districts and the wooded bottomlands. Considering the windy weather, 
which handicaps collecting at this season, we obtained good results. 
Following this, we spent about a week in the tobacco-growing section 
of Clarksville, making collections along the Cumberland River, which 
is one of the few rivers flowing north in the United States. 

On November 1 we moved to Fayetteville, south of Nashville, col- 
lecting in the farming sections of Lincoln and Giles Counties. A 
fruitful 10 days here completed our work for the season. 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY- 
SMITHSONIAN EXPEDITION TO 
THE EAST INDIES 

By W. M. MANN 
Director, National Zoological Park 

On January 19, 1937, the writer, accompanied by Mrs. Mann and 
Dr. Maynard Owen Williams, Chief of the Foreign Staff of the 
National Geographic Magazine, sailed from Vancouver for the Orient, 
to be joined there later by Messers. Roy Jennier and Malcolm Davis, 
of the National Zoological Park, and by Layang Gaddi Sang, a zoo- 
logical collector from Bangkok, Siam. The expedition was financed 
by the National Geographic Society, and its purpose was to collect 
living animals, birds, and reptiles to bring back for the National Zoo- 
logical Park. Jennier and Davis, who sailed later, brought with them 
a small collection of American animals which were turned over to 
the zoos in Siantar, Johore, and Batavia. 

Early in March the party assembled at Pematang Siantar in Sumatra, 
which was our base camp for the following five months. Dr. J. A. 
Coenraad, director of the zoo at Siantar, befriended us and helped 
us get in touch with native collectors. J. M. Lynkamp, manager of 
the Naga Hoeta Tea Estate, allowed us to occupy a temporarily aban- 
doned hospital, the Roemah Sakit Pantoean, where we were able to 
live in comfort and to care for the animals that almost immediately 
started coming in from the natives. 

After spending a month establishing relations with these native col- 
lectors, Mrs. Mann, Dr. Williams, and the writer journeyed down the 
Archipelago as far as Amboina in the Moluccas. Dr. Coenraad accom- 
panied the party and made a hurried trip to Sorong, off the coast of 
New Guinea, where he remained for 9 days, while the rest of the 
party stayed at Piroe on the island of Ceram. The Moluccas were rich 
in gaily colored lories and cockatoos. There were also obtained some 
Megapodes, common in the wilds but exceedingly rare in captivity, 
as well as several interesting reptiles, among which was the brilliant 
and seldom seen amethystine python. The parties met again at Ambon, 
Dr. Coenraad having made a collection of birds of paradise, crowned 
pigeons, and other New Guinea desirables. They returned to Sumatra 
via Macassar, where numerous additional specimens were obtained. In 
Java the officials of the Zoo at Batavia presented us with a number 
of rare specimens, including gavials from Borneo and tantillus storks. 

Shortly after our return to Siantar, our party was joined by Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. C. T. Brues, of Harvard University, who came to 

35 



36 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




A monkey island, peopled with the native monkeys of Japan, a most 
attractive exhibit. 




Fig. 38. — In the Japanese Zoos herds of sea lions are maintained. The commotion 
at feeding time is terrific. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 937 



37 




" 



Fig. 39. — In Ceram our most important catches were cuscus (to the left) and 
Maleo fowl (to the right). 




Fig. 40. — Natives of Ceram danced the Chacalele. After the combat, the winner 
is seen taking the head of the defeated — all in fun. 



38 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



study the fauna of thermal springs, as well as to make entomological 
and botanical collections, and with them we traveled to the West 
Coast of Sumatra, visiting the excellent zoo at Fort de Kock. 
Through the interest of C. Grootes, Secretary to the Resident and in 
charge of the zoo, we obtained a number of good specimens. Later 
we went north to the Province of Atjeh, with good success. 

Toward the end of our stay Miss Barbara Lawrence, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, and Congressman B. T. Cas- 
tellow, of Georgia, visited our camp to collect and hunt in that district. 




Fig. 41. 



-Our bird department in the camp at Siantar. We arrived in 
Washington with 115 crates of birds. 



On July 17, Mrs. Mann and Messrs. Williams and Mann made a 
hurried trip to Bangkok, to secure gibbons and other Siamese species. 
The Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, Phya Jolamark, and Phra 
Charan, head of the Pasteur Institute, greatly assisted us in obtain- 
ing specimens. The latter presented us with a fine collection of ven- 
omous snakes, and we soon gathered considerable other material. 

On our return to Singapore. Crown Prince Ismail of Johore con- 
tributed a beautiful pair of black leopards, and a Bennett's cassowary. 
In the meantime the Departement Economische Zaken had made an 
expedition to Komodo, in which we participated — result, a pair of 
Komodo draeons. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



39 





40 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



We embarked on the M. V. Silverash at Singapore. At Belawan 
Deli we were joined by Jennier, Davis, and Gaddi, who had brought 
the collection to the port on a special railroad train furnished through 
the courtesy of A. Baron Van Styrum, of the Deli Railroad. Layang 
Gaddi Sang, who had proved himself most efficient in field-work, 
accompanied us to Washington. The return voyage took 50 days, with 
stops at Colombo, Bombay, Karachi, Port Sudan, and Port Said. At 
each port a few specimens were picked up — a pair of gaur at Bombay 
(these from Mysore) and some leopards ; and from Port Sudan two 
pairs of giraffe, a pair of African buffalo, and two shoebills. 




Fig. 44. — The hornbill specialist. He came time after time holding a hornbill 
under his arm. These had evidently been collected with lime, and in the vicinity 
of Siantar. 

The expedition lasted nearly 9 months, and resulted in a splendid 
addition to our collection at the Zoological Park. Our best thanks are 
due to the American Diplomatic and Consular Corps for cooperation 
and friendship, and to the Departement Economische Zaken, which 
gave us necessary permits for collecting and exporting our live stock. 

In addition to living animals, small collections of mammals, birds, 
fishes, and invertebrates were made for the United States National 
Museum. Some of these will be reported on at a later time. A few 
losses were suffered on the home journey, but in general we had 
excellent luck. The collection as listed after arrival consisted of 46 
species of mammals, 93 of birds, and 34 of reptiles and batrachians. 



EXPLORING SIAM 

By H. G. DEIGNAN 
Division of Birds, U. S. National Museum 

In January 1937 a collecting expedition for the National Museum 
was made to Doi Pha Horn Pok, a mountain over 8,000 feet high 
lying partly in the Shan State of Mu'ang Hang and partly in the 
Siamese district of Fang. The name, which means Mountain of the 
Blanket, refers to the bank of cloud which usually lies on its slopes. It 
proved to be impossible to ascend the mountain without a guide, and, 
as no one could be found who knew the trail, camp was made at a 
small village in the foothills, on the banks of the Me Mao, a brawling 
mountain torrent. Valuable general collections were made in this 
neighborhood, which had never previously been investigated. From 
this place, travel was continued to Chiengsen Kao, a ruined city on 
the bank of the great Me Khong, by way of an unfrequented path 
which skirts the northern boundary of Siam. The Chiengsen district 
is famous for the vast numbers of ducks and other waterfowl occur- 
ring there during the cold season, and we succeeded in collecting nu- 
merous birds of this type, many of them new either to the Kingdom 
or to the northern provinces. 

February was spent in the southwestern portion of North Siam, 
collections being made in the hilly country on the Siamese bank of 
the Salwin. This district was only separated by the river from the 
Burmese territory of Karenni, and the White Karens (in reference to 
the color of their garments, in contradistinction to the Red Karens) 
proved to be the dominant people of the area. The fauna appeared 
to be typical of the Himalayo-Burmese mountain chain, which con- 
tinues on to Tenasserim, but none of the peculiar forms of Karenni 
was found, the great gorge of the Salwin seeming to act as an effec- 
tive barrier even to the birds. 

In March Doi Chiengdao, a great massif of metamorphosed lime- 
stone more than 7,000 feet high, was re-visited ; its summit has been 
reached by only six Europeans. Camp was made at 4,500 feet, near 
the highest spring, at this season all but dry, and a miserable week 
was spent here, tormented by insects and endangered by forest-fires, 
which were devastating the stands of pine. The summit of the south- 
west pinnacle, exactly 7,000 feet above sea-level, was reached ; there 

41 



42 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 45. — Doi Chiengdao towers 6,500 feet above the rice-fields. Here it is 
seen at a distance of 10 miles. 




Fig. 46. — Jagged rock walls rise out of the jungle west of the mountain-mass. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



43 




- •- V . ..:■■.'■:.". • • , .-:■:;':; ■ '. ... 




Fig. 47. — At the summit of Doi Chiengdao grow many endemic species of 
plants. The palm (Chamaerops sp.) occurs with such northern genera as 
Primula and Gentiana. 




Fig. 48. — A knoll shaded by Khasya pines and overlooking a cluster of 
Musso houses afforded a pleasant camping ground. Titmice fed in the pines 
with minivets. 



44 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

was no path, and much of the ascent consisted in scaling hazardous 
precipices of crumbling rock. In spite of the lack of water and the 
sun-dried vegetation, fresh signs of a bear were discovered at the 
top, and the remains of a Petaurista, recently killed (perhaps by a 
leopard) were found. Birds, mollusks, and insects were collected. 
During the descent, the dry grass below us was set afire, presumably 
by a wandering party of hill-men, and we managed to return safely 
to camp only by going down a difficult cliff, which permitted us to 
reach an area where the fire had burned itself out. Return to the 
plains was made by a new route, along a ridge parallel to the southern 
face of the mountain, offering indescribably magnificent views of the 
precipices, which are among the highest and sheerest in the world. 
The day was enlivened by the sight of bear, sambhur, goral, and serow, 
as well as great flocks of Cerasophila thompsoni, one of the rarest of 
Oriental birds. 

April was spent in the southern portions of Nan province, the center 
and north of which had been visited during 1936. The route lay 
wholly in the lowlands, and, with the increasing drought, travel became 
almost intolerably difficult ; all minor streams were quite dry and 
water-holes were as much as 40 kilometers apart. The forest, largely 
hot-weather deciduous, was by now leafless, offering no respite from 
the sun during the hottest month of the year. It was with relief that 
we finally reached the river Nan at Pak Li. From this point it was 
determined to carry on by boat as far as Utaradit and the railway, 
making camp at nightfall on the sandbars. Game was plentiful on 
the banks, including peafowl, deer, and swine, and parties of otters 
were often seen at play in the shallows. 

At the end of April, work in North Siam was terminated, and a 
change was made to the extreme southeast of Siam, the provinces of 
Chantabun and Trat (Krat). A fortnight was spent at Khao Sa-bap, 
a somewhat isolated mountain, where a number of remarkable birds 
have been discovered in recent years. Here, in the most humid part 
of Siam, where rain falls throughout the year, we found a great con- 
trast to the arid districts of Nan, and field-work was decidedly handi- 
capped by the weather. Later a removal was made to the sea-coast 
near Chantabun, where the salt-marshes, at low tide, offered a great 
variety of waders and other water-birds, including the very rare 
Asiatic finfoot and the Malayan ring-plover, a bird not hitherto known 
from any locality outside the Malaysian subregion. The final week of 
work in Siam was spent on the large island of Ko Chang, where 
numerous interesting invertebrates were collected. 



WITH THE MOOSE AND CARIBOU IN ALASKA 

By WILLIAM N. BEACH 
New York City 

Several times during the past few years Dr. Wetmore had spoken 
to me about getting a new moose group and specimens of stone caribou 
for the Smithsonian Institution. As I wished to get the finest possible 
specimens of the Alaskan moose, I felt that it would be necessary to 
arrange an expedition to go down the north side of the Alaskan Range 
beyond Mount McKinley, a region known as the Rainy Pass section 
of the Range. From several trips I had made to this country I was 
under the impression that the moose there were larger and finer speci- 
mens than in any other part of Alaska, even including the Kenai 
Peninsula. 

From the experience gained on four previous expeditions to this 
country I realized that a successful trip would require careful plan- 
ning. After several conferences with Dr. Wetmore it was decided that 
the expedition should be made in the fall of 1937, and a friend, J. Wat- 
son Webb, agreed to join me. Harry Boyden, a former guide, was to 
accompany the expedition, and Mrs. Webb and her two sons, Watson 
Webb, Jr., and Harry Webb, were to start about 3 weeks ahead of us 
and proceed to the Rainy Pass country. Their trip was to be largely 
photographic and exploring. In order to handle these two expeditions 
we decided it would be necessary to have 30 horses for saddle and 
pack purposes. The general list of equipment and supplies was made 
up, and guides were obtained. This particular section of Alaska was 
chosen on account of the huge quantities of game that I had seen there 
on my previous trips. It is most inaccessible and difficult to reach and 
can only be entered by an outfit of one's own. 

Boyden left for Alaska in June with the horses, and went directly 
through to McKinley Park Station on the Alaska Railroad, and from 
there through the Park over the road to Wonder Lake, which is the 
terminal of the Park Highway. Mrs. Webb and her two sons arrived 
at Wonder Lake via plane from Anchorage about 3 weeks ahead of 
Mr. Webb and myself, and departed down the Range at once. This 
party had Carl Anderson as head guide. 

Watson Webb and I arrived at McKinley Park Station, over the 
Alaska Railroad, on the evening of August 13, specially conducted by 

45 



4 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 49. — Mount McKinley from the head of the Muddy. (Photograph by 

J. Watson Webb.) 




Fig. 50. — At one of the camps. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



47 




Fig. 51. — The Alaska Range along the Tonzona. 





y* ^v. 



,:-&? ' 



Fig. 52. — Crossing one of the many rivers. (Photograph by J. Watson Webb.) 



48 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Colonel Ohlson on his speeder. We had with us W. L. Brown, Smith- 
sonian taxidermist, who was to take care of the various specimens ob- 
tained by the expedition, and Jack Lean, an Alaskan guide, who had 
been on several former expeditions with me. That night we stopped 
at the Savage River camp of the McKinley National Park Transpor- 
tation Company. The next morning we registered at the Park Super- 
intendant's office and received permits for transportation of the vari- 
ous specimens through the Park on our return. We then drove to the 
end of the motor road and finally contacted Harry Boyden and the 
outfit, camped on the bar of the McKinley River about 2 miles east 
of Shannon's Cache. 

The lack of game going through the Park was most marked. In 
1922 and 1925, when I had been there before, sheep were seen on all 
sides, great bands grazing at the head of Savage, Sanctuary, Teklanika, 
and Igloo, and in Sable Pass and Polychrome Pass they could be seen 
in untold numbers. In 1922 I actually counted over 500 sheep in one 
band on the north side of Polychrome Pass, and on the same day 122 
in a band on Sable Pass. At the head of the Toklat, a ram pasture, 
there were bunches of rams everywhere. This condition existed to a 
greater or less extent the entire length of the Range to Rainy Pass. 
On our trip through the Park this year we saw 19 sheep. 

That afternoon we busied ourselves getting packs balanced and put- 
ting the finishing touches on the outfit. August 15 was a day of hustle, 
with the many contributing delays that one encounters on the first day 
in getting an outfit under way. We finally were on our way at 1 1 : 40 
a. m., and traveling across the McKinley River, made directly up to 
the high gravel ridge that lies along the greater part of the McKinley 
Range. We were bothered with shifting packs most of the day, but 
beyond this we had no unpleasant experiences and made our first camp 
at the head of Muddy River at 5 : 40 p. m. at the exact spot where I 
had camped in 1922. Watson Webb, who had heard me many times 
rave about this great game preserve, was inclined, I am afraid, to ques- 
tion my veracity, and I was beginning to wonder if it had all been a 
dream on those previous trips. The evidences of many kills of caribou 
by the wolves along our line of travel was sufficient to explain the 
great falling off in the caribou and sheep population. 

From the Muddy we made the head of Birch the next day, and then 
for 3 days we were held there by severe rain. Our next camp was 
between the first and middle forks of the Foraker River, and here 
again we were delayed for 2 days by hard rain. We next camped in 
the Cottonwoods on a branch of the Herron River. On August 24 we 
crossed the western boundary of McKinley National Park, and com- 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



49 







Fig. 53. — Mount Foraker in the clouds. 




Fig. 54. — The bull for the moose group. 



50 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

ing down a gradual slope dropped onto the bar of the Chedotlothna 
River. The rain and warm weather had caused the glaciers to work 
overtime, so our river crossings gave us more or less trouble. We 
camped on the west bank of the Chedotlothna some 3 miles down 
stream. 

As we were making camp Jack Lean located two fine large bull 
moose, and the next morning we secured both of them. The larger 
one had a fine heavy set of horns, with a spread of 65 inches, and it is 
to be the center of the new group. The other was also a heavy, well- 
balanced head of 62-inch spread, and is to go to the Alaska Museum 
in Juneau. Mr. Brown was left with one of the men to complete the 
preparation of the animals after the entire outfit had helped on the 
preliminary work for a day and a half. 

The balance of the party proceeded to the Tonzona River. The 
horse wrangler returned the second day after our arrival at the Ton- 
zona and brought Brown and Charlie back to our camp. We remained 
on the Tonzona for the balance of the trip, and from there we got five 
caribou and sheep, and a cow moose for the Smithsonian. We still 
lacked a calf and a small bull. Every day we would see large bulls 
and cows, but the cows had no calves with them. The cow we secured 
had recently had a calf, as her udder was full of milk, but the wolves 
had undoubtedly done away with it. 

The specimens were all packed to Tonzona Lake, where we had 
built a cache. Mr. Brown and Jack Lean were left with the specimens, 
and on September 14 they were flown out to Anchorage with a load 
of specimens, the rest of the collection going out the next day. But 
for the plane, I doubt if we would have been able to get all the speci- 
mens out before snow, and then we would have had to send in dog 
teams to haul them. 

It became apparent that we would not be able to get the calf and 
small bull moose to complete the group in the Rainy Pass section. We 
therefore arranged with Jack Lean to go to the Kenai and obtain these 
specimens there. Specimens of plants and bushes were taken by Mr. 
Brown to be used in the moose group. 



GREENLAND EXPEDITION OF 1937 

By CAPT. ROBERT A. BARTLETT 

New York City 

Iii continuation of investigations that I have been carrying on for 
several years in the Arctic regions for the Smithsonian and other 
institutions, I visited the west coast of Greenland during the past 
summer. One of the main objectives of our trip was to get walrus 
pups for the Chicago Zoological Society. As part of our collecting 
outfit, we took along what was for us a brand new type of gear — an 
otter trawl, suggested by Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, of the U. S. National 
Museum, and bought for us by Bassett Jones, of Nantucket and New 
York. The use of this apparatus opened up a whole new vista of 
Arctic marine life to our astonished eyes. 

Our crew was pretty much the same as last year, with Brother Will 
Bartlett going again as mate. The lads that went along and helped me 
finance the trip were Buck Morris, Plymouth Meeting, Pa. ; Francis C. 
Grant, Chestnut Hill, Pa. ; Warner Kent, Scarsdale, N. Y. ; and David 
C. Nutt, Cleveland, Ohio, all of whom had been with me the previous 
year, besides David Munsell, Garrison, Md. ; Bob Graff and Stuart 
Miller, Scarsdale, N. Y. ; Howard McCall, Wynnewood, Pa. ; Bob 
Wurtz, Short Hills, N. J. ; Gerry Redmond, Locust Valley, Long 
Island ; and Bross Lloyd, Lee, Mass. The boys all stood regular sea 
watches, helped to handle the schooner, and tackled any job that they 
were called upon to do without complaint. They were at all times 
attentive and efficient. One could not wish for a better crew. 

Clifton Foss was the radio operator on board, while back in Brook- 
lyn his young and capable wife kept the home fires burning, all mes- 
sages being relayed through her. She is as good an operator as her 
husband and kept our relatives and friends well informed of our 
doings. 

Dr. Schmitt saw to it that we were sent a proper outfit from the 
National Museum : chests of bottles, a bottom sampler, tow nets, and 
sundry necessary equipment. Our surgeon, Dr. Richard Knight, of 
the Presbyterian Hospital, New York, was in general charge of the 
collecting of specimens of all kinds. David Nutt, Warner Kent, Bross 
Lloyd, and Stuart Miller assisted him from time to time. 

After leaving City Island, New York, on June 22, we stopped in 
Nantucket, where Bassett Jones came aboard the Morrissey for a 

51 



52 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 55. — The Morrissey and an iceberg, Melville Bay, Greenland. 




Fig. 56. — Another large berg, Melville Bay, northwest Greenland. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



53 




Fig. 57. — Boys getting young Hood seal. One of the lads had shot it. 




Fig. 58. — Dr. Knight giving a lesson in marine biology to Bob Wurtz, Dave 
Munsell, and Gerry Redmond. 



54 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

day to instruct us in the use of the trawl. On the fishing grounds out- 
side Nantucket we lowered it twice and fished for an hour. The first 
time we hauled we did not have much, but the next time we had several 
barrels of fish, all edible. This experience gave us just the line we 
wanted on the new gear, as we did not want to leave without knowing 
how to handle it up north. We hoped to get fish in the far north, and 
although we did not get many, we made a grand showing with all the 
other forms of marine life. 

From Nantucket we headed for Brigus, and from there proceeded 
up the coast to Labrador, where there are many fine harbors. In one 
of them we put over a hard northeast gale and a very heavy sea. 

Our first port of call in Greenland was Godhavn, to report my 
presence in those waters to Governor Rosendahl, and also to land 
Dr. Erling Porsild, botanist, of Ottawa, Canada. His parents, Dr. 
and Mrs. Morton Porsild, reside at Godhavn, where his father is in 
charge of the Biological Station. I stayed about two hours, long 
enough to fill the tanks with fresh water. Captain Eigil Riis Carsten- 
sen, R. D. N., Hydrographer and Commander of the new Danish 
Coast Survey steamer Hajmdal, Dr. Morton Porsild, Chief Radio 
Operator Miller of the radio station at Godhavn, and Pastor Rosen 
came on board. We had a grand visit from Governor Rosendahl, 
as well. 

We went on to the Peary Monument at Cape York and were ex- 
tremely fortunate in finding Melville Bay free of ice. At first I in- 
tended to stop at Ootah's village, about 6 miles east of the monument, 
but it was fortunate for four Eskimos of the Cape York village that 
I changed my mind. As we neared the Cape, a nasty squall of wind 
struck us. At that moment I saw the four natives on a piece of ice 
with four kayaks and a dead walrus. The sea was breaking over the 
ice and wetting them. It would soon have gone to pieces. We got 
them just in the nick of time, yet some people say there is no such 
thing as luck. 

We went around and anchored in the cove on the north side of the 
Cape. The glacier had changed a lot since we built the monument. The 
fall of the glacier would make the hauling up of supplies much more 
difficult now. The wind blew a gale on the top of the mountain, and a 
dense white fog made it impossible to take pictures. Most of the lads 
climbed to the top of the monument. David Nutt and Bob, the second 
engineer, obtained specimens of red snow, as well as algae and other 
forms of life in the lakes, pools, and rivers near by. 

Farther on, at Northumberland and Hakluyt Island, we stopped for 
birds, flowers, and other shore collecting. From Hakluyt Island to 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 937 



55 




Fig. 59. — There are two walrus pups in the tank. One is hiding. They were 

very happy. 




i 



* S8n?# . * ■ if* . ' *«*• IK „ 









* 1 



. ft - 



Fig. 60. — Bob Graff and Howard McCall talking to the Eskimo girls of Cape 

York, Greenland. 



56 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Cape Alexander we tried using the trawl, but found the water too deep 
for the rope we had. We therefore went closer inshore between Cape 
Chalon and Cape Alexander. Ice prevented us from using the trawl 
in Kane Basin, as I had hoped, but we did use it in Smith Sound, where 
we also got in some hauls with the iron dredge and plankton net. 

The farther north we went, the finer the weather became. We 
reached latitude 78 45' at a point in Smith Sound midway between 
Cape Sabine, Ellesmere Land, and Greenland. We saw numerous 
schools of narwhal swimming in the open water close to the edge of 
the very heavy Arctic ice. It was here that we got the two walrus pups 
which we had come so far to seek. A few birds were taken on 
McGarry-Littleton Island and around Pandora Harbor. 

The ice lay close to the Canadian shore, almost to the Cary Islands, 
and thence to the mouth of Jones Sound. We had a delightful trip 
almost to the bottom of Olrick's Bay. As we sailed out of Olrick's 
Bay at 2 a. m., the sun on the opposite shore skimmed the tops of the 
mountains and ice caps, producing most strange and beautiful color 
effects of russets and browns. Here and there patches of yellow moss 
looked for all the world like bunches of peaches on trees at home. 
On the silver surface of the fiord we could see mirrored ice-capped 
mountains, hills, glaciers, streams, valleys, and plains. Several bergs 
floating in the fiord sparkled and shimmered in the light of the sun 
to the north as it dipped behind the mountains opposite. I shall never 
forget that night as we steamed out of the fiord right against its 
eastern gate where the great sun lay robed in vivid flames and amber 
light. 

On our return to Godhavn, I was delighted to learn that His Excel- 
lency, Daugaard Jensen, Administrator of all Greenland, would arrive 
in a few hours on the Disco. The next morning I went on board right 
after breakfast and we had a pleasant visit. 

The Disco left after the dinner, and so did we. We had a quick 
and smooth run to Labrador and thence to Brigus, where we stayed 
a day. Another quick and smooth run brought us to New York, where 
our two walrus pups were handed over in good shape to Bob Bean, 
Assistant Director of the Chicago Zoological Society of Brookfield, 
Illinois. I also gave him the polar bear cub which we captured in 
Davis Straits midway between Greenland and Baffin Land. 

Saturday, September 18, saw the Morrissey laid up at her old berth, 
McWilliams Shipyard, West Brighton, Staten Island, thus bringing 
to an end one of the best trips I ever had in her. 



THE SMITHSONIAN-HARTFORD EXPEDITION TO THE 
WEST INDIES, 1937 

By WALDO L. SCHMITT 
Curator, Division of Marine Invertebrates, U. S. National Museum 

Not since the early days of the Museum has one of its expeditions 
gone to sea in an old-fashioned full-rigged ship, the kind you read 
about in sea-tales laid in the days of wooden ships and iron men. Just 
such a ship was the Joseph Conrad, which George Huntington Hart- 
ford III, of New York, recently acquired and refitted for a voyage 
of exploration and scientific investigation to the West Indies under 
the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution. One can well imagine 
with what feelings of anticipation I looked forward to this expedition. 
The realization did not fall short of them. Our interesting experi- 
ences and the good friends who helped us were so numerous that I 
hope I shall be forgiven for mentioning only a very few of them. 

The expedition covered more than 4,500 miles at sea and stopped 
one or more times for the purpose of collecting at 15 different islands : 
Bahamas, Andros, and San Salvador or Watling Island ; West Indies, 
Tortuga, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix, Saba, 
St. Eustatia, Dominica, Martinique, Barbados, Jamaica, and Cuba. 

The largest animals we collected were porpoises, the smallest pro- 
tozoa, chiefly the tiny calcareous shelled kinds known as f oraminif era. 

Porpoises are among the rarest things in museums. We wanted 
as many different kinds as we could get, but we saw them more often 
than we were able to catch them. We were fortunate, however, in the 
harbor of San Juan, where, from the ship's launch, with "Jack" 
Hawkins as harpooner, we got our first porpoise, a Tursiops truncata, 
not uncommon along our eastern seaboard, yet taken here as a first 
record for Puerto Rican waters. 

Our second porpoise, taken some 50 miles off the coast of Georgia, 
was a gravid female of Prodelphinns plagiodon, of which the National 
Museum possesses only one other specimen taken more than half a 
century ago. The embryo she carried was one of the few ever to 
come to the Institution, a beautiful mouse-colored specimen not quite 
3 feet long, with whiskers on its " lip." 

Foraminifera are more easily taken than porpoises. A grab of 
bottom mud or sand may yield thousands. In between these extremes 

57 



58 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 6i. — Fair wind, fair weather. The Joseph Conrad under full sail, May, IQ37- 




Fig. 62. — The ship's company. Eight are missing from the picture. Seated on 
the extreme right next to Captain Troonin is DuBose Heyward ; directly behind 
him is Bob Lunz, to whose right stands Mr. Hartford, owner, and sponsor of the 
expedition. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 193/ 



59 




Fig. 63. — Native Haitian homestead, on the road to Christophe's Citadel ; mother 
with her three children. Puzzle : find the third child. 




Fjg. 64. — At Picheline, Grand Bay, Dominica, the auto in which we crossed 
the island ran out of gas. Naturally a crowd collected, and here are some of the 
more youthful of the bystanders. 



60 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

of size we got a host of other things — shrimps, crabs, and lobsters, 
corals, shells, and sponges, worms, fish, and algae. Several " brittle " 
starfish have already been recognized as new species from among those 
that we brought back, as well as a single specimen of a rare and prob- 
ably unique form of amphipod, and an unusual crab that " talks " or 
stridulates. From time to time we shall be reporting on other portions 
of our biological treasure trove. 

On the morning of March 21 we raised the dim outline of the Isle 
of Tortuga on the eastern horizon. It was here, in the month of 
December, 1670, that Henry Morgan assembled several thousand free- 
booters and thirty-odd sail, and set out to accomplish the sack of old 
Panama, of which there now remain only a few scattered ruins. We 
stopped for a day's collecting on the sheltering reefs of the Tierra 
Baja Road, where that famous, or rather infamous fleet was assembled. 

Collecting one day on the immense barrier reef nearly 2 miles long 
which makes the harbor of Christiansted, St. Croix, a safe anchorage, 
I witnessed a curious sight. A lot of big dark green parrot fish were 
browsing on algae on the flat of the reef at low tide, their backs half 
out of water, like so many rooting pigs. When I suddenly came upon 
them, just like a startled drove of pigs they scuttled away to the deep 
water seaward, splashing, leaping, and, I almost want to say, squealing, 
so great was the general commotion until the last one was out of sight 
over the edge of the reef. 

Equally interesting was a hunt for the spiny lobster, langosta, at 
night by torchlight. I was initiated into this sport in Puerto Rico 
by Lt. J. M. Cabanillas, U. S. N., in charge of the Naval Radio 
Station at San Juan. He uses an electric light strapped to his fore- 
head with a brace of batteries high up on his shoulders. As he catches 
these lobsters or crayfish by hand, he wears stout gloves as a protec- 
tion against the fearsome spiny armature of these sizable crustaceans. 
We had the good fortune to obtain several specimens of Panulirus 
guttatus, reported in the West Indies from Cuba, Guadaloupe, and 
Martinique but, so far as I am aware, never before from Puerto Rico. 

Haiti, where we visited Christophe's famous citadel, La Ferriere, 
and Martinique are intriguing places. In both islands the current 
language is a French patois peculiar to their black inhabitants. In 
Martinique we went over from Fort de France, where the Conrad 
anchored, to see Mount Pelee, the volcano that in 1902 destroyed more 
lives than any other since Vesuvius at Pompeii. At the foot of the 
mountain along the seashore to the southwest lies what was left of 
the old St. Pierre. It is slowly rebuilding since the disaster of 35 years 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



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62 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

ago and is now a city of about 10,000. Here we renewed our acquain- 
tance with Dr. Frank A. Perret, Director of the Martinique Volcano 
Museum, whom we had met in Fort de France. 

It was a coincidence that the first person to greet me on my return 
to the Museum after the conclusion of this expedition was J. V. 
McKeon, of the Museum's mechanical force, who was in St. Pierre 
the very day after Pelee had broken loose and wiped out the city and 
its 28,000 inhabitants almost without warning in the space of a very 
few minutes. A photograph of the city of St. Pierre taken the day 
after the holocaust and here reproduced was kindly lent to me by Mr. 
McKeon. 

I have to thank Commander R. M. Wynne, R. N., the harbormaster 
at Bridgetown, Barbados, for a very unusual and interesting experi- 
ence. Barbados is capped, for the greater part, by a coral rock forma- 
tion and in part by a deposit of radiolarian, or infusorial earth deposit, 
indicative of an ancient and profound submergence beneath the sea. 
Down at the base of this limestone cap are underground water courses 
from which are pumped up the greater part of the water supply of 
the island. One of the largest of the wells tapping this supply is at 
the Bowmanston pumping station. At the bottom of it the superin- 
tendent of the station had been kind enough to place one of my baited 
copper " roach " traps, in the hope that we might discover some sub- 
terranean crustacea. Some hours later we ourselves descended to re- 
cover the trap from the stream at the bottom of this deep hole, 260 
feet below the surface. 

We were let down in a bucket on a steel cable, I sitting on the 
bucket rim with my feet inside. To get to the trap at the bottom, we 
had to wade chest deep in water. Retrieving it and following the water 
course in the opposite direction, we passed through a tunnel so low 
and full of water that our noses were all but submerged. On the other 
side of this arch or tunnel was an underground river coursing through 
a cleft or narrow, irregular-walled canyon in the rock that in places 
may have been 50 to 75 feet high. The stream, where we stood in it. 
was 4 to 6' feet wide. I thought that this was about all there was to 
see, but soon learned otherwise. Using a crazy old craft that one of 
our guides pulled up from the bottom of the " river " and bailed out. 
we went on for three or four hundred yards in stygian darkness which 
was only intensified by the flickering torch I held until we came to a 
waterfall fenced by a man-made wall, through a gap in the top of 
which, 2.\ to 3 feet wide, a foot-thick stream of water poured over in 
a noisy cascade. It dropped down 15 or 20 feet ; that is why we had to 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



63 







'•*'• -. 



Fig. 66. — St. Pierre, Martinique, as it appeared 
the disastrous eruption of Mt. Pelee, in which mo: 
lives in a spate of less than 3 minutes. (Photogra] 



on May 9, 1902, the day after 



Martinique, as it appeared on May 9, 1902, the day after 
1 of Mt. Pelee, in which more than 25,000 people lost their 
than 3 minutes. (Photograph courtesy of J. V. McKeon.) 




Fig. 67. — Pelee in May, 1937, from the ruins of the old prison of St. Pierre. 
In a little round thick-walled stone dungeon, similar to the one of which the 
door is visible in the near right foreground, a condemned criminal survived the 
deadly blast from the volcano that destroyed every other living thing in that 
ill-fated city 35 years ago. 



64 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

have the boat, as it must have been nearly that deep under us. We got 
out on the wall for a few moments, for this was the end of our journey 
in this craft, although one can go on for miles under the island, I 
was told. 

Returning to the surface was more of an ordeal than going down, 
because it was my turn to stand on the edge of the bucket and lay hold 
of the cable. After we had taken our places, one of the guides blew a 
whistle, the signal to haul away, but nothing happened. We waited a 
while a little uneasily, and he blew again. This happened still another 
time before the cable finally tautened and we were on our way up. 
My rubber-soled shoes were wet and I thought perhaps too slippery 
for me to be standing on the thin, curved rim of a metal bucket, but 
slowly and inexorably we were being lifted up higher and higher. I 
rather hated to look up at the tiny spot of light that marked the hole 
through which we had to disappear to regain our freedom. I do not 
care to describe my feelings. Although in reverse, they were very 
much like the feeling you might get standing out on the edge of a 
frail scaffolding at the top of the highest skyscraper you could imagine. 
It was a relief to let go of that trembling cable and step off that slick 
bucket edge, so much so, in fact, that I forgot the object of my visit 
to the nether regions and had to be reminded of it. Except for the 
bait placed in it that morning, the roach trap was empty ! 

My assistant naturalist for the trip was G. Robert Lunz, of the 
Charleston Museum, while our ever-willing helpers in all phases of our 
work were the whole crew of the Joseph Conrad, from Captain 
Troonin down to the mess boy. A most pleasant shipmate, valued 
friend and counsellor throughout was DuBose Heyward, of " Porgy 
and Bess." Above all, however, my personal thanks and appreciation 
and those of the Smithsonian Institution go to Mr. Hartford, who 
made possible this scientifically most profitable expedition that has 
enriched the natural history collections of the United States National 
Museum many fold. 



SMITHSONIAN-ROEBLING EXPEDITION TO CUBA 

By PAUL BARTSCH 
Curator, Division of Mollusks, U. S. National Museum 

In November 1936 Donald Roebling offered to the Smithsonian 
Institution the use of his newly built yacht, the Iorano, for explora- 
tion in West Indian waters. The matter was turned over to the writer, 
who, after visiting Mr. Roebling in December, reported favorably on 
the project. The Iorano, with a length of 70 feet, a beam of 14 feet, 
a draft of 3 feet 9 inches, and a displacement of 29 tons, made an 
ideal vessel for shallow marine collecting. Mr. Roebling had made 
the necessary installation of a small winch and hoisting gear and 
pump for such work, as well as dredging frames. 

The expedition put to sea on April 1, 1937, from the home port of 
the Iorano, Clearwater, Fla. After a stop at Key West and Havana, 
we cruised along the north coast of Cuba where our first collecting 
was done on April 5 in Bahia Honda Harbor. Here, by means of 
outboard-motor-propelled skiff's, we explored the shallow waters of 
the region for marine organisms, as well as the immediate shores for 
land mollusks. After dark we used a submarine light, which attracted 
considerable life to it and enabled us to make a catch of many marine 
organisms, ranging from protozoa to fish. 

On April 6 we anchored off Buena Vista Light and here again we 
used the submarine light with considerable success. The next day we 
rounded the western end of Cuba and came to anchor in Bahia Cor- 
rientes. In this half-moon-shaped bay the water shelves abruptly to 
considerable depth, and a strong current sweeps the region. We 
stopped at several stations in this bay, where we worked until the 
morning of April 10. A number of dredge hauls were made at various 
depths, in part on rather difficult bottom, which yielded a good series 
of specimens. 

The most interesting phase of our work in this region, however, 
came from the use of the submarine light after dark. This apparatus, 
when used where life is abundant, always yields ample, exciting, and 
fascinating results. The submarine light consists merely of a water- 
tight glass jacket surrounding an incandescent bulb in a water-tight 
socket attached to a water-tight submarine electric cord. Lowering 
this to the bottom and moving it about a bit will attract myriads of 
creatures to it. Slowly raising the light to the surface one finds a 
cloud of microscopic plankton organisms, lending a milky aspect to 

65 



66 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 68. — The Ioran 




Fig. 69. — Sifting the dredgings. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



67 






Fig. 70. — Lantern Fish: Top figure, Myctophum affinc; middle figure, Diaphus 
garmani; lower figure, Diaphus dumerili. 




Fig. 71.- — Stomatopod larva. 



68 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

the water immediately surrounding the glass, while through and be- 
yond this fine life, larger organisms pursue their diverse prey. The 
whole as a rule assumes a spinning motion, a veritable wheel of life. 

Here we captured lantern fish, forms usually found at a depth 
beyond the penetration of light. Lifting the first of these to the sur- 
face with a dip net produced exclamations of surprise, for the fish 
flashed its lamps of blue-green quality like the sparkling of a firefly, 
the flashes being emitted from the many bioluminescent organs with 
which they are provided. These lantern fish in turn were pursued 
by larger fish which occasionally " beat us to it." Of these lantern 
fish three species belonging to two genera were obtained in quantity, 
namely, Diaphus garmani, 119 specimens, Diaphus dumerili, 51 speci- 
mens, and Myctophum affine, 3 specimens. Among other interesting 
fish, we caught a large number of Leptocephali, larval eels. 

We also filled a gallon jar with the larva of a stomatopod crustacean, 
a flat glasslike creature of curious fantastic shape. These were so 
abundant that each swish of the net would bring a mass on board and 
their glasslike skeletons were scattered all over the ship. Then, too, 
there appeared swarms of a small medusa having a squarish outline 
with four long streaming tentacles. They probably belong to the genus 
Carybdea. 

Leaving Bahia Corrientes we turned to the south coast of the island 
where we examined the Cayos San Felipe and Cayos de los Indios, 
as well as the shallow flat surrounding them. This is the famous spong- 
ing ground of Cuba. Here we made a number of dredge hauls with 
varying results and then headed on April 1 1 for Siguanea Bay at the 
western end of the Isle of Pines. In this bay we again plied our dredge, 
and we also paid a visit to the Sierra Canadas, which I had failed to 
explore on a former occasion. 

We next rounded the northern coast of the Isle of Pines and came 
to anchor April 12 at its capital, Nueva Gerona, where we remained 
until April 15, visiting the parts of the Sierra Casas and the south side 
of the Sierra Caballos not previously explored. We then left for 
Batabano, making a number of hauls in the shallow water between 
these places and obtaining a marvelous lot of material. 

Alter making our first shipment from this port we sailed eastward, 
but serious engine trouble caused us to forego further dredging and 
head for the Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay to undergo repairs. 
In Guantanamo Bay, tide-pool poisoning was engaged in at Wind- 
mill Beach, which yielded a series of interesting and brilliantly colored 
fish, among them an Antennarius, probably princeps. At this port it 
was deemed advisable to terminate the work for the present. 



HEREDITY EXPERIMENTS IN VIRGINIA AND 
WEST VIRGINIA 

By PAUL BARTSCH 
Curator, Division of Mollusks, U. S. National Museum 

In 1 91 2 I began a series of breeding experiments under the joint 
auspices of the Smithsonian and Carnegie Institutions. I selected for 
my subjects land mollusks of the genus Cerion, which I transplanted 
to the Florida keys from the Bahamas and the West Indies. These 
experiments have given very interesting results. They show that envi- 
ronment, as far as Cerions are concerned, produces no appreciable 
changes in the offspring if the animals are able to exist under the 
changed conditions. In instances in which the changed environment 
was adverse, it produced a lethal effect and the colony in question 
passed out. Hybridization, on the other hand, produced de Vriesan 
mutations, and these mutations, through segregation, appear to pro- 
duce fixation, which we hope will eventually result in speciation, 
the establishment of new species. 

To have a check on the Cerion breeding experiments in order to 
determine whether the results obtained thereby are of broader bio- 
logical application or merely phenomena peculiar to the genus Cerion, 
I have selected Goniobasis virginica, a fresh-water mollusk of the mid- 
Atlantic drainage, as check subjects. This work was begun 2 years 
ago, but the Potomac floods buried the cages which were placed on 
the bottom, and thus vitiated the tests. It is for this reason that a 
new set of experiments was started this year, in which the concrete 
bottom of the cages was replaced by a cypress floor covered with a 
thin layer of cement. The three cages used in each set of experiments 
were gathered in a cypress frame and suspended some 18 inches below 
the surface of the water by means of two metal drums. 

These cages have a yard-square bottom and a height of 18 inches. 
The sides are made of monel metal screening, 20 mesh to the inch, 
and the top is of the same screening, 10 mesh to the inch. Three sets 
of three cages each are being used. One of these is placed in the spill- 
way below the hydro-electric plant at Millville, W. Va., another in 
the Roaches Run Bird Sanctuary, and the third set is placed at the 
pontoon bridge at Fort Belvoir, Va. 

The material used for the experiment consisted of young specimens 
of the year. One set was gathered above the fall line in Occoquan 
Creek ; another at Dawsons Beach in the Potomac, south of the mouth 
of Occoquan Creek ; and the third was taken from the Chesapeake and 



7° 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




ig. J2. — One of the cages used in these experiment; 




Fig. 73. — Showing the two floats in place from which the sets of three cages 

are suspended. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



71 











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J2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Ohio Canal below Sycamore Island. Those from Occoquan Creek, 
above the fall line, are without spiral sculpture and usually olive green, 
sometimes with a spiral band of brown. They duplicate Goniobasis 
of the Shenandoah River (see the top row of fig. 74). The specimens 
taken at Dawsons Beach are all spirally lirate, that is, they have uni- 
form spiral threads (see the bottom row of fig. 74). The specimens 
taken from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are not of uniform size, 
coloration, or sculpture, but vary enormously in all three of these 
characters, as shown in the middle row of figure 74. These are be- 
lieved to be hybrids of the mollusks above the fall line of the Atlantic 
coast, that is, the smooth form and the spirally lirate form of the 
mouth of rivers just above the influence of salt water, while the inter- 
mediate forms, like those about Washington, I believe to be the product 
of crossing of the other two, i. e., mutations produced by hybridiza- 
tion, a fact to be proved or disproved by the experiment. 

In one of the Millville cages we placed 500 tips of the year from 
Dawsons Beach, in another 500 of the complex occurring at Wash- 
ington, and in the third 500 each of tips taken above the fall line of 
Occoquan Creek and Dawsons Beach. 

In the Roaches Run Bird Sanctuary we placed 500 tips of the year 
from Dawsons Beach in one cage, in another 500 tips taken from 
Occoquan Creek above the fall line, while in a third we placed 500 
each from these two localities. 

At Fort Belvoir we shifted our cages from the Fisheries Station 
to the pontoon station where they will be less subjected to shifting 
ice this winter, and here we placed 500 tips of the year taken above 
the fall line in Occoquan Creek, in another cage 500 of the Washing- 
ton complex, and in the third 500 each of the Occoquan and Dawsons 
Beach specimens. 

Although we consider that the experiments of the past 2 years are 
largely negative, as far as Goniobasis is concerned, they nevertheless 
presented some interesting facts in other directions. For example : 
In the mud in the cages at Roaches Run and Fort Belvoir we found 
specimens of the mollusk Anodonta cataracta Say, one of which mea- 
sured 66.2 mm in length, 40.0 mm high and a diameter of 19.3 mm ; 
the glochidium from which this was grown must have been shed by 
fish upon the cage and fallen through the wire mesh and developed to 
this size in 8 months. Some of these Anodontas bear as many as 
eight " annulations ", which in the past have been considered indica- 
tions of annual increments ; in other words, the shell in question, 
which must have been no older than 8 months, would in the past have 
been said to be 8 years of age. 



COLLECTING INSECTS ON THE ISLAND OF JAMAICA 

By EDWARD A. CHAPIN 
Curator, Division of Insects, U. S. National Museum 

Because of the inadequacy of the collection of Jamaica insects in 
the National Museum, I was granted permission to spend 5 weeks 
on the island early in 1937. The major objective of the trip was to 
secure beetles of the family Scarabaeidae, but it was also intended 
that general insect collections would be made. Leaving New York by 
the United Fruit Company S. S. Quirigua and spending a very profit- 
able and pleasant day at the Cuban Agricultural Experiment Station 
at Santiago de las Vegas en route, I arrived at Kingston, Jamaica, the 
afternoon of January 27. Preliminary arrangments for lodging and 
transportation had been made for me by Dr. R. E. Blackwelder, 
present holder of the Smithsonian's Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling 
Scholarship. 

Jamaica lies in the Caribbean Sea about 80 miles south of Cuba, 
is roughly 150 miles east and west, by 50 miles north and south, and 
offers to the naturalist as wide a range of habitats as is to be found 
in a tropical island. From sea level with mangrove swamps and marshy 
savannahs, one may go in a short distance to the tops of the Blue 
Mountains nearly 7,400 feet above. Much of the land is under cultiva- 
tion, but there are forested areas in various parts of the island. 

During the first half of my stay, headquarters were made at Half 
Way Tree, a suburb of Kingston. From here by motor car we were 
able to reach within the day any desired locality in the eastern half 
of the island. Best collecting grounds were found at Bath in 
St. Thomas, in Friendship Valley (south of Port Antonio and in the 
John Crow Mountains), near Manchioneal, and along the Rio Cobre 
between Kingston and Spanish Town. At Bath we were fortunate 
in finding a recently felled cotton tree (Ceiba) from part of which 
a dug-out canoe had been made. On the remains of the trunk and 
large branches we took many specimens of a large cerambycid 
(Steirastoma histrionicum White) and many other striking Coleoptera. 
Nearby in the Plantain Garden River many Dryopids were taken from 
under stones. From the very soft trunk of a tree long dead (probably 
also a Ceiba) two species of Rhyssodidae, a beetle family not known 
to inhabit the island, were taken. 

Through the generous hospitality of the Bovells of Caymanas 
Estates Limited, we were permitted to spend 2 weeks with head- 

73 



74 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 75. — The main street of Black River, Jamaica. Not different from most of 
the smaller Jamaica towns. 




Fie. 76. — Maggoty Falls is perhaps the most beautiful of any on the island. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



75 




Fig. ~~. — This old Spanish aqueduct has been repaired and now serves to 
carry water from Hope River to Hope Gardens. Hope Gardens, Kingston, 
Jamaica. 





Fig. 78. — Hope Gardens with the office building in the background. Bordering 
the lawn is a very excellent collection of various species of palm trees. 
6 



j6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

quarters at their estates of Derry (near Balaclava) and Kensworth 
(near Newport). From Derry the northern part of the west end of 
the island was easily worked, and from Kensworth we found many 
good localities along the south shore from Alligator Pond Bay to 
Savanna-la-Mar. On the beach grape at Alligator Pond Bay a very 
interesting and as yet undescribed species of lady bird beetle (Psyllo- 
bora, n. sp.) was taken in numbers. 

The most productive method of collecting that we resorted to was 
by means of a net fastened to the top of the automobile. While very 
little could be taken in this way in broad daylight, a truly prodigious 
number of specimens, mostly of small to minute size, were caught 







Fig. 79. — Our car with collecting net in position for use. On our return in 
the evening from collecting, this net added many thousand specimens which 
would otherwise have been missed. 

each day between the hours of five and seven in the evening. For an 
example, the net was used on the road one evening from Spanish 
Town to Half Way Tree, a distance of 13 miles. After discarding 
the fragile specimens which were broken by impact with the net, we 
saved 3,953 specimens of beetles, representing 146 species distributed 
among 34 families. Many of these species were previously not known 
from the island and some are certainly new to science. 

Although insects were relatively scarce because of the drought con- 
ditions which prevailed during our stay, we succeeded in securing 
some 50,000 specimens of various orders, representing about 1,000 
species. Three species of scarabs new to science were found, as well 
as several which were not previously represented in the collection of 
the U. S. National Museum. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF VIRGINIA 

By AUSTIN H. CLARK 
Curator, Division of Echinodcrms, U. S. National Museum 

The " invisible butterfly " was present in Virginia in great numbers 
during the past summer, and Mrs. Clark and I obtained records from 
no less than 50 cities and towns in 16 counties, all in the coastal plain. 
But never once did we see the butterfly. 

The caterpillars, however, were abundant on cannas, and in some 
places they had reduced the upper leaves to midribs only. Even the 
caterpillars are not visible on casual observation. You have to look 
for them under portions of the canna leaf turned inward and fastened 
down to the upper surface. Pry up this leaf-flap, and there is the 
caterpillar — a pale, rather sickly looking, singularly unattractive cater- 
pillar. These caterpillars, we found, had escaped the notice of the 
people whose gardens we examined. They had seen the damage to 
their cannas, but did not know just what the culprit was. 

From the caterpillars it is very easy to raise the butterfly. This is 
a rather large, dull-colored skipper called the Brazilian skipper, re- 
markable for its exceedingly swift and powerful flight. It lives 
throughout the American tropics, where it is a pest on cannas and on 
arrow-root, and occurs normally northward to South Carolina. But 
it has a penchant for migrating, sometimes in great numbers, and occa- 
sionally turns up as far from home as New York City or Long Island. 
Whether the Brazilian skipper occurs regularly in eastern Virginia in 
reasonable numbers or whether it visits the State only at intervals is 
not known. This is a point to be decided in the future. 

Butterflies have a disconcerting way of turning up in unexpected 
places. One of the finest of Virginia's butterflies, the Diana fritillary 
(Argyiviis diana) was heretofore supposed to be confined to the 
western mountains, but Carroll M. Williams took it on the eastern 
coastal plain, and Herbert Wagner found it in the Dismal Swamp. 
The magnolia swallowtail (Papilio palam-cdcs) , very common in the 
eastern coastal swamps, appeared this summer in several unusual 
places, for instance near Warrenton and at Washington, D. C. 

This summer's work, and the kindness of friends, particularly Prof. 
Ellison A. Smyth, Jr., and Carl W. Gottschalk of Salem, resulted in 
the addition of six species and subspecies to the list of Virginia but- 
terflies, making a present total of 139. The most interesting was the 

77 



78 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 80. — Typical Virginian habitat of the sub-arctic skipper, Pyrgus 
ccntaureae, at Rocky Run. The entomologists are Ashley B. Gurney, Rich- 
ard P. Dow, Harald Rehder, Miss Grace Sandhouse, and Mrs. A. H. Clark. 



r*£i 






Fig. 8i. — -Two common mud-puddle butterflies; A, Colias philodice philodice 
(female) ; B, Terias lisa (male). C, the common copper, Lycaena phlacas hypo- 
phlacas; D, the " invisible butterfly," Calpodcs ethlius. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IQ37 



79 




IS 






WW 



~*< 




Fig. 82. — A, the orange clover butterfly, Colias philodice eurythemc (female) ; 
B, the red-banded hairstreak, Strymon cecrops, under side, X i? ; C, the two- 
spotted skipper, Atrytone bimacida, upper (left) and under (right) sides; D, 
the magnolia swallowtail, Papilio palamedes. 



8o SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

two-spotted skipper (Atrytone bimacula) — a very inconspicuous and 
decidedly rare species thrilling only to a specialist — which we took in 
Augusta County. 

Strange varieties of butterflies are always interesting to get. This 
summer Mr. Gottschalk sent us a red-banded hair-streak (Strymon 
cecrops) in which all the bright red on the under side is replaced by 
yellow. It is strange that in a butterfly so abundant as this no one has 
previously reported this variety. This corresponds to the rare variety 
of the American copper (Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas) in which the 
red is replaced by yellow. We captured the first known Virginia speci- 
men of this in Fairfax County on May 2. 

Much has been written on the changes in customs of human popu- 
lations resulting from migrations from one region to another, but few 
have paid any attention to changes in the habits of immigrant butter- 
flies. Although it is true that most immigrant butterflies do not change 
their habits — noticeably at least — a few of them do. 

Some years ago when the western orange clover butterfly (Colias 
philodice eurytheme) was becoming established in Virginia, and it 
and the native yellow form (C. p. philodice) were about equally com- 
mon, it was noticed that although the males of the yellow one were 
much given to sitting on mud in groups often of large size, their 
orange relatives never did this. In the companies sitting on the mud 
there were sometimes one or two individuals with a slight flush of 
orange (the form ariadne), but never a full-colored orange one. 

During the past summer the immigrant from the West appears to 
have learned the pleasures of sitting on mud and sucking up the mois- 
ture. We noticed this in several places in the western portion of the 
State. On August 14, 1937, near Moscow in Augusta County, we 
saw about 35 males of the orange clover butterfly sitting in a com- 
pact group on mud in a road, together with three males of the yellow 
native and a few males of Terias lisa, these last at some distance from 
the others. 

So far as this region is concerned, this is a rather remarkable change 
in the habits of this butterfly. It appears to be becoming thoroughly 
adjusted to its new environment and to be adopting the habits of its 
local relative. 

There is much to learn about the butterflies of any region besides 
the simple fact of their occurrence. 



EXPLORING THE LAKES OF NORTHERN WISCONSIN 

By PAUL S. CONGER 

Custodian, Section of Diatoms, U. S. National Museum, and Research Associate, 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Wherever natural waters occur, microscopic life may be expected 
in abundance, with diatoms (those one-celled or colonial plants with 
boxlike cell walls of glass or silica) almost inevitably present. But 
some waters, depending on their nature, are more productive than 
others. To find a place where such waters of varying character, with 
consequent diversity of life, are within easy reach of each other is not 
simple, but northern Wisconsin is just such a place. During the latter 
half of the summer of 1937 I was able to continue collection of diatoms, 
as in two previous summers, among the lakes here, in cooperation 
with the University of Wisconsin, and the State Geological and 
Natural History Survey. 

The region has had a peculiar history of exploration. Visited first 
by the French Jesuits in conquest of new domains, then again around 
the turn of the century by the great lumber barons in conquest of 
rich virgin forests, it was left, a barren cut-over and burned-over 
waste, to trappers and adventurers. In recent years a wide-awake con- 
servation commission has realized that it has all the attributes of a 
great summer playground — good climate, beautiful lakes, fishing, 
quiet, and seclusion — and is taking timely and energetic steps to pro- 
tect it as such. 

Half a century ago Dr. Edward A. Birge, pioneer biologist of the 
University of Wisconsin, visited the lonely northern woodland and 
lake region by horse and buggy, over rough logging roads, and saw 
in these lakes a rich territory for a far-sighted limnological program. 
Some 12 years ago, with his associate Dr. Chancey Juday, he again 
visited the region, setting up a laboratory at Trout Lake in a deserted 
bath house where they could make a few observations for compari- 
son with their studies of southern Wisconsin lakes. But the region 
proved so varied and so interesting that they stayed on and on until 
their laboratory and its staff grew to include five buildings and a per- 
sonnel of chemists, physicists, and bacteriologists, as well as biologists. 

Nature here seems to have planned an ideal layout for the student 
of fresh-water biology. With the Trout Lake laboratory as a focus, 
within a radius of 30 or 40 miles, there are in the one county reputedly 



82 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fk;. S3. — Shore line and buildings of the Trout Lake Biological Laboratory 




Fig. 84. — Dr. Birge (right) and Mr. Kerst taking solarimeter readings. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



83 




Fig. 85. — Forestry Bog, a soft-water closed bo| 




Fig. 86. — Trout Lake, a medium hard-water drainage lake. 



84 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

more than 800 lakes, more water area than land.. In this, one of the 
world's most concentrated lake districts, one may conveniently visit 
several lakes in a morning- and study his materials in the afternoon. 

But what, after all, is so interesting about a lake? To the vacation- 
ist who frequents this region, a lake is a fairly sizeable body of water, 
fixed and unchangeable year in and year out, which should yield what- 
ever type of fish he may choose to angle for. To a biologist, on the 
other hand, a lake is a highly particular and sensitive body of water, 
dynamic and variable, and teeming with life of a very unstable and 
changeable nature, no more capable of producing a bumper crop of 
fish unsuited to it than a sandhill farm is capable of producing a heavy 
crop of corn. And no two lakes are precisely alike ; each has a per- 
sonality of its own. 

The kind of fish depends upon the kind and abundance of a myriad 
of smaller organisms upon which they feed, and these in turn upon the 
kind and abundance of small plants serving them as food, the plants 
upon chemical food materials dissolved in the water, and all of these 
upon the configuration of the lake basin, the surrounding soils from 
which its waters drain, the amount and quality of solar radiation for 
plant growth, and many other complicated factors. 

In years of diligent work Drs. Birge and Juday have analyzed and 
tabulated on readily accessible cards the chemical constituents of 540 
of these lakes, thereby giving intimate and comparative knowledge of 
their characteristics, and aiding selection of particular lakes for spe- 
cial experiments ; as it were, a vast series of aquaria already set up 
for experimental study. 

With this well-adapted background, I have thus far obtained diatom 
collections from about 150 of the lakes, representing all diverse types. 
These collections, from lakes often superficially very similar, show a 
considerable variety of species, with evidence that " survival of the 
fittest " plays an important role ; often slight and subtle differences 
in proportion of chemical substances in the water, or in some physical 
factor such as temperature or light penetration, favor one species and 
give it dominance over another. 

Some lakes are probably much the same today as the day they were 
formed, others have evolved to the stage of a nearly filled bog. Some- 
times the latter are the more interesting, but often the most inacces- 
sible. Frequently we could not get a light skiff through the scrub pine 
and over the bog margin to a lake, and it was preferable to use an 
inflated rubber boat somewhat resembling a huge doughnut. Footing 
in it was always insecure, and one stroke of the short oar would spin it 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 937 



85 




Fig. 87. — The rich and various diatom flora of Ink Pot 
Lake, a shallow, medium hard water, alkaline, drainage 
lake. 




Fig. 88. — The meager and restricted diatom flora of For- 
estry Bog, a very soft water, highly acid, dark-colored 
closed bog. 



86 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

around like a top. Judging by the puzzled and amused expressions of 
onlookers, when we embarked within public view, our craft must have 
been picturesque, to say the least, as it pursued a zig-zag course over 
the surface of a boggy lake under the erratic control of two-half- 
dressed limnologists, huddled in the center and leaning over the in- 
flated pontoon to take water samples in bottles, pulling a little silk net 
behind, and lifting mud from the lake bottom in a small brass bucket. 

Uncompleted examination of the collections indicates that in gen- 
eral diatoms flourish much more prolifically in the drainage than in 
the seepage lakes, in the hard-water than in the soft-water lakes, and 
in alkaline than in acid waters. The very boggy lakes, high in organic 
matter and very acid, yielded few diatoms. 

I was so deeply impressed, on a number of occasions, with the strik- 
ing differences in microscopic life in closely adjacent and apparently 
similar lakes, which differed only in proportions of dissolved substance 
by a few parts per million, that I made a point of noting within a 
period of a few days about August 20 the following lakes, " in bloom " 
with the corresponding organisms : 

Turtle Lake (Vilas Co. ) Lyngbya, Anabacna 

Fish Trapp Lake (Vilas Co.) Fragilaria crotonensis 

Harvey Lake (Vilas Co.) Fragilaria crotonensis 

Pier Lake ( Oneida Co. ) Fragilaria crotonensis, Asterionclla, 

rotifers 

Grassy Lake (Vilas Co.) Rotifers, Nauplii. (No diatoms.) 

Sweeney Lake (Oneida Co.) Melosira granulata, Stcphanodiscus 

niagarae 

Midge Lake (Vilas Co.) Dinobryon, Ceratium (2 species) 

Scaffold Lake (Vilas Co. ) A very minute blue-green alga species 

Why the differences? That is the problem. It is scarcely conceiv- 
able, with lakes as old as these and so close to each other, and with 
diatoms and algae as abundant and easily distributable as they are by 
birds, water currents, winds, and other agencies, that all the different 
species would not have had full opportunity for widest distribution 
in all the lakes. To determine the reasons why some organisms abound 
to the exclusion of others is a delicate and complex problem. The job 
of exploring Wisconsin lakes is scarcely more than begun. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS ON THE 
ALEUTIAN AND COMMANDER ISLANDS 

By ALES HRDLICKA 
Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, U. S. National Museum 

Three memorable months were spent in the summer of 1937 at sev- 
eral points in southern Alaska, on a series of the Aleutian Islands in 
different parts of the chain, and on the Commander Islands. Owing 
to stormy weather and fogs the trip was strenuous and much time was 
lost, but through good fortune and the invaluable aid of the Coast 
Guard, more was accomplished than had seemed possible during the 
earlier part of the trip. 1 

The expedition included six volunteer students : Sydney Connor, of 
the Girard Institute and the University of Pennsylvania ; Paul Geb- 
hardt, of the University of Arizona ; Paul Guggenheim, of the Wash- 
ington University Medical School, St. Louis ; Alan May, of Wen- 
atchee, Wash.; Stanley Seashore, of the University of Iowa; and 
Walter Wineman, of the Indiana State Teachers College. These men 
took part in all the search and work and deserve much credit for 
what was accomplished, particularly the two " veterans ", May and 
Connor, who were also with me in k 



1 The chief credit and thanks in this connection are due to Commander L. C. 
Covell, at Washington, D. C. ; Capt. R. W. Dempwolf, at Seattle ; Capt. H. R. 
Searles, the head of the Alaska Division of the Coast Guard, and to Capt. 
P. F. Roach, with the officers and crew, of the cutter Diiane. Grateful acknowl- 
edgment for effective aid is further due to Capt. F. A. Zeusler, of the cutter 
Northland; to Capt. N. G. Ricketts, officers and crew of the cutter Talapoosa; 
to Lt. A. J. Carpenter and others of the cutter Morris; and last but not least to 
Mrs. R. W. Dempwolf and Mrs. H. R. Searles, both of whom gave whole- 
hearted assistance. Thanks are further hereby given to Capt. Robert B. Carney, 
Dr. W. H. Harrell, and other officers of the U. S. S. Sirius, who transported 
the members and collections of the expedition from Unalaska to Seattle ; to 
Gordon Jones, Superintendent of the great Alaska Packers Cannery at Larsens 
Bay, Kodiak Island ; to Mr. and Mrs. E. K. Pedler, of the Alaska Commercial 
Company at Unalaska, who aided us in the friendliest manner in every possible 
way ; and to many friends, white and also native, who assisted us with informa- 
tion and in many other ways. Cordial thanks finally are due to the Russian 
authorities at Nikolsk, Bering Island, for their courteous and helpful treat- 
ment of the expedition. Without the aid and good will extended to us on all 
sides but little could have been accomplished in the uninhabited, partly still 
uncharted and stormy regions that were visited. 

87 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 





SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



89 




Fig. 91. — Mummy shelter, Shiprock (Umnak Pass). 




Fig. 92. — •" Hell's Kitchen," Amlia. 



90 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The expedition started from Seattle May 21, 1937, on the cutter 
Northland; transshipped at Juneau to the Talapoosa; changed at 
Unalaska to the Morris, from which it explored Unalaska and the 
Four-Mountain group ; shipped again on the Talapoosa, on which it 
reached Attu and the Commander Islands and from which it eventu- 
ally (July 17) was placed on the uninhabited and little-known island 
of Agatu, in the westernmost American group, where 22 days were 
spent in excavation. On August 8 the party was taken from Agatu 
by the cutter Ditaiie, visited with this vessel the islands of Attu, 
Tanaga, Ilak, Adak, Umnak, and Shiprock, and returned August 20 
to Unalaska. There we were met by the Navy transport Sirius, to 
which we transferred the collections, and on the morning of August 21 
left for Seattle. 

Scientifically, the work on Agatu Island and that during the last 
12 days of the journey proved the most remunerative, being topped on 
August 19, the last day of the trip, by the discovery of a hitherto un- 
known cave, or rock shelter, on Shiprock Island in the Umnak Pass. 
The anthropological materials collected during the 3 months filled 51 
boxes and barrels ; but even more important were the determinations 
made possible by the recovered skeletal remains. 

The results indicate the existence throughout the Aleutian Islands 
of a separate type of people antedating the Aleut. These were an 
oblong- and medium high-headed type, occasionally somewhat eski- 
moid, but more commonly Indian-like. Their latest strains admixed 
more or less with the broad- and low -headed Aleut. 

The occupation of the islands by the earlier element, as shown by 
the deposits, was considerably longer than that by the Aleut, and the 
people at one time must have been rather numerous. Both types ex- 
tend throughout the chain, but the Aleut overlay thins out as one pro- 
ceeds from the Peninsula westward. Some of the blood of the older 
oblong-headed element evidently still exists in a few of the mixblood 
survivors on the islands. It is the same type as that found in the lower 
deposit or stratum on Kodiak Island. All the old sites on the Aleutian 
islands probably belong to this type, but generally contain a cover, 
an adjunct, or intrusive burials of the characteristic later broad- 
heads, or Aleut. 

Since [926, the beginning of these explorations in Alaska, it has 
been clear that there were two physically distinct varieties of the 
Eskimo, and it now is seen that at one time there were also two 
varieties of men in the Aleutian Islands. Moreover, neither of the 
types in the Aleutians were identical with either of the true Eskimo 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



9 1 




Fig. 93. — Vicinity of Hot Cave, Kagamil. 




Fig. 94. — Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Islands, 1937. 



92 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

types, and though somewhat related to them, they were at least equally 
related to the Indian. 

The far Northwest of the American continent contains thus no less 
than five distinct though basically related strains of the native man. 
These are: i, the long- and high-headed Eskimo of the Seward Pe- 
ninsula, Barrow, and generally eastward to Labrador and Greenland ; 
2, the broader- and medium- to high-headed Eskimo of East Cape, the 
Diomedes, Norton Sound, the rivers from Yukon southward and the 
proximal parts of the Peninsula; 3, the broad- and low-headed late 
Aleut, extending from the central parts of the Peninsula and the 
Aleutian chain, some of whom still live in those regions ; 4, the oblong- 
medium to high-headed pre-Aleut, in individuals somewhat Eskimoid, 
in others more Indian in their characteristics, extending originally 
over all the Aleutian Islands and to Kodiak ; and 5, the Indian tribes 
of the great rivers, Cook Inlet, and farther eastward. These Indian 
tribes themselves present two or three different strains : the oblong- 
headed Shageluks, the interior Tinneh (Dene) tribes, and the Thlin- 
kits or Kolushans of the Gulf region and southeastern Alaska. 

There are no clear lines of demarcation, however, between these 
different types ; their averages, especially in the male adults, differ 
distinctly, but their extreme measurements connect, especially in the 
children and women. This is particularly true of the broad-headed 
Eskimo, the late Aleut, and the Cook Inlet and more eastern Indians. 
The whole region impresses the observer as a human " nursery " con- 
stituted by several related strains of Asiatics, from which either the 
pronounced Eskimo or typical Indian could readily have developed. 
The pre-Aleut people of the islands could perhaps be conceived as a 
more protean stock, from which either true Eskimo or true oblong- 
headed Indians may in time have arisen. It is in all probability the 
same strain as that found in the older layers of the mounds at Van- 
couver and elsewhere in the northwestern regions. The archeological 
indications are that this strain moved from the west eastward, and not 
the reverse as seems to be the case with the Aleut. 

In addition to the above the expedition found, on Agatu Island, a 
new chipped-stone industry, belonging to the pre-Aleut people ; en- 
larged considerably the cultural materials from Amoknak Island, 
L nalaska ; obtained new types of lamp and of stone and wooden ob- 
jects from Kashega and other places ; added a series of mummies with 
specimens of the decorated weaving art in matting from Shiprock, 
Umnak Pass : and examined sites and made collections at Yakutat. 
Nuchek. Wisslow Island, Chernovski (Unalaska), Kashega (Una- 
laska), Umnak, Kagamil, Amlia, Atka, Adak, Tanaga, Ilak, Attu, 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



93 




< 



fe 




< 



fe 



94 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

and Bering Islands. On Kagamil, which yielded numerous burials last 
year, the two old caves were revisited and all remaining material re- 
covered, and two new rock-shelters containing old burials were 
discovered. 

The Commander Island visit, the main object of which was to find 
whether or not these islands had been inhabited before the Russians, 
and thus whether or not they may have served as a second bridge for 
man's coming from Asia, was not conclusive one way or the other. 
The Russians there were all recent and had not given any attention 
to possible old sites ; the few natives that could be consulted were 
originally brought over from the Aleutian Islands, are Russianized, 
and knew nothing of what we were after ; and only the mouth of one 
stream, that at Nikolsk, could be examined in the short time at our 
disposal, and that was so affected by erosion that no idea could be 
formed as to what the conditions may have been in that vicinity a few 
hundred years ago. The islands had no native population when reached 
in 1 741 by the Russians. Whether or not there are any old sites in 
the islands may only be determined by a survey of the vicinity of the 
mouth of every likely stream on both of the islands. This task could 
not be carried out by us because of our ship's lack of fuel. Consider- 
ing that the highlands of Bering Island could be seen on a clear day 
from the nearest highlands on the coast of Kamchatka, and that there 
was about the two islands an abundance of fish, sea otter, seal, and 
sea cow, with many foxes on land, it would be very strange if the 
islands, even though colder than the Aleutians and stormy, had not 
been reached and for a period at least peopled by the Asiatics, who 
may then have discovered and moved over to the Aleutians. However, 
the facts of the case remain to be determined. 






ARCHEOLOGY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 

By HERBERT W. KRIEGER 

Curator, Division of Ethnology, U. S. National Museum 

Chi a recent visit to Washington, Robert Nichols, Superintendent 
of Agriculture of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, informed Dr. Wet- 
more, Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, of a large shell 
mound on the Island of Anegada, the most northerly of the British 
Virgin Islands. As a result of this information, an expedition was 
organized to explore the mound, the scientific objective being a com- 
parison of the Indian relics to be recovered there with the large col- 
lections obtained by previous Smithsonian expeditions from the 
Bahama Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Puerto 
Rico. The writer sailed October 14 from New York, and returned 
at the close of the year. 

Since the immediate objective was an exploration of the Anegada 
mound, the cooperation of the United States Coast Guard Service 
was obtained within a few days after arrival at the beautiful port of 
Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas. Captain Walsh of the Coast Guard 
boat, the Marion, and his entire crew were quite willing to embark on 
the expedition since they had not heretofore sailed in the British 
waters immediately adjacent to Anegada. 

Many fertile suggestions were forthcoming from officialdom in Char- 
lotte Amalie regarding the proposed sojourn on Anegada, for many 
dark tales had been told regarding its native population, whose naive 
occupation of steamer wrecking is still listed in current encyclopedias. 
No one at Charlotte Amalie had ever seen Anegada, and stories of 
shifting and disappearing lighthouses, of shoals, hulks of wrecked 
freighters, and of the mysterious splendor of house furnishings of a 
marine flavor in the huts of the leading citizens of Anegada were freely 
circulated among the credulous members of our expedition from Cap- 
tain Walsh down to the courtly cook. Nevertheless, all were anxious 
to go, including most of the small American colony of Charlotte 
Amalie. 

En route to Anegada, an official call was made on the Commissioner 
of the British Virgin Islands, at Road Town, on the Island of Tortola. 
The Commissioner was highly pleased with the prospect of placing 
Anegada on the map archeologically. Mr. Roy, Agricultural Super- 
intendent of the British Virgin Islands, who was thoroughly familiar 

95 



9 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




_/$> 




Fig. 98. — Captain Walsh, of the U. S. Coast Guard cutter Marion approaches 
Anegada's shore by walking on the ocean floor which is here as smooth and 
firm as a pavement. The water is too shallow even for the ship's boat. 




Fig. 99. — The reception committee at Anegada, comprising a good share of 
the entire population, waited while we adjusted trousers and foot gear after 
our journey ashore through the ocean shallows. 




Fig. 100. — Mr. Roy, Agricultural Superintendent of the British Virgin Islands, 
standing atop the mound of conch shells near the eastern end of Anegada. 

97 



98 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

with the native population and the geography of Anegada, joined the 
expedition at Road Town. 

On his second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, Christopher 
Columbus, after pausing at the islands of Dominica, Guadeloupe, 
St. Martin, and St. Croix, long enough to give them their names, 
which they have retained to the present day, observed north of low- 
lying St. Croix a formation of rocks, islets, and mountainous islands 
" too numerous to mention " even to this facile explorer. His imagina- 
tive brain immediately visualized this massed archipelago as symboliz- 
ing St. Ursula and her 1 1,000 virgins — hence the name Virgin Islands. 
He singled out the Island of Tortola as worthy of a special name, 
since it appeared to be more mountainous — suggesting great mineral 
deposits, which after all, was a major objective of this First Explorer. 

The island of Anegada was approached cautiously at half speed 
because of the extensive shallows. At a distance of 5 miles from the 
shore the Marion dropped anchor in 4 fathoms. Anegada, a low-lying 
coralline formation, was but dimly visible. The Marion's boat was 
launched and loaded with supplies. Practically the entire population 
of Anegada, embarked in a nondescript fleet of sailboats and row- 
boats, came out to meet us, to " see that it was done properly ", as we 
learned later from the colored British Government Agent. He did 
not explain what he meant by " it." A lookout in the only tall tree on 
the island had reported the Marion aground. Native joy was soon 
dampened when the lookout's error was discovered. 

No time was lost in reaching the shell mound, which proved to be 
a very large one built up almost entirely of conch shells, Strombus 
gigas. The thorn forest which covers most of Anegada hid from our 
view any other evidence of aboriginal occupancy. Since the excavat- 
ing of a mound practically devoid of any cultural material other than 
discarded conch shells was impractical, work here was restricted to 
making measurements and photographs of the mound. A brief sur- 
vey of the island was made in an attempt to locate other middens that 
might be richer in cultural material, and selection was made of pottery, 
shell, and polished stone implements gathered at random from the 
surface. All of this consumed a few days' time, after which the 
expedition returned to Road Town. 

Mr. Roy, who was very helpful throughout, suggested a trial ex- 
cavation of the Indian midden just east of Road Tow T n. With his 
help, laborers were obtained and the highest part of the midden was 
trenched. The results were striking in that the cultural objects ob- 
tained were practically identical with material collected by previous 
Smithsonian expeditions from Arawak village sites in Santo Domingo, 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1937 



99 




Fig. ioi. — Magens Bay and valley on the north central coast of St. Thomas 
as seen from Mafolie, a village near the mountain summit. In the valley shown 
at the right is located one of the most extensive village sites of former Indian 
inhabitants in the West Indies. 




Fig. 102. Completing the trench of excavation No. 1 at Magens Bay, St. 
Thomas. This site is at the extreme northeast end of the valley as seen in 
figure 101. 




Fig. 103. — Examining debris from cut No. 2, the middle portions of excava- 
tion Xo. 1, at Magens Bay, St. Thomas. Hand sieves were used by laborers 
selected from the French settlements on the island. 



IOO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

thus contrasting markedly with material to be later excavated at 
St. Croix and St. Thomas. Although the time consumed in the study 
of the Anegada shell midden and the Road Town kitchenmidden was 
brief, the scientific results obtained were definite. The position of the 
Road Town midden as one of the older in the aboriginal cultural 
sequence of the Virgin Islands became evident. Thus the archeological 
chronology of aboriginal cultural remains in the West Indies finally 
assumed form. 

The next phase of the work of the expedition was the excavating 
of prehistoric aboriginal Indian village sites on the island of 
St. Thomas. This island is mountainous and presents a radically dif- 
ferent aspect from that of flat, coralline Anegada. St. Thomas and 
the other Virgin Islands proper belong geologically to the ancient 
submerged continent of which mountainous Puerto Rico and the still 
higher Santo Domingo constitute the main axis. Shore lines present 
evidence of continued subsidence. The writer found quarters at the 
Government Hotel which clusters around the tower of the infamous 
pirate Bluebeard, the subject of many fabricated legends despite the 
ponderous facts of the many rusted cannon and battlement stanchions. 

It was a pleasant daily morning journey indeed to labor upward 
in a 1928 Marquette automobile over the hogback of the mountain 
range just back of and above sleepy Charlotte Amalie and then down- 
ward along the steep northern slope into the broad, flat valley which 
terminates in the waters of Magens Bay. Much of this area is the 
property of A. S. Fairchild, whose residence, Louisenhoj, rests astride 
a peak of the central mountain massif. Mr. Fairchild kindly gave per- 
mission to excavate on his land and cooperated in every way possible 
to make the undertaking a success. 

The writer, whose previous experience in active investigation of 
West Indian archeology was limited to the islands west of St. Thomas, 
found at Magens Bay archeological specimens strikingly dissimilar to 
the pattern of the Arawak culture of Santo Domingo. It became at 
once apparent that cultural infection must have spread northward 
from the islands of the Lesser Antilles which stretch southeastward 
500 miles or more to the South American mainland. This made pos- 
sible a comparison of the older Arawak (Taino-Igneri) culture trait 
complex as typified in a midden at the extreme northeastern end of 
Magens Bay valley with a later, more characteristically South Ameri- 
can culture embodied in a series of nearby middens south and west of 
the older Arawak site. Objects typical of each culture provided ample 
data for a definite determination of aboriginal culture sequence in the 
West Indies. The presence of red paint on the pottery vessels recov- 




Fig. 104. — The west end of the island of St. Croix from the open roadstead 
of Fredericksted. Montpellier Mountain in the background. Mountains such 
as this are visible to one standing at sea level in St. Thomas, 40 miles north. 
The South American Arawak Indian could always see one or more islands of 
the Antillean chain as he migrated northward. 




Fig. 10^. 



-The sugar central at Bethlehem, centrally located on the southern 
plains of St. Croix. 




Fig. 106. — The denuded mountain slopes of St. Thomas near Charlotte 
Amalie. Slave labor once cultivated sugar cane on land now considered too 
rough and arid. 

101 



102 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

ered in the middens of the southwestern section of the valley is strik- 
ing evidence of cultural infection. Painted pottery in the West Indies 
is unknown west of the Virgin Islands, with the exception of red 
painted ceramic wares in the vicinity of Ponce, Puerto Rico, and 
white kaolin slipware from northern Santo Domingo in the vicinity 
of Monte Cristi. 

After an intensive archeological investigation of the Magens Bay 
site, the writer undertook a survey of the island of St. Croix. In this 
project he received the active direction and cooperation of Harry 
Taylor, Administrator of the island, an enthusiastic student of arche- 
ology, who hopes to develop for the Insular Government a museum 
featuring the prehistory and natural history of the Virgin Islands. 

The largest Indian village ruins on St. Croix are located on the 
west side of an inlet and lagoon which indents the north shore of the 
island at its approximate center. Here at the mouth of Salt River, 
really a streamlet, but always providing an abundance of fresh water, 
was the tribal seat. Excavations were undertaken at this major site, 
also at other middens notably at Fair Plain, midway on the south 
coast, at Prosperity, diagonally opposite the Salt River site on the 
west end of the island, and finally at Ackles on the southwest coast 
near the west-end Saltpond on the Camporico estate. Excavations 
made at each of these sites afforded new data on the daily life of the 
prehistoric Indian inhabitants of St. Croix and served to verify tenta- 
tive conclusions based on the finds at Magens Bay, St. Thomas. Out- 
standing at each site was the overwhelming evidence of cannibalism. 
Complete human skulls and skeletal remains in quantity were mingled 
with turtle, bird, and fish bones in the deep ash beds surrounding the 
primitive hearths. 

The German historian Oldendorp is authority for the statement 
that the Virgin Island Indians were exterminated about 1550 at the 
order of Carlos V of Spain. Perhaps Carlos V was in the right in 
ordering Indians addicted to such practices to be treated as enemies 
and to be exterminated, but we can only wish he had delayed the 
execution of this order until an anthropologist could have studied them 
as a living group. Cannibals sometimes are lovable people, and it is 
conjectured that such a study might have shown the anthropologist 
that these primitive St. Crucian cannibals were, as a part of their 
defense mechanism, exercising a culture trait borrowed from their 
enemies — the Caribs. 



INAUGURATING AN ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
IN KANSAS 

By WALDO R. WEDEL 

Assistant Curator, Division of Archeology, U. S. National Museum 

Systematic researches in Great Plains prehistory during the past 
decade have thrown much light on what has long been one of the 
least known archeological areas in North America. It is now estab- 
lished that throughout much of this region — the " Great American 
Desert " of the early European explorers, bison-hunting Indians were 
preceded before the coming of the white man by successive sedentary 
peoples who subsisted primarily on the cultivation of maize and other 
crops. The arts and crafts of these earlier peoples varied from lo- 
cality to locality, and even in the same area there were temporal 
differences. As yet it has not been possible to determine in every 
case just how these differences came about. Students of prehistory 
are still uncertain as to the connections which formerly existed be- 
tween the tribes in the northern Plains and the higher centers of cul- 
ture on the lower Arkansas and Red Rivers. Equally perplexing is 
the relationship between archeological cultures in the Mississippi val- 
ley and those of the western Plains. One reason for the archeologists' 
uncertainty in these and like problems is the almost complete lack of 
reliable information on the prehistoric remains of Kansas, which lies 
in the very heart of the Great Plains. To bridge this gap in our 
anthropological literature plans were formulated for a State-wide 
archeological survey of Kansas to be carried on by the United States 
National Museum. As the initial step in this projected program, 
the writer spent 3^ months from May to September in reconnaissance 
excavations in northeastern Kansas and adjoining portions of Mis- 
souri. Investigations included three village sites along the bluffs of 
the Missouri River above Kansas City and two in the Kansas valley 
near Manhattan. 

During the month of June excavations were carried on at a small 
but prolific site on Line Creek about 5 miles northwest of Kansas 
City. This had been partly destroyed by recent road-building opera- 
tions, but in the remaining undisturbed portions evidences were found 
of a prolonged and intensive occupation by a horticultural people who 
used it for a camp site before the arrival of Europeans. These people 
made pottery of two distinct kinds. One was in the form of large 
pointed-base jars the outer surface of which was often roughened by 
impressions from a cord-wrapped implement (fig. 107, E, J). In form 
and type of decoration this pottery is comparable to that classified as 

103 



io4 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



r 




Fig. 107. — Potsherds from the prehistoric Renner site on Line Creek near 

Kansas City, Mo. 




p Q R s t u v 

Fig. 108. — Miscellaneous artifacts from the Renner site near Kansas City, Mo. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



105 




Fig. iog. — Stone-covered burial, possibly early Kansa, near Doniphan, Kans. 









** 






■ " ' 




; 




• # 




P^L . v*(ltef 


■'■ ■ 
. '•■■_; --- .-» ' . ; 





Fig. no. — Prehistoric rectangular earthlodge floor at Griffing site on Wildcat 
Creek near Manhattan, Kans. Entrance passage to south. 



106 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Woodland in the Eastern United States. In Nebraska and Iowa it has 
been found stratigraphically below all other known local ceramic 
horizons. Directly associated with this cord-roughened pottery was 
a superior ware bearing decoration of the Hopewellian type (fig. 107, 
A-D , F-H), never before reported as far west as Kansas City. There 
was no trace of house remains, so the habitations must have been 
entirely of perishable materials. Refuse-filled storage pits were plenti- 
ful, and from them were taken many objects of chipped and ground 
stone, bone, and horn (fig. 108), as well as some native copper and 
hematite. Ground stone work included several grooved axes (fig. 108, 
P) , one unfinished, a type whose makers in the central Plains have 
heretofore been unknown. The remains are unlike those left by any 
of the protohistoric and historic peoples in the region. Through 
courtesy of Transcontinental Western Air and Bureau of Air Com- 
merce officials, the writer was afforded an unforgettable opportunity 
to make aerial observations of the site and its surroundings. 

At the old river town of Doniphan, Kans., whose older residents 
still speak pridefully of a visit from Abraham Lincoln in 1859, we 
next investigated the site of an early Kansa Indian village. This is 
supposed to have been visited by Bourgmond in 1724 and was seen in 
ruins by Lewis and Clark in 1804. Several graves (fig. 109) and cache 
pits were opened, yielding both historical and native remains. Twenty 
miles north of Doniphan, at Fanning, another earlier but tribally 
unidentified village was examined. Some historical material was ob- 
tained here, but aboriginal remains of a type known to archeologists 
as Oneota were much more plentiful. 

The latter part of the season was spent on the Kansas River near 
Manhattan, about 120 miles west of Kansas City. Here were found 
further traces of Hopewellian-like pottery. A few miles below the 
mouth of Blue River we excavated a circular house site in the old 
Kansa village visited and described by members of Major Long's ex- 
ploring expedition in 1819. As expected at this late date, the native 
arts and crafts had largely been superseded by introduced European 
trade goods. Xo aboriginal potter}- was found here. Two miles west 
of Manhattan a much older pre-contact village yielded a rectangular 
earthlodge floor (fig. no) and lesser remains. 

In summary, it was not possible to determine the distinguishing 
characteristics of early Kansa Indian culture. However, the season's 
work indicated a wealth of important and varied archeological re- 
mains in this portion of the Plains. For northeastern Kansas, the 
probable sequence of early peoples is emerging, at least in broad out- 
line, but more extended investigations are needed before the details 
can be filled in. 



ANCIENT SITES ON THE BANKS OF THE 
RAPPAHANNOCK IN VIRGINIA 

By DAVID I. BUSHNELL, JR. 

Collaborator in Anthropology, U. S. National Museum 

During the spring of 1937 a great freshet swept down the valley 
of the Rappahannock from the foot of the Blue Ridge, where heavy 
rains had fallen for several days. The low grounds were inundated, 
and when the waters had receded it was discovered that many areas 
had been greatly altered, gullies had been formed, banks of sand had 
been deposited and, in some instances, the surface soil for a depth 
of a foot or more had been washed away, causing the heavier masses 
to settle and remain exposed. Traces of ancient camps and villages 
were thus revealed. 

The valley of the Rappahannock below Fredericksburg is more 
open, the low grounds more extensive, and the river is wider than 
above the falls ; nevertheless, the force of the great flood was felt 
far down the stream. 

On May 9, when the ground was becoming dry, several places be- 
low the falls were again visited to see the effect of the flood and to 
endeavor to recover some of the material thought to have been de- 
posited by the swirling waters. Fortunately, a site of much interest 
was encountered. It is on the right bank of the Rappahannock in 
Caroline County, Va., a mile or more below the mouth of Lamb Creek 
on the opposite side of the river and is shown in the aerial photograph 
reproduced in figure in, to the right of the black arrow which points 
with the current. This is now a rich and fertile section of the valley, 
but visualize the same region as it was in 1608, when first visited by 
English colonists from Jamestown — a dense forest with small groups 
of mat- and bark-covered lodges dotting the river banks, trails travers- 
ing the wilderness, game and wildfowl to supply the wants and re- 
quirements of the native hunters armed with bows and arrows, and, 
streams teeming with fish. However, the earlier settlement, traces of 
which were uncovered by the freshet, is thought to have been aban- 
doned before the year 1608. 

When the site was visited on May 9, the surface for a distance of 
a hundred yards or more from the river bank, and extending to the 
beginning of the wooded area, was sand and gravel, all vegetation had 
been swept away, and in places it was deeply gullied. Fragments of 

8 107 



io8 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



pottery and objects of stone, some broken and others entire, were scat- 
tered over the surface, indicating the location of a native village which 
had been occupied centuries ago. Examples of the specimens col- 
lected at that time are shown in figure 112. Above are 15 objects made 
of white quartz, so plentiful in the valley. Projectile points, knives, 
and scrapers are included in the group. The four pieces to the left 
in the second row may have been mounted as knives and their simi- 




Fig. 



III. — Looking down the Rappahannock. Site of the ancient settlement to the 
right of the black arrow. (Photograph by U. S. Army Air Corps.) 



larity in form and size is remarkable, but being made of quartz the 
condition and appearance of the surface does not aid in determining 
their relative age. Below are 9 pieces representing a variety of forms, 
all made of diabasic rock and with surfaces equally altered as a result 
of long exposure. At the bottom is a cylindrical pestle, with a short, 
shallow groove clearly shown in the photograph. Two forms of 
scrapers may be recognized. All specimens, quartz and diabase, are 
thought to be of approximately the same age. Some fragments of 
earthenware found on the site bear the impression of coiled basketry, 
and this is considered the oldest form of pottery occurring in the 
Rappahannock valley; other pieces are cord-marked and some are 
smooth, porous, and deeply pitted through the leaching away of the 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



IO9 




Fig. 112. — Specimens from the site of the ancient settlement, (i natural size.) 



IIO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

crushed shell which had served as the tempering material. Bits of 
soapstone vessels were also found. The types and condition of the 
objects discovered suggest that this was a permanent village rather 
than a temporary camp, and the uniformity of the weathering makes 
it appear that all articles of stone were made and used about the 
same time. 

Later in the year several sites farther up the river, which had like- 
wise been exposed by the spring freshet, were visited and examined. 
The material discovered, much of which differs from that now 
figured, will be described and illustrated at another time. 

Floods have been recorded ever since the country was settled by 
the English, when much of the heavy timber was cleared away and 
the ground was cultivated and leveled. The loosened earth was often 
inundated and gullied, as during the spring of 1937, and although the 
masses of refuse which had accumulated in and about the native vil- 
lages during different periods of occupancy were once distinct and 
stratified or separated, all became intermingled by the force of the 
waters. This readily explains the variety of objects, made of various 
materials, often encountered on the same site. Such conditions pre- 
vailed not only on the Rappahannock but in the vicinity of other 
streams as well. 

Some years ago a beautiful example of the eastern form of Folsom 
points was discovered near the left bank of the river a few miles 
below the site just described. Unfortunately, it was found on the 
surface, not beneath it, but this is not significant because, as explained 
above, the clearing and cultivating of the land enabled the periodic 
flood waters to change the contour of the land rapidly, and the Folsom 
point may therefore have once been well below the surface. The 
occurrence of the point in this region may be accepted as proof that 
man was here many centuries ago, although just how early he reached 
the country eastward from the mountains will be impossible to deter- 
mine until more evidence is available. 

During the year 1937, as for several preceding years, a superficial 
examination was made of many sites both above and below the falls 
of the Rappahannock. The results were interesting and satisfactory, 
and have led to the belief that an intensive investigation, including the 
excavation of certain areas, would prove of exceptional value and 
shed light on the manners and ways of life, and possibly reveal the 
identity, of the early inhabitants of the valley. 



PICKING UP DE SOTO'S TRAIL 

By JOHN R. SW ANTON 

Etluiologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Between 1939 and 1943 will occur the 400th anniversary of Her- 
nando De Soto's expedition across America to the Mississippi. As 
chairman of the U. S. De Soto Expedition Commission, appointed 
by Congress to recommend an appropriate celebration of this event, 
I engaged in two field trips, the first, May 16 to June 4, and the 
second October 8 to November 2. At Aberdeen, Miss., near which 
point it is believed that De Soto crossed the Tombigbee River, I had 
the pleasure of being the guest of Dr. W. A. Evans, for more than 
40 years a leading physician of Chicago, who has now retired to his 
boyhood home at Aberdeen. Dr. Evans took or sent me in his own 
car to all points of interest along the Tombigbee from Columbus as 
far as and beyond the site of Cotton Gin Port near the junction of 
the main river and Town Creek, the possibilities of each of the cross- 
ings being examined in turn, as well as the roads which might have 
been taken by De Soto between the river and Pontotoc Ridge. Assum- 
ing that the Chickasaw town was then on the ridge, it is concluded 
that, while the crossing may have been made as high up as Cotton 
Gin Port, the most probable location appears to be in the neighbor- 
hood of Aberdeen. A visit was made to the site of the old fort occu- 
pied by Bienville in 1736 during his disastrous Chickasaw campaign. 
Collections of pottery made in this section were examined wherever 
any such were found, and samples of some of them were obtained. 

On the 22nd Dr. Evans took me to Oxford, and I made that the 
center for a number of excursions undertaken for the purpose of 
locating the Alibamo Province visited by De Soto in 1541, and study- 
ing the probable location of the trail which the Spaniards followed 
between the old Chickasaw country and the Mississippi (fig. 113) 
During part of this work I was accompanied by Prof. Calvin S. 
Brown, author of the standard work on the "Archeology of Missis- 
sippi." On one occasion we extended our trip to Clarksdale, where we 
were met and guided through that section by Charles W. Clark, who 
has long been interested in the subject of the investigations (fig. 114). 
Small collections of pottery were made at several places and much 
interesting historical information collected. Before returning to Wash- 
ington I visited Tupelo and was taken over the historic Chickasaw 



112 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




|HH| 








H§ 






>K 



o-~ 




03 — (Ll 
fS nS-f! 




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SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



113 




Fig. 115. — Site of old Indian salt works on Salt Creek, Clarke Co., Ala. 




Fig. 116. — View up Tennessee River from Battery Hill, Bridgeport, Ala., 
looking across Long Island. An old ford, possibly used by De Soto, is just 
below at the right. 



114 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

town sites by Moreau B. Chambers of the Mississippi State Depart- 
ment of Archives and History, who was then engaged in attempting 
to locate the site of the old Bienville battlefield. I also had an oppor- 
tunity to visit that section of the Tombigbee south of Tupelo. 

The second expedition was directed primarily to the investigation 
of a site in Clarke County, Ala., on the banks of Choctaw Lake near 
the Alabama River, which it was thought might prove to be the long- 
looked-for location of the town of Mabila at which De Soto's most 
famous battle with the Indians took place. James Y. Brame, Jr., of 
Montgomery, Ala., the discoverer of this site, one of the foremost 
students of the De Soto narratives and the De Soto route, organized 
and promoted this investigation and obtained for its purposes access 
to the land and the use of a camp maintained by the Choctaw Hunt- 
ing and Fishing Club at Choctaw Bluff. The site is known locally as 
Lower James Hammock and its position agrees well with what the 
documents of the De Soto expedition would lead us to expect. Num- 
bers of test holes on this site failed, however, to show evidence that 
it had been surrounded by a stockade or traces of European materials 
or of skeletons, and while there is still a possibility that this is the 
site in question, it remains unproven. The potsherds collected here 
show certain interesting features, particularly in the employment of 
the edge of a corrugated shell in decorative designs and indications 
that the Indians living here made pots with long legs comparable 
in length to some used in Costa Rica, though there is no cultural 
relation whatever between them. After work was suspended at this 
site, investigations were extended to other parts of the county, but 
with the exception of a small site near Gainestown previously located 
by Mr. Brame, and the old salt works along Salt Creek (fig. 115), no 
Indian remains of consequence were found in the sections visited. 

After leaving Clarke County, I went to Tuscaloosa, and from there 
David L. De Jarnette took me to Scottsboro, from which point as a 
center I was enabled to examine the middle course of the Tennessee 
River between Guntersville and the Tennessee State line, the object 
being to determine the probable route pursued by De Soto's army in 
descending this river in the summer of 1540 (fig. 116). It seems 
evident that they crossed and recrossed more times than have been 
supposed. 



THE LINDENMEIER SITE IN NORTHERN COLORADO 

CONTRIBUTES ADDITIONAL DATA ON 

THE FOLSOM COMPLEX 

By FRANK H. H. ROBERTS, JR. 
Archeologist, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Investigations in a little-known phase of American archeology were 
continued during the summer of 1937 at the Lindenmeier Site in 
northern Colorado. It is at this location that Folsom man, one of the 
earliest known inhabitants of the New World, camped and left numer- 
ous examples of the weapons and tools that he manufactured and 
used in his occupation of killing big game. Excavations made in previ- 
ous field seasons contributed much information on the material cul- 
ture of the people and threw some light on their mode of life, but 
they produced no skeletal remains to show what manner of men they 
were. The 1937 work added valuable data on various phases of the 
problem, although it failed to locate any of the elusive individuals or 
to find even one human bone. 

When the writer and members of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology-Smithsonian expedition returned to the Lindenmeier ranch 
in June, excavations were resumed at the place where they terminated 
at the end of the preceding season. During the course of the summer 
an area covering some 2,800 square feet was uncovered and numer- 
ous traces of occupation were found (fig. 117). The level where the 
remains occur follows an old hillside and its depth below the present 
surface ranges from 4 feet, where work began, to 6 feet 3 inches, the 
point reached when the season closed. 

Specimens are found either at the bottom of an old soil zone or in 
a thin layer of earth, only slightly stained with humus, just below it. 
The underlying stratum over the entire area is a hard tufaceous clay 
dating from the Oligocene. In some places the dark soil stratum 
rests on this clay and the artifacts are along the contact. Where the 
thin stained earth layer intervenes, the objects are scattered through 
it. The importance of this occurrence is that it demonstrates the 
presence of the people in the region prior to the developments lead- 
ing to the formation of the heavy soil zone, as well as during its 
initial stages. The thin layer was formed by the decay of the surface 
of the tufaceous layer, the deposition of some wind-borne material, 
and some decaying vegetal matter. Sections where it is absent con- 

115 



n6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 117. — General view of portion of area being excavated. 







Fig. 118. — Boulders used as anvils in left foreground of picture. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, K)2)7 



117 



■ 



it. : ■• I .-.- ■- 



< §■ 









i <**r 



■'Jt:. 





7 • $ 



*V Ji 



j^. *^"* *%• f ^^ 

Fig. ng. — Workman uncovering cut and split animal bones. 




Fig. 120. — Stone implements and bone fragments in situ. 



Il8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

stitute high spots on the surface of the tufaceous layer that were 
exposed to wind and water action. The latter either prevented the 
formation of the thin layer or carried it away and permitted the heavy 
soil zone to develop on top of the clay substratum. The thicker, dark 
layer was produced by heavy vegetation, rank grasses, during an inter- 
val when there was considerably more moisture and more propitious 
growing conditions. This factor ties in with geologic studies of the 
site and surrounding area and is of significance from the standpoint 
of the age of the site. 

A number of boulders were lying on what was once the old hill- 
side (fig. 118). These stones were in the same positions that they had 
occupied when that level was the inhabited surface. Several showed 
that they were used for anvils. Bones, to be cracked and split for 
marrow, and stone nodules, sources of material from which to make 
tools, were placed on these boulders and struck with hand-held ham- 
mer stones. Innumerable splinters and small fragments of bones 
were in the dirt around some of them, while flakes and chips of chert, 
chalcedony, jasper, and other materials favored for implements lay 
alongside others. The status of the objects definitely indicated that 
they were just as left by the one-time dwellers at the site, that they 
were not washed there, and that this actually was a portion of the 
former camp. 

Other parts of the excavated area yielded quantities of cut and 
split animal bones (fig. 119) associated with stone implements (fig. 
120) and other evidences of human activity. The implements consist 
of typically fluted projectile points, scrapers of various kinds, knives, 
drills, and flakes with minute points that probably were used to 
scratch designs on bone and stone. Many of these artifacts are simi- 
lar to those found in previous years, but a number represent new 
types. Several bone fragments bearing portions of incised decora- 
tions were also obtained. 

Dr. Kirk Bryan and Louis L. Ray, of the Division of Geology, 
Harvard University, continued their geologic investigation of the 
site and neighboring regions and by the close of the season were 
able to formulate conclusions on the age of the deposits. The 
evidence indicates that the cultural layer was made long after the 
climax of the Wisconsin period and within the Late Glacial. Hence, 
it may be said that Folsom man lived in the region several thousands 
of years ago, while glaciers still lingered in the nearby mountains and 
the climate was colder and wetter than at present. The latter feature 
probably accounts, in part, for the heavy soil zone at the site. 



STUDIES AMONG THE MONTAGNAIS-NASKAPI 

INDIANS OF THE NORTHERN SHORE OF 

THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

By TRUMAN MICHELSON 
Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Through a generous grant-in-aid made hy the American Council 
of Learned Societies, the writer was enabled during the summer of 
1937 to undertake field-work among the Montagnais-Naskapi Indians 
in Canada. Early in July he went to Quebec and from there em- 
barked on the steamship Sable I of the Clark Steamship Company 
for Natashquan, where he stayed a little over 2 weeks. He spent 
another 2 weeks at Seven Islands, and then went to Bersimis, where 
he spent a few days. Owing to the migratory habits of the Indians, 
however, he was able to get data on the Indians of a number of other 
places in this region, including Mingan, Moisie, St. Margaret's River, 
Godbout, Shelterbay, and Sheldrake. He was also able to check his 
previous information on the Davis Inlet Indians of the Labrador 
Coast, and by good fortune came in contact with an Indian of a band 
from the northeast corner of Lake Kaniapiskau — a band barely known 
to the scientific world. 

The principal object was to complete a linguistic map showing the 
distribution and interrelations of the Cree and Montagnais-Naskapi 
dialects, upon which the writer has worked for some years. The main 
results of the expedition are that the extreme eastern dialects on the 
north shore of the St. Lawrence River are rather sharply defined, and 
the most western ones clearly " tie up with " the dialect of Lake 
St. John, whereas the intervening dialects show a variety of mix- 
tures ; the dialect at the northeastern end of Lake Kaniapiskau is 
obviously closely related to the dialect of Rupert's House on James 
Bay. The technical proofs of these assertions will be given in pro- 
fessional journals. The accompanying map is based not only on two 
seasons of field-work among the Indians of the area adjacent to James 
and Hudson's Bays financed by the American Council of Learned 
Societies, but also on data furnished by the post-managers of the 
Hudson's Bay Company of Cumberland House, Oxford House, and 
Norway House, as well as by some missionaries, and on certain docu- 
mentary sources of information. The letters /, th, n, y } r, show the 
treatment of original /. These transformations have taken place inde- 

119 



120 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 121. — Indians at Natashquan. 




J^_ 



Fig. 122. — Bersimis. Leaving for the north. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I937 



121 




122 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

pendently a number of times, and those in the Cree dialects are 
independent of those in the Montagnais-Naskapi ones. 

It should be noted that after three centuries the Indians of the 
northern shore of the St. Lawrence River still have some of the 
identical stories which can be read in the Jesuit Relations. It might 
also be remarked that their Catholicism is superficial, shamanism is 
found everywhere except at the posts, and at one post the writer saw 
one of the large conjuring drums. In aboriginal belief, there is a 
" boss of the caribou " and a " boss of the fishes " ; inside the conjur- 
ing lodge (" the shaking lodge ") is an " interpreter " (Mistapeu and 
variations) ; the all-high god is "he who bosses it" (Katependahk 
and variations). An interesting observation was that at the north- 
eastern corner of Lake Kaniapiskau a man may marry his paternal 
aunt's daughter, but that is the only girl cousin he may marry. It 
may be remarked that the Montagnais-Naskapi of the Labrador Pe- 
ninsula represent the original culture of Algonquian least modified by 
contact with other Indians. Also it should be observed that there 
are marked individualities among the Montagnais-Naskapi just as 
there are with us. 

A tragic element in the lives of the kindly French-Canadians who 
inhabit the north shore of the St. Lawrence is the prevalent poverty. 
They depend entirely for their livelihood on hunting and fishing, but 
furs do not bring what they used to, and the salmon is not as com- 
mon as formerly. Moreover, a number starve to death in the woods 
every winter, as do also many Indians. 

The writer was fortunate in meeting on his journeys a number of 
Canadian scientists, including Prof. G. Prefontaine, of the department 
of biology at the University of Montreal, who was tagging salmon ; 
Dr. H. F. Lewis, of the National Parks of Canada ; and T. W. Wylie, 
of Ottawa. To these he extends his best thanks for their welcome 
aid, as he does also to the Doctors La Vallee, of Seven Islands and 
Bersimis, the officials in charge of the Indians at these localities. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1938 



(Publication 3525) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1939 



Z§(. £ix$ (gaitimove Qpvcee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

The stated function of the Smithsonian Institution, "the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge," is carried out mainly by research, scien- 
tific exploration, and publication. Several of the branches of science 
prominent in the activities of the Institution depend to a large extent 
on field exploration for specimens and data. The present pamphlet 
describes briefly the results of the 1938 expeditions in the interests of 
geology, biology, anthropology, and astrophysics. The articles are 
written, and the photographs taken, largely by the field explorers 
themselves. 

This year's pamphlet has as a unique feature a foreword to one of 
the articles written by the President of the United States, Franklin D. 
Roosevelt. The Institution is grateful to him not only for making it 
possible for it to be represented on the expedition described, but also 
for the interest in the Smithsonian's scientific work which he 
expresses. 

W. P. True, Editor. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Abbot, C. G. A new observatory, and some Mount Wilson observations. ... 15 

Aschemeier, C. R. Collecting turtles and fish in Florida 51 

Bartlett, Capt. Robert A. Cruise to Northwest Greenland, 1938 59 

Bassler, R. S. Studies in English geology 21 

Clark, Austin H. The butterflies of Virginia 65 

Cooper, G. Arthur. Collecting fossils in the Catskills of New York 29 

Gazin, C. Lewis. Ancient mammals of Utah 25 

Hrdlicka, Ales. Explorations in the Aleutian and the Commander Islands ... 79 

Kellogg, Remington. Cetacean studies in Europe 41 

Kol, Ersebet. Biological research on the snowfields and glaciers of Alaska, 

1936 69 

Mann, William M. and Lucile Q. Some European zoos 33 

Perrygo, W. M. A search for birds and mammals in Kentucky 47 

Roberts, Frank H. H., Jr. On the trail of ancient hunters in the western 

United States and Canada 103 

Schmitt, Waldo L. The Presidential Cruise of 1938 3 

Schultz, Leonard P. The fresh-water fishes of Virginia 55 

Setzler, Frank M. Exploring a cave in southwestern Texas. 75 

Steward, Julian H. Anthropological reconnaissance in South America 11 1 

Stewart, T. D. Excavating the Indian village of Patawomeke (Potomac) .. 87 

Swanton, John R. Further notes on the route of De Soto 99 

Wedel, Waldo R. Archeological reconnaissance in southeastern Colorado. . . 91 

Wedel, Waldo R. Excavations in Platte County, Missouri 95 



THE PRESIDENTIAL CRUISE OF 1938 
FOREWORD 

I gladly avail myself of this opportunity to say publicly that, in 
addition to the personal pleasure his presence afforded those of us 
who made the cruise aboard the U.S.S. Houston last summer, it 
was a source of great satisfaction to have Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt with 
us in the role of scientist representing the Smithsonian Institution. 
I am advised that the collections he made, with the assistance of the 
officers and enlisted men of the Houston, have contributed greatly to 
the treasure of exhibits the Smithsonian already has gained posses- 
sion of through previous explorations by its scientists in that part of 
the world we visited. 

I believe our experience points the way whereby the Smithsonian 
Institution, in the future, at practically no cost whatever to itself, 
will be able to extend its research work into other parts of the world 
and make it possible for its scientists still further to enrich our knowl- 
edge of natural history. I have no doubt but that the Smithsonian 
would have gained much worthwhile information had any one or a 
number of its scientists accompanied the Naval Expedition which 
went last year to the Enderbury and Canton Islands. That Expedition 
was exclusively astronomical in character. Its members went to 
observe the eclipse that took place on June 8. They were not particu- 
larly concerned about natural history nor in learning of the other 
interesting phases of life as it exists on the Islands themselves or in 
the waters thereabout. 

If the Smithsonian Institution, in the future, would care to be 
represented in such expeditions as the United States Navy and 
other government services send out from time to time, I shall be glad 
to help make the necessary arrangements. 

We cannot know too much about the natural history of this world 
of ours. We should not be satisfied merely with what we do know. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt. 
The White House 
Washington 
December 20, 1938 



THE PRESIDENTIAL CRUISE OF 1938 

By WALDO L. SCHMITT 

Curator, Division of Marine Invertebrates, 

U. S. National Museum 

When the President invited the Smithsonian Institution to partici- 
pate in his recent cruise to the Galapagos Islands, I was pleased 
beyond words that I was designated Naturalist to the expedition. All 
manner of collecting was undertaken : fishing, bird hunting and 
botanizing, dredging, tidepool and shore collecting — indeed all kinds 
of endeavor that might yield something of interest to the Institution 
and our National Collections. The ichthyological collection, which 
perhaps took first place in the President's interest, is one of the most 
important ever to have come to the National Museum from that 
section of the Pacific. 

In looking over the material brought back, one cannot help being 
imbued with an enthusiastic appreciation of the President as a man of 
broad biological interests and a generous patron of science. Through- 
out the cruise he took an active part and a live interest in all our 
collecting. 

The success of any expedition depends almost wholly upon the 
adequacy of its equipment and personnel. Expeditions to otherwise 
inaccessible places are using ever larger airplanes, and so, too, the 
use of correspondingly larger ships has proved to be of untold value 
in marine investigations. This, I know, is quite the reverse of what 
an uninitiated investigator might be led to believe, but the use of a 
large battle cruiser such as the U.S.S. Houston proved an unqualified 
asset and a blessing every day of the trip. Having this ship as our 
base of operations made it possible to accomplish as much as we did 
in a scant 24 days at sea. 

The Houston is a full 600 feet in length. Her full complement 
totals over 700 men and officers. On this particular cruise, however, 
the crew numbered nearer 600. Thus, at all times there was ample 
assistance at hand for whatever undertaking the day might bring 
forth. 

The ship has a top speed of 32 knots, which is something like 40 
miles an hour. However, at no time did she find it necessary to go 
above 26 knots, about 30 miles an hour. The Houston, moreover, 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 






Fig. 2.- 



-Clipperton Island landing. The island is an almost barren sand and 
coral atoll, about 600 miles off the coast of Mexico. 




Fig. 3. — Xarborough Island from Tagus Cove, Galapagos. Characteristic of 
most of the islands of the archipelago, it is composed of a central volcano whose 
outpourings of lava have built up the island through the ages. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 




Fig. 4. — Leaping porpoise. Hood Island, Galapagos. 
(Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 



***• 




Fig. 5. — Landing party at Elizabeth Bay, Albemarle Island, Galapagos. 
Three members of the crew have a sea turtle which they have just captured. 
This launch was put at Dr. Schmitt's disposal for the duration of the expedition, 
both for dredging and shore collecting. (Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 



6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

has fully equipped shops equal to any emergency : machine, carpenter, 
and electrical shops, sail maker, airplane mechanics, print shop, barber 
shop, and, of course, superlative medical service and hospital, with 
complete dental laboratory, clinic, and staff. Built to serve as fleet 
flagship, this cruiser had ample accommodations for a number of 
guests, as well as convenient laboratory and storage facilities for my 
work. 

We left San Diego July 16, and the following afternoon found us 
at anchor off Cedros Island, Lower California. In a comparatively 
short time 37 fish were caught by the fishing parties, besides some 200 
others which were taken over the side by members of the crew using 
hand lines. Among these was numbered a 120-pound black sea bass 
or jew fish caught on a light 20-pound test line. Although groupers 
and sea bass of several species were plentiful, California yellowtails 
formed an important part of the day's catch in the fish-boats. 

The next three days in succession were spent at Magdalena Bay, 
July 18; off Punta Gorda, Cape San Lucas, July 19; and Socorro 
[sland, July 20. 

At Magdalena Bay the only white sea bass, Cynoscion nobilis, of 
the cruise was captured. Here the dredging was very rich. On the 
sandy, weedy bottom of the bay, inside the entrance to the northward, 
in 10 to 15 fathoms, an almost incredible number of amphipod crusta- 
ceans were discovered. The water in the buckets used to transport the 
dredged material to the laboratory aboard the Houston became cov- 
ered with a thick film or "scum" of these small shrimplike organisms. 
In the portion of the bay worked over they must have been literally 
as numerous as the grains of sand on the bottom. I have never seen 
so many amphipods in one place before. Our Museum amphipod 
specialist, Clarence R. Shoemaker, was moved to make the same 
remark when he was presented with more than a solidly packed quart 
of them. It was an amazing sight. 

The capture of a large gulf grouper, Myctcropcrca jordani, at Cape 
San Lucas extends the range of this species southward on the west 
side of the Gulf of California below Cerralvo Island, south of which 
it had not been taken before on this side of the Gulf. This particular 
specimen, by the way, is the first of the species to find its way into the 
collections of the National Museum. 

At about 11 o'clock at night one of the engineer officers called me 
to the engine room to see a lot of bright red shrimp they had dis- 
covered in the suction side of one of the condensers opened for minor 
repairs. It was a galatheid shrimp very common in Lower California 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 7 

waters, at least at certain seasons. At times they occur in such count- 
less numbers they color the water red for great distances. Huge 
windrows of the dead shells of these animals have been observed in 
the past as a conspicuous red streak along the shore line. Crustaceans 
of this type form an important whale food and without doubt this 
species played an important part in the former abundance of whales 
in the Lower Californian and Mexican waters. A large black sea bass 
taken in Magdalena Bay during the day regurgitated several of these 
galatheids when hauled into the boat. 

At Socorro Island, July 20, some of the best fishing of the cruise 
was experienced. Leopard groupers, spotted cabrillas, California 
yellowtails, and also several blue crevallys were taken. The President 
landed the scientific prize of the day, a blue crevally, Caranx stellatus, 
establishing a record weight for the species — 38 pounds. From along 
shore in Braithwaite Bay, a small mullet, Mugil setosus, was obtained ; 
also the first of its kind that the National Museum ever received. 

On July 21, an eventful day and one of the high lights of the cruise, 
we landed on Clipperton Island, the only true coral atoll in eastern 
Pacific waters. Dr. Wetmore had long been anxious to obtain a study 
series of the birds frequenting this isolated and seldom-visited coral 
island. Thirty-two birds were obtained, as well as a fair sample of its 
marine fauna. At least one new species of crab was discovered 
here. Dr. William Randolph Taylor, of the University of Michigan, 
who has prepared for publication a report on the algae taken, writes : 
"The Clipperton Island collections are unique, for landing on this 
isolated atoll is especially difficult." He states further that he found 
the jars of mixed algae from the lagoon very surprising, inasmuch as 
he had assumed that the water was salt by seepage or other admixture 
from the sea. The plants he found indicated, "on the contrary, that 
it is at least nearly fresh, at any rate near the surface and in the 
shallows, though probably heavily polluted with nitrogenous matter 
from the bird colonies. The bulk of the material was of Myxophyceae, 
which is appropriate under such conditions, and apparently great 
masses of Lyngbya versicolor must have been present at least near 
the shore. This is not a definitely marine species. With it were other 
Myxophyceae of cosmopolitan habits. In sparing amounts an unde- 
terminable Chara appeared. Finally, four desmids were found in 
considerable numbers." One of these Dr. Taylor is describing as new. 

Unfortunately, we did not obtain a sample of the lagoon water, as 
had been planned, for, although the landing was not particularly 
hazardous at the time of our visit, it was nonetheless difficult and had 



Fig. 6. — I. Pacific "rock beauty," Holacanthus passer, Gardner Bay, Hood 
Island, Galapagos, 12 inches in length. (Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 

2. "Blue crevally," Caraux stellatus. This species was taken at Cape San 
Lucas, Socorro Island, and Cocos Island. At Socorro, the President caught 
a 38-pound one, the heaviest on record. (Photograph by F. B. Adams.) 

3. Young tiger shark, Galeocerdo arcticus, a 60-pound specimen taken at 
Clipperton, still showing the characteristic striping that gives this species its 
name. (Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 

4. "Golden grouper," the beautiful reddish golden-yellow form of the com- 
mon Colorado grouper of the Galapagos Islands, Mycteroperca olfax, caught 
off Tagus Cove. (Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 




Fig. 7. 






-Land iguana on the defensive, South Seymour Island, Galapagos. 
(Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 




Fig. 8. — Galapagos albatross with young at the rookery on Hood Island, 
pagos, July 28. (Photograph by R. B. Thompson.) 



Gala- 



10 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

to be made partly by swimming through the surf. Our getting ashore 
on Clipperton is just another tribute to the efficiency of the Navy and 
a further instance of the value of their cooperation in scientific ex- 
ploration. Landing in heavy surf is a part of the Navy's routine 
training, and so they took the Clipperton landing in their stride, as it 
were. 

There were so many sharks at Clipperton that they utterly ruined 
the fishing. Not only did they destroy the few fish that were hooked, 
but they usually destroyed the tackle as soon as it was put into the 
water. Closer in toward shore the President observed a considerable 
number of blue trigger fish schooling about at the surface and, desir- 
ous of knowing more about them and obtaining a few specimens of 
them for the Museum, he tried baiting a trout hook with a tiny strip 
of fish skin. It was just the thing, for three of them were caught in 
short order. These beautifully colored trigger fish, Melichthys radula, 
occur also in the East Indies and are found in Hawaii and at Socorro 
and Clarion Island, as well. The President, who at all times was 
as much interested in the bottom and reef species as in the game fish, 
got another of these blue trigger fish at Cocos Island. 

Eight days, July 24-31, were devoted to our Galapagos investiga- 
tions. In these scientifically famous islands were made some of the 
best hauls of fish of the entire cruise. A number of rarities such as 
the gray thread-fin bass, Cratinus agassizii, and the southern barra- 
cuda, Sphyraena idiastes, were taken on several occasions. The former 
looked like a good pan fish. As no one seemed to have any informa- 
tion on the subject and nothing could be found in any publications 
available on board, the President had one prepared for his mess. He 
said it was very good eating. The heaviest yellow-fin tuna taken 
weighed 56 pounds. Wahoo were plentiful off Hood Island and gave 
those of the party who tangled with them "a run for their money." 
The largest weighed 54 pounds. Three were brought back to the 
Museum for study, as the Institution heretofore had only a mounted 
specimen of this large game fish. 

Together with the wahoo, five species of fish never before repre- 
sented in the study collections of the Museum were obtained in the 
Galapagos. The other four species were the Pacific amberjack, Scriola 
colburni, of which the heaviest weighed 28 pounds; the round-herring, 
Etrumens micropus; a pilot fish, Doydixodon freminvillei; and a 
demoiselle, Nexilosus albemarleus. The Pacific amberjacks constitute 
the first record of this species from the Galapagos Islands. 

We visited the famed albatross colony on Hood Island, and found 
a number of birds at this late date, July 28, still incubating eggs and 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



II 



"V ^ 







#"X 



■ 1 





Fig. 9. — Frigate birds attracted by the sailfish bait off Cocos Island. The birds 
tried to fly away with the bait on several occasions. 





•M* 



•.." 



jp£ 




Fig. 10 — Flamingo walk — not a new dance, but a striking almost rhythmic 
walk affected by these birds at times. Salt lagoon at James Bay, James Island, 
Galapagos. 



12 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

others with fledgling young. Two days before, we had noted two pairs 
of flightless cormorants on Albemarle, one pair with eggs under one 
of the birds, the other pair attending two half-grown young. It is 
believed that these observations extend the known egg dates for both 
species of birds. 

On a number of occasions some very interesting animal life was 
obtained from the anchor chain. For instance, when the anchor was 
hoisted at Tagus Cove, a number of specimens of sea urchins were 
found attached to the chain. They belonged to a genus new to the 
Galapagos and, moreover, represented a new species. 

Two and a half days were given over to the reputed "treasure 
island" of the Pacific, Cocos Island. It was indeed a treasure house of 
sailfish, for 16 were obtained in the course of the brief stay there. 
The largest was 10 feet 2 inches long and weighed upward of 130 
pounds. The President captured a record rainbow runner, Elagatis 
Iripinnulatus , a 20-pound specimen of a species not heretofore known 
to have exceeded 12 pounds. He also had a most interesting experi- 
ence — the landing of a 9^-foot, 100-pound sailfish in a knotted loop 
of his line. The "beak"' of the fish became entangled in the line while 
he was playing a still larger individual that had been hooked a moment 
earlier. Although the hooked fish got away, he managed to bring the 
snared one to gaff. Those who have seen the beak of the fish, which 
the President has saved with the knot in place, believe that this is the 
first time a good-sized sailfish or perhaps any sailfish has been landed 
in this manner. The top fish for weight taken by any member of the 
President's party was a 230-pound tiger shark, Galeocerdo arcticus, 
that he himself hooked while circumnavigating Cocos Island. It took 
him a good i\ hours to land it. Off Chatham Bay a party from our 
convoy, the U.S.S. McDougal, harpooned a giant ray, Manta biros tris, 
which should be mentioned here because it is one of the few specimens 
for which one is able to record the actual weight. It tipped a heavy- 
duty boat scales at 1,645 pounds, and measured 15 feet wide and 9 feet 
long, exclusive of its 4-foot tail. 

With the aid of a detachment of officers and men from the Houston 
I obtained comprehensive botanical material of an undescribed species 
of palm, and some rare tree ferns of which several species are known 
from this still incompletely explored island. 

The next leg of our journey, Cocos to Balboa, was uneventful. No 
scientific collecting was undertaken in the Canal Zone, August 4-5. 

Collecting was resumed at Old Providence Island in the Caribbean 
on August 6. Though lying abreast the Atlantic coast of the Republic 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1938 



13 




Fig. 11. — Mr. Frederick Adams with his Cocos Island sailfish, 9 feet 7 inches 
long, 120 pounds. The large tiger shark on the deck weighed about 230 pounds. 
It was brought in by the President after a tug-of-war of an hour and 36 minutes. 
It was the heaviest fish of the cruise caught with rod and reel. 



14 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

of Nicaragua, this island is a part of the Republic of Colombia. 
There was no sport fishing at Old Providence. Game fish were scarce 
or absent, a few mackerel and two young barracuda constituting the 
catch by the fishing parties. On the other hand, the shore and reef 
collecting and dredging were very productive. Two new species of 
goboid fish were caught in a tidepool, also a small rockfish new to the 
Museum collections, as well as a new form of marine plant. 

Our arrival at Pensacola on August 9, the twenty- fourth day, 5,888 
miles out from San Diego, marked the conclusion of a most successful 
cruise. Over and above a host of other scientific material — geological, 
botanical, and zoological — 83 different species of fish were caught by 
one means or another. Still other species were seen, but for want of 
specimens could not be identified, such as the large green parrot fish 
at Clipperton. About 250 individual fish, representing about 60 dif- 
ferent species, were brought back to the Museum for study and 
permanent preservation in the National Collections. 

The larger game fish are most inadequately represented in ichthyo- 
logical collections throughout the world, not so much for want of 
facilities for storing them, as because of the difficulties attendant upon 
their preservation at the time of capture and their transport to their 
final resting place, which in the past necessitated large and often 
unwieldy tanks and almost unmanageable quantities of preserving 
fluid. Aboard the Houston, however, it was a relatively simple task 
to place the specimens desired by the Museum in the large cold storage 
freezers of the ship, and then, on arrival at port, to pack them with 
dry ice in wooden packing cases, suitably insulated with corrugated 
paper, for safe shipment to Washington. The fish were unpacked 
there still hard frozen. When thawed out in tanks of tap water, they 
returned to practically the identical fresh condition in which they had 
been placed in cold storage. Many of the fish still retained much of 
their original coloration, having apparently undergone little or no 
change from the time they were brought aboard ship. This is but one 
of many instances in which a large ship with ample facilities of all 
kinds can render science inestimable service. 

To the President, as Commander-in-Chief of the Navy and of this 
expedition, and to Captain Barker and the officers and crew of the 
U.S.S. Houston, the Smithsonian Institution is indebted for a wealth 
of valuable material, including some 30 forms new to science which 
will be described in technical publications of the Institution. 



A NEW OBSERVATORY, AND SOME MOUNT WILSON 
OBSERVATIONS 

By C. G. ABBOT 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

Thirteen years ago the National Geographic Society sent me to find 
a suitable place in the Old World to observe the variation of the sun. 
For the sun had been proved to be a slightly variable star, and it was 
thought its changes might be the main element in weather control. 
After investigating sites on lonely desert mountains in Algeria and 
Baluchistan, I fixed on Mount Brukkaros in South West Africa, 
within a Hottentot reservation. With a grant from the National 
Geographic Society, an outfit of special apparatus was assembled, and 
a tunnel observatory and a dwelling house were constructed on the 
western rim of that craterlike desolate mountain. 

For 5 years the sun was observed there on every possible day. But 
though the sun nearly always shines on Mount Brukkaros and rain 
hardly ever falls, we were disappointed to find that high winds carry 
the fine sands of the desert high over the summit, making the atmos- 
phere hazy and nonuniform, and involving too great a handicap in 
measuring solar variation. 

Then A. F. Moore sought to select a better station than Mount 
Brukkaros by measuring conditions on a number of African moun- 
tains, beginning on the Cape Verde Islands and going the rounds till 
he arrived at Mount St. Katherine near Mount Sinai, in Egypt. Here 
after over a hundred days of preliminary trials, it was decided that 
a favorable site had been found. The equipment from Mount Bruk- 
karos was installed on Mount St. Katherine, and complete observa- 
tions of solar radiation were made there from 1933 to 1937. The 
station proved excellent from a meteorological point of view. 

However, with a European war gravely threatening, and because of 
excessive cost of upkeep due to the inaccessibility of Mount St. 
Katherine, and a depressing and persistent intestinal disorder which 
attacked almost all members of the staff, it was found advisable to 
abandon the station in December 1937. 

Hoping to put our observing of solar variation on a more easily 
maintained basis, and to fill in good observations in the interval 
December to February when both of our other stations, in California 
and in Chile, usually lose many days, I decided to locate a new station 
in southwestern New Mexico. This region seems to partake to a 

is 



1 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 12. — Observatory site at Burro Mountain, N. Mex. 




Fig. 13. — Dwelling house of Mr. A. F. Moore, chief of the staff at Burro Moun- 
tain solar observing station. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



17 







Fig. 14. — Excavating for the "tunnel.' 



— ■— 




fofa0mm&tuA 



Fig. 15. — Instrument tunnel at Burro Mountain solar observing station. 



15 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

considerable degree of the meteorology of Old Mexico, where there 
are various sections which receive almost no precipitation except in 
the months July to September. 

Accordingly, A. F. Moore made a reconnaissance of various moun- 
tains in southwestern New Mexico. Some proved too difficultly 
accessible, some deficient as to water supply. He finally preferred 
Burro Mountain near the town of Tyrone, readily reached from 
Lordsburg or Silver City. It is of about 8,000 feet elevation and fairly 
well covered toward the top with medium-sized pines. Small oaks are 
scattered rather frequently lower down, and in summer, after the 
rains, grass and flowers spring up, so that the country, which is rolling, 
is very beautiful. The rainfall is expected to be not far from 10 inches 
annually, and more than half falls in the months July to September. 

The United States Forest Service welcomed the establishment of 
the observatory and very helpfully improved a road quite to the site 
of the station. Water was successfully developed, in ample quantity 
and excellent quality, close to the road and about 2 miles from the 
summit. It is easy to truck sufficient water to the station. 

J. Heather, of Lordsburg, contracted for the construction of the 
observing tunnel, dwelling houses, shop, and garages. Aided by a 
grant of funds from John A. Roebling, the work was completed in 
September 1938, and the equipment, formerly in Africa, was installed 
in October and November under the care of A. F. Moore, field 
director, and A. F. Froiland, assistant. Actual observations of the 
solar radiation will doubtless begin in December 1938. 

Although a certain amount of skepticism still prevails among 
meteorologists as to the importance of the sun's variation for weather, 
it seems to the writer and to others with whom he has consulted that 
the results published by him in several recent papers * create a very 
strong presumption that the sun's variation is in fact the major 
cause of weather, and that if adequate observations of it were made, 
meteorologists the world over would be able greatly to improve their 
predictions. 



1 Sun spots and weather, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 87, no. 18, 1933. 
Solar radiation and weather studies, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 94, no. 10, 

1935- 

The dependence of terrestrial temperatures on the variations of the sun's 
radiation, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 95, no. 12, 1936. 

Further evidence on the dependence of terrestrial temperatures on the varia- 
tions of solar radiation, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 95, no. 12, 1936. 

Cycles in tree-ring widths, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 95, no. 19, 1936. 

Some periodicities in solar physics and terrestrial meteorology, Vestniku 
Ceskoslovenske fysiatricke spolecnosti v Praze, Rocnik XVIII, Cislo 1-2 (54- 
55), 1938. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



19 




Fig. 16. — Truck and water tank, solar observing station, Burro Mountain, 

N. Mex. 




Fig. 17.- 



-Road between instrument tunnel and dwellings, solar observing station, 
Burro Mountain, N. Mex. 



20 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

W. H. Hoover occupied the Smithsonian station on Mount Wilson, 
May to October 1938, with two objectives: First, to grow plants in 
nearly monochromatic rays, selected from the solar spectrum ; second, 
to measure the distribution of radiation in the spectra of the brighter 
stars by heat methods. 

Plant experiment. — Mr. Hoover used a very large Christiansen 
filter in a solar beam reflected into the observatory from a coelostat. 
In that way he selected a narrow band of radiation in the blue. Peas 
grew in these nearly monochromatic rays for many weeks, until 
reaching a height of nearly a foot. It was hoped that blossoms would 
appear, but the experiment had to be closed before the plant was quite 
ready to blossom. Check experiments were made in ordinary day- 
light of about the same intensity. These check plants were a little 
more robust, but the continued growth of the plants in monochromatic 
rays for so long a period was surprising to many. 

Star spectra. — Several nights observing with the ioo-inch telescope 
were attempted. Ten small Christiansen filters were used to select 
narrow bands of spectrum at selected intervals between wave lengths 
3400 angstroms in the ultraviolet and 10300 in the infrared. The 
intensities were measured with a vacuum thermopile of L. B. Clark's 
construction, connected to a vacuum, magnetically shielded, Thomson 
reflecting galvanometer mainly of Hoover's construction. The mag- 
netic shield was designed by the late Elihu Thomson of Lynn. The 
galvanometer could be used in vacuum at 10 seconds single swing and 
observed at 5 meters scale distance. At this sensitiveness, currents 
of 1 x io -13 ampere, or one ten-trillionth of an ampere, would be 
measurable. 

In practice, however, it proved that the thermoelectric couples 
introduced too much drift for such extreme sensitiveness. The actual 
observing of stellar spectra was done at not above 4 seconds single 
swing of the galvanometer. But deflections as great as 20 millimeters 
were observed in the spectrum of the star Vega. It is believed that 
these experiments proved that when the 200-inch telescope is avail- 
able, and with improved thermoelectric couples, and better insulation 
from temperature changes of the surroundings, it will be readily 
possible to use special diffraction gratings, and obtain continuous 
energy spectrum curves of the brighter stars, with photographic regis- 
tration of the galvanometer deflections. 

Hoover's curves are not yet all reduced. For the star Vega, how- 
ever, his results are in very close agreement with those obtained by 
Abbot in 1928 with the fly-vane radiometer. But Hoover observed 
much farther toward the ultraviolet than Abbot, and he obtained more 
than 10 times as large deflections. 



STUDIES IN ENGLISH GEOLOGY 

By R. S. BASSLER 
Head Curator, Department of Geology, U. S. National Museum 

Field-work by members of the department of geology is usually 
devoted to the acquisition of new study and exhibition material, but 
occasionally some of this time must be employed in a search for 
knowledge to increase the scientific value of the existing collections. 
This is particularly true with regard to many of the invertebrate 
fossils collected by early students, who, for various reasons, did not 
record their geological formation and geographic locality with the 
accuracy required for the more detailed studies of the present day. 
Several decades ago a general label for the occurrence of a fossil was 
deemed sufficient, the identification of the species being regarded as 
the most important information. Fortunately, a study of the rocks 
in the identical or general localities from which the fossils were de- 
rived will often supply this missing information. During previous 
trips abroad, I visited classic localities on the continent partly for 
this purpose ; but a vacation trip to England during the past summer, 
with the opportunity of traveling about quickly by automobile, per- 
mitted a study of some well-known southern England fossil areas 
extending from Cornwall on the west to the chalk cliffs at Dover. 
With London as a base, excursions were made to various parts of 
the English Lowlands, with brief intervals spent at the British 
Museum of Natural History checking the formation and locality 
occurrences of certain Paleozoic crinoids, and at the neighboring 
Geological Museum at South Kensington, inspecting the newly in- 
stalled physical geology exhibits. 

The field studies included first the Subcarboniferous Mountain 
limestone of the Avon gorge and the Mendip Hills areas near Bristol, 
which have produced many fossil crinoids. A visit to the great 
gorge through these hills at the latter locality (fig. 18) showed 
extensive outcrops of the crinoid-bearing strata, although specimens 
were not as common as the exposures would indicate. The gorge is 
of interest to the general public for its caves and a cleft in the rock 
which is said to have inspired the hymn "Rock of Ages," when its 
author was sheltered there during a storm. Arrangements were 
completed for securing casts of type specimens of certain little- 
understood crinoids from this area preserved in the Bristol Museum, 
in order that their structure now can be ascertained. 



22 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 18. — Cheddar Gorge of the Mendip Hills. 




Fig. 19. — Lyme Regis, showing fossiliferous strata. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



23 




Fig. 20. — Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain. 







Fig. 21. — The Dover chalk cliffs. 



24 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Proceeding southward through the cathedral town of Exeter, on 
the Exe River, Lyme Regis, the well-known Mesozoic fossil locality 
along the sea coast celebrated for its ichthyosaur remains, was briefly 
studied (fig. 19). Next, the city of Bath, the fashionable watering 
place located around the old Roman baths and in the center of the 
Jurassic oolitic limestone outcrops, was of especial interest. Here the 
houses built of white limestone and rising in successive terraces 
present a more striking and handsome appearance than in perhaps any 
other English town. Farther east, Salisbury Plain with its underlying 
chalk formation afforded numerous outcrops, although again fossils 
are not abundant. On the Plain, Stonehenge, the best-known example 
of the ancient builders' craft in Great Britain, erected by a race of 
Bronze Age people about 1500 B.C., is an object of much interest. 
Located just northwest of Salisbury with its dominant feature, the 
famous cathedral founded early in the thirteenth century, this more 
ancient temple was undoubtedly devoted to sun worship, since on the 
summer solstice the rising sun casts a shadow of the heel stone on the 
altar. The geologist found in tracing the origin of the stones, that the 
outer circle at Stonehenge (fig. 20) is made of blocks of Tertiary 
sandstone which once covered the Plain, while the inner circle and 
horseshoe are of igneous rocks which must have been brought from 
South Wales, 200 miles away. 

South and east of London the chalk formation again comes to the 
surface with frequent outcrops for collecting, in the anticlinal uplift 
forming the Weald, bordered on the north and south by the Downs 
with their ever-present flocks of sheep. Eastward along the Weald 
the best exposures of the fossiliferous chalk beds and associated 
greensands are along the sea coast, where at Dover and Folkstone the 
geologist has ample opportunity for study (fig. 21). Return to 
London was made through the hop fields of Kent, where in September 
great numbers of pickers are busy. Here the London Basin with its 
Tertiary sediments affords outcrops of the more recent rocks of 
England. In a short time, therefore, one can review the entire geo- 
logical column, by starting with the oldest igneous rocks in Cornwall, 
continuing with the lower and middle Paleozoic sandstones and shales 
in Devon, the upper Paleozoic limestone in Somerset and Gloucester, 
followed by the Mesozoic oolites and chalk beds from thence eastward 
through Canterbury to Dover, and ending with the Cenozoic clays and 
sands in the environs of London. Although invertebrate fossils 
needed to fill certain gaps in the study series were collected, the 
information obtained for more accurate labeling and for present 
studies was the most valuable result of this trip. 



ANCIENT MAMMALS OF UTAH 

By C. LEWIS GAZIN 

Assistant Curator, Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, 
U. S. National Museum 

The 1938 Smithsonian Institution expedition to Utah undertook 
principally to continue investigation of occurrences of the earliest 
mammals and lizards known from the State and to make a representa- 
tive collection of upper Eocene fossils from the Uinta Basin. The 
party, consisting of George F. Sternberg, Harold R. Shepherd, and 
myself, met on June 1 at Price, Utah, and proceeded from there to 
the Uinta Basin in the northeastern part of the State. At Vernal, 
Utah, we were met by J. LeRoy Kay, of the Carnegie Museum, who 
had kindly offered to show us around the basin and point out the 
principal collecting localities. We spent 2 days in a pleasant and profi- 
table reconnaissance of the region, marred only by our becoming 
mired in mud toward the end of the second day, when our host 
attempted to determine the speed of a horse which was running wild. 

We left the basin on June 4 and turned our attention to the Wasatch 
Plateau country of central Utah. Our first camp was set up near a 
delightful spring on the ranch of George Olson in Joe's Valley. 
Exploration from this point consisted in reexamining the old localities 
which had been prospected by the Smithsonian party the preceding 
summer and in searching for new localities of f ossiferous Paleocene 
deposits. Our experiences in this mountainous country of few roads 
demonstrated the necessity of using horses, especially since the roads, 
though good when dry, can become impassable for hours or days after 
a little rain. Weather there during the summer months is continually 
unsettled. 

We were fortunate in our prospecting in obtaining a much larger 
representation of the fauna from the Paleocene exposures in lower 
Dragon Canyon. Work in the Cretaceous of the same region was of 
considerable profit in finding additional material of the large lizard 
which Gilmore's party discovered the year before. One of the lizard 
specimens which we found is so nearly complete as to be worthy of 
permanent exhibition in the National Museum. 

On June 25 we broke camp in Joe's Valley and transferred our 
attention back to the Uinta Basin. Camp was made at a locality known 
as Myton pocket, one of the well-known localities for fossil verte- 

3 ■ 25 



26 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



\ %*yp, vi 




Fig. 22. — Carnegie Museum and Smithsonian Institution field parties at 
the Carnegie Museum Powder Springs camp in the Uinta Basin. (Photo- 
graph by Thompson. ) 




Fig. 23. — Smithsonian field party in the Manti Forest region of Utah. Horses 
were found to be indispensable in the search for fossiliferous deposits of 
Paleocene asre. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



27 







. ' ' 






Fig. 24. — The principal exposures of Paleocene beds from which nearly all 
of the mammalian material was obtained. Lower Dragon Canyon, Manti Forest, 
Utah. 





Fig. 25. — Operation in the leptotragulid-homacodont quarry in Myton pocket, 

Uinta Basin. 



28 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

brates of upper Uinta age. Carnegie Museum parties have in the past 
obtained a variety of the smaller mammals from beds at this locality. 
Our party was no less successful, and was particularly fortunate in 
opening a quarry for remains of small deerlike animals known as 
leptotragulids and homacodonts. Several weeks were spent in work- 
ing the quarry, a job which was difficult, not so much in the amount 
of rock removed as in the care required in taking up delicate speci- 
mens from a well-indurated matrix. 

The principal handicap encountered in working Myton pocket, and 
other Uinta Basin localities, was the remoteness of palatable water. 
Most residents in the vicinity of Myton drink water taken from the 
Duchesne River, after allowing it to settle, but it was so cloudy and 
distinctly alkaline that we preferred to haul ours from well supplies 
in the towns of Roosevelt and Fort Duchesne. 

After 5 weeks at Myton pocket we visited several localities at more 
easterly points in the basin and made collections from a lower horizon 
known as Uinta B. Highly important for this early fauna is the 
locality known to paleontologists as "White River pocket," a small 
area of badlands near the junction of the Green and White Rivers 
and not far from the Ouray trading post. Of particular interest from 
this locality is the relatively rare Epihippus, a later stage in horse 
development during Eocene time. At least two skeletal portions and a 
few isolated jaws in our collection are believed from brief and 
unsatisfactory field identification to represent this early horse. 

During our stay in the Uinta Basin we had the occasional and 
enjoyable company of Dr. John Clark and his graduate student assis- 
tant from the University of Colorado. Since their stratigraphic 
studies were carried on in the eastern part of the basin it was possible 
for us to join camps for a short time during our stay in Kennedy's 
Hole. The latter locality proved somewhat less productive of paleon- 
tological materials than we had anticipated, although we were much 
pleased at finding a large crocodile skull and jaws. Here, and in 
Coyote Basin to the south, the fossils are found principally in the 
heavier sandstone lenses and one notes a greater proportion of 
titanothere and rhinoceros remains. 

On August 20 we broke camp in the Uinta Basin and hauled the 
bulk of our collection to Price, where it was boxed and shipped, and 
on August 23 proceeded to southwestern Utah to investigate a lava 
cave near Hurricane, reported to contain numerous animal remains. 
These proved to be of no great antiquity. The field season was 
terminated at St. George on August 25. 



COLLECTING FOSSILS IN THE CATSKILLS OF 
NEW YORK 

By G. ARTHUR COOPER 

Assistant Curator, Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology, 

U. S. National Museum 

On July 1 8 the writer set out for Stroudsburg, Pa., to join 
Dr. Bradford Willard, of the Pennsylvania Topographic and Geo- 
logic Survey, in a study of Middle Devonian (Hamilton) strata. 
After examining the section exposed about Stroudsburg, the party 
continued the investigation at Port Jervis, N. Y., about 40 miles to 
the northeast. Dr. Willard left the party here and the writer was 
then joined by Miss Winifred Goldring of the New York State 
Museum. In 1932 Miss Goldring and the writer studied the Middle 
Devonian sediments of Susquehanna and Schoharie Valleys on the 
north flank of the Catskill Mountains. These studies showed that 
the marine sediments about Cooperstown in the Susquehanna Valley 
interfingered with continental, deltaic beds toward the east, and led 
to the belief that a great thickness of the Catskills facing the Hudson 
Valley were of Middle Devonian rather than Upper Devonian age. 
To test this belief the party undertook a study of the eastern limb of 
the Middle Devonian outcrop from Stroudsburg, Pa., to Port Jervis, 
N. Y., and thence nearly to Albany. In this work the writer gratefully 
acknowledges the help of Mr. G. H. Chadwick, Catskill, N. Y., who 
assisted the party in the difficult problems of the continental sedi- 
ments west of Catskill. 

With the sequence at Stroudsburg as a guide, columnar sections 
were prepared of the rocks exposed along the Delaware River west 
of Port Jervis ; in the Neversink Valley at Roses Point ; along 
Rondout Creek above Napanoch; in Stony Hollow, west of Kingston; 
and up the Kaaterskill west of Catskill. It proved to be impossible 
to prepare complete sections of the Hamilton between Port Jervis 
and Napanoch because thick glacial deposits in Neversink and Ron- 
dout Valleys obscure the lower part of the Middle Devonian column. 
Middle and Upper Hamilton strata, dipping 13 degrees to the north- 
west, are well exposed from the west side of Port Jervis up the 
Delaware River to Sparrowbush and are about 2,600 feet thick. This 
section has many similarities to the marine sequence exposed about 
Cooperstown in Susquehanna Valley. 

29 



30 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



31 




32 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Northeast of Napanoch on Rondout Creek the dip steepens to 50 
degrees or more to the northwest. The lower half of the exposed 
section abounds in marine fossils, but the upper half contains many 
fossil land plants. Nevertheless, a thin zone of Upper Hamilton 
marine fossils exposed at the top of Honk Falls gave a clue to the 
thickness in this valley, approximately 3,200 feet. 

The dip of the beds lessens northeast of Napanoch to an average 
of about 5 degrees, and the outcrop widens. The upper part of the 
Hamilton changes to unf ossiferous, red, argillaceous sandstone and 
greenish, coarse or conglomeratic sandstone well shown around 
Ashokan Reservoir. Between these continental beds and the lower 
fossiliferous marine Hamilton rocks west of Kingston about 300 feet 
of bluish sandstone or "blue-stone" intervene. This rock, now called 
Ashokan sandstone, was extensively quarried about 40 years ago and 
formed the basis of the once flourishing "blue-stone" industry. 

From Kingston nearly to Albany approximately the same sequence 
prevails: a lower part of about 1,000 feet of fossiliferous marine 
sediments (Bakoven and Mount Marion), then 300 feet of "blue- 
stone" succeeded by a great thickness of red-beds (Kiskatom) diffi- 
cult to date because of absence of marine fossils. 

An important part of this investigation was the determination of 
the thickness of red-beds belonging to the Middle Devonian in the 
mountains west of Catskill. In the absence of marine fossils, resort 
had to be made to comparison with other sections. The studies be- 
tween Port Jervis and Kingston showed a continuously thickening 
sequence northeastward toward Albany, exactly the condition dis- 
covered on the north side of the Catskills between Susquehanna 
Valley and Albany. Therefore the section at Catskill must be at least 
as thick as that at Napanoch, where 3,200 feet of Hamilton sediments 
are known. Considerable thickening occurs northeast of Napanoch; 
hence it is concluded, on the basis of known rate of thickening that 
the Hamilton beds west of Catskill are much in excess of 3,200 feet, 
perhaps as much as 500 feet, putting the top of the Hamilton near the 
well-known Mountain House between 2,100 and 2,200 feet. 

The results of this investigation thus corroborate the findings of 
1932 on the north side of the Catskills. They also show that the 
marine beds of Stroudsburg and Port Jervis gradually change north- 
eastward to nonmarine beds about Catskill. The northeastern por- 
tion of the Catskills is a great delta deposited from old highlands 
to the northeast. The delta sends out fingers of continental sediment 
into the marine beds west of the Catskills. 



SOME EUROPEAN ZOOS 

By WILLIAM M. MANN 
Director, National Zoological Park 

AND 

LUCILE Q. MANN 

The writers, having been given the Franklin Burr Award of the 
National Geographic Society, decided to devote this money to observa- 
tion of some of the European Zoos we had not seen before, and of 
others where we knew that great progress had been made since our 
last visit to them in 1929. 

On July 23, 1938, we were in Stockholm, Sweden, and went imme- 
diately to the great Skansen Park, a unique open-air Museum and 
Zoo. The animal collection was limited entirely to those living in 
northern Europe, all kept out of doors in naturally wooded paddocks 
where unusually fine specimens of each species were on exhibition. 
Outstanding were the European elks, eight of them in the collection, 
including a mother with twin babies. 

In Moscow we found a large park of 32 hectares, and an enormous 
collection requiring a Zoo staff of about 500, including a number of 
scientists and women keepers. The Zoo is 75 years old, and has been 
greatly developed since 1924. Some two-and-a-half million people 
visit it each year to see the very splendid collection, mostly northern 
animals, but many of them of great rarity. The elephant display 
includes five specimens in a very large enclosure. Among the wild 
sheep were Ovis poll and fine markhors. 

At Leningrad the Zoo is smaller than that of Moscow and 5 years 
younger, but contains also a good collection. We were especially 
interested in a black-cock or capercailye, the first we had ever seen in 
captivity, which had been kept alive by changing its food each month 
and giving it what it would find in nature with the changing seasons. 

We were told that there are 26 Zoos in Russia, not including small, 
temporary Zoos which are established at children's rest camps and 
contain collections of baby animals for the children to play with. One 
cage that we saw contained baby lions and dingos together. 

At Copenhagen a new bird house had been completed, and a large 
tropical house for giraffes was in process of construction. The bird 
house is especially attractive. Four years ago eight little lovebirds 
(Agapornis personata) were placed in a cage and there are now 120 

33 



34 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 





Fig. 28. — Moscow Zoo : An artificial mountain, used in part as a tiger 
pit. The herpetologist's office is in a room in the highest peak. 




Fig. 29. — Moscow Zoo : Children may rent carts drawn by horses, donkeys or 
camels, and have a race. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



35 




Fig. 30. — Moscow Zoo : Women keepers, as well as 
men, take good care of their animals. These two are 
engaged in raising sables, more than 20 of which 
were born and raised in the Zoo the past year. 




Fig. 31. — Copenhagen Zoo: Next best to a live whale in a Zoo is this 
skeleton of a blue whale, exhibited in the open air. 



-toot 



36 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

of them, an astonishing increase. We saw an American bald eagle 
that had lived there for 55 years, and a family of European eagle 
owls with two babies hatched in the park. 1 

The Hagenbeck Zoo at Hamburg had made a number of the im- 
provements that Heinrich Hagenbeck had told us about on our last 
visit 9 years ago. These included a wonderful barless enclosure where 
10 elephants, of 2 species, made a great show. Twenty Patagonian 
cavies run loose around the grounds. The exhibition of seals is excep- 
tionally fine and includes a sea leopard from Antarctica. 

Hanover, a city of 550,000 people, maintains a fine Zoo under the 
direction of the Ruhes. Some of the buildings are new, and others 
date back 50 years and more. King William presented a lion house to 
the Zoo in 1867 and it still stands. 

It would take a large volume to describe the Berlin Zoo. We lived 
there for 5 days and saw something different and spectacular each 
day. They had two gorillas and were raising a number of rare species. 
Crested partridges or roulrouls, Heck's Celebes ape, Gelada baboons, 
black leopards, and boatbills all had young born or hatched in the 
Park. 

The Zoo at Nurnberg has not changed since 1929 because it is to be 
demolished and an entirely new one built. The new garden is to be 
55 hectares, and to cost 4^ million marks at the start. We understand 
that 150,000 marks have already been appropriated for the purchase 
of new animals. 

The Geo-Zoo at Munich, where the animals are arranged by conti- 
nents, is a notable breeding establishment. Many species of native and 
foreign animals are allowed to run loose in the park, and although 
the number of species is not as great as in some other Zoos, the herds 
in general are much larger and most spectacular. 

The new aquarium is superb, and the great-ape village with its 
various wings and large playgrounds for the chimpanzees, gibbons, 
and orang-utans, is the last word in quarters in which to exhibit and 
study these animals. 

The Zoo at Zurich is only 9 years old and yet has developed remark- 
ably. The animals' cages and enclosures are arranged in terraces on 
the side of a hill rising above the city. There is a good collection, 
including a pair of giraffes, a new lion house, and a splendid restau- 
rant building. 

Since we saw the Jardin des Plantes at Paris some years ago, it has 
been remodeled into a new and modern institution, with a big new 



1 Now on their wav to the National Zoological Park. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



37 




Fig. 32. — Berlin Zoo : One of a half-dozen restaurants. In this, the visitor 
may obtain water in bottles from his favorite spa. It is also a popular place 
to take morning coffee. 




ivIKK 



Fig. 33. — Munich Zoo : In Europe the main road in a Zoo nearly always leads 

to the restaurant. 



3« 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 34. — Munich Zoo: A pair of Nubian wild asses, for some reason among 
the most difficult animals to obtain. Munich had the only specimens we saw 
in Europe. 




Fig. 35. — Vincennes Zoo : One takes an elevator on the inside of an artificial 
mountain, and from the peak, the highest point in the Zoo, gets a bird's eye 
view not only of the grounds below but of all of Paris in the distance. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



39 




Fig. 36. — Vincennes Zoo : The open air enclosures, surrounded by moats, 
make up most of the Zoo. 




Fig. 2>7- — Dublin Zoo : A rocky road in Dublin being paced by two fine 
specimens of sloth bears. 



40 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

lion house, a new monkey house, and a great collection of creatures. 
The vivarium built by Jeannel some years ago for the exhibition of 
insects, small reptiles, and batrachians, still stands out as unique. 

The Vincennes Zoo, one of the newest in Europe, already contains 
a large and attractive collection, including an Indian rhinoceros and 
four giraffes. In addition to the exhibition areas, which are all of 
the open, barless type, the service quarters have been exceptionally 
well worked out. 

The Zoo at Regent's Park in London impressed us as being "bigger 
and better than ever." Innovations are "invisible glass" fronts for 
bird cages, a modernistic ape house, and a special building to facilitate 
the work of artists in the Zoo. Among the rarest of the specimens on 
display were three giant forest hogs from Kenya — father, mother, 
and baby. 

The new open-air Zoo at Whipshade, where 400 acres have already 
been developed and 200 acres more are ready for improvement, is 
outstanding. The animals are kept in great herds in large paddocks — 
20 tigers in one enclosure, for instance — and deer, pheasants, and 
cavies run wild in the forest. The restaurant is like a country club. 
This is the only Zoo in Europe that permits the entry of automobiles, 
and a fee of 5 shillings per auto, plus 1 shilling per person, is charged. 
It has become one of England's most popular resorts and picnicking 
grounds. 

Edinburgh for many years has been famous for its penguins, and 
still is. Magellan and King penguins are raised each year, and one 
specimen has been in the Zoo since 191 4. The Zoo itself is on a high 
hill, the top of which is covered with large paddocks for herds of 
ruminants. There were 1 1 chimpanzees and two orang-utans in the 
collection and a notable collection of carnivores. 

The Dublin Zoo is the second oldest in Britain, having been founded 
in 1833 and maintained by the Royal Society with a grant from the 
Government. It is located in the beautiful Phoenix Park. This Zoo 
has always been famous for raising lions, and there is on exhibition 
a plaque with the pedigree of more than 160 lions that have been born 
there. Among the smaller fry there was a Tuatera lizard from New 
Zealand that has lived in the Park for 27 years, a record. 

In general we found every Zoo that we visited thriving and all of 
them growing. In addition to the exhibiting of animals, interesting 
breeding experiments are being made. In Germany, through careful 
selection, are being recreated the extinct auroch and the wild wood- 
horse that formerly inhabited the country. 



CETACEAN STUDIES IN EUROPE 

By REMINGTON KELLOGG 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museum 

Late in the evening of May 12, 1938, the S. S. Washington of the 
United States Lines landed Mrs. Kellogg, Commander Wilfrid N. 
Derby, and me at Hamburg, Germany, after an interesting trip up 
the Elb River. The next morning, we were on the train bound for 
Sassnitz Hafen, where a small Baltic Sea steamer took us to Trelle- 
borg, Sweden. Arriving at that port in the evening, we boarded the 
train which brought us to Oslo, Norway, on the morning of May 14. 
Having a few days at our disposal, we visited the Norsk Folkemuseum 
at Bygdoy. Many old buildings, brought from various parts of Nor- 
way, have been reassembled here and furnished with the handicraft, 
furniture, implements, and arts of the Norwegian people during the 
corresponding period. Here also, ancient Viking boats are exhibited 
in a large hall. Their amazingly well preserved contents, including 
among other things a wooden wagon, an elaborately carved bed, chests, 
sled, buckets, and other implements are displayed at the University 
Museum. The "Vi Kan" Exposition in Oslo had an exhibit of some of 
the apparatus used in modern whaling, which attracted many of the 
visitors. A day or so later, we were shown through the Institute for 
Whale Research at the University of Oslo by Prof. Johan Hjort. 
At Oslo, also, the youth parades and demonstrations on May 17, the 
Norwegian National Day marking the anniversary of the adoption 
of the constitution after the separation from Denmark in 1914, was 
a very gay occasion for visitors and residents alike. The visit to the 
well-known Norwegian whaling port, Sandef jord, arranged by the 
Norwegian Whaling Association, proved most interesting. Here we 
inspected some of the modern floating factory ships and a number of 
recent improvements in apparatus used in whaling operations, includ- 
ing the electric harpoon. At Sandef jord is located the Kommando'r 
Chr. Christensen Hvalfangstmuseum, where there is on display, along 
with several kinds of whale skeletons, two huge iron oil-boiling pots 
left more than a hundred years ago by an American whaler on the 
Falkland Islands, many ancient types of harpoons, and other whaling 
accessories. 

From Oslo, we took the train on May 29 for Stockholm, Sweden. 
There, through the courtesy of Count Nils Gyldenstolpe and Prof. 

4 41 



42 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 38. — Sod-roofed farm house in Norsk Folkemuseum at Bygdjzfy, Oslo. 



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Fig. 40. — Three floating factories at anchor at Sandefjord. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



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44 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Einar Lonnberg, I was permitted to examine and study cetacean 
skeletal material belonging to the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum at 
Freskati on the outskirts of Stockholm. In the well-arranged cetacean 
hall of this museum are exhibited a fine skeleton, including complete 
sets of baleen, of the now nearly extinct Greenland whale, as well as 
skeletons of the southern right whale, Atlantic right whale, blue, 
finback, Bryde's whale, sei whale, little piked whale, bottlenose and 
other beaked whales, killer and southern right whale porpoise. The 
Nordiska Museet, with an indoor section recreating Sweden's past 
cultural history and an out-doors section, Skansen, located on a high 
elevation overlooking Stockholm, which is a living museum, give the 
visitor pleasant impressions of old Swedish folk life. From Stock- 
holm I made a side trip to Uppsala where I was enabled to examine, 
in the Geological Institute of the University, the subfossil remains of 
a whale from Graso, Gulf of Bothnia, that formed the basis for 
Lilljeborg's Eschrichtius robustus. These bones exhibited the char- 
acteristic features of the present day North Pacific gray whale. 

Leaving Stockholm on June 2, we traveled by train to Malmo and 
thence by ferry to Copenhagen. In the absence of Dr. M. Degerbpl, 
Dr. F. W. Braestrup showed me the cetacean material that I wished 
to examine. The University Zoological Museum possesses an excel- 
lent though very much crowded collection of cetacean skeletons, in- 
cluding an adult male Greenland whale, a large male sperm whale, 
an exceptionally large hyperoodon, and more than 65 mounted skele- 
tons of toothed whales, ranging in size from the small harbor porpoise 
to killer whales. At the Geological Museum, Prof. J. P. J. Ravn was 
kind enough to show me the fossil cetaceans that had been found in 
Denmark. 

It was necessary for us to return to Oslo to make arrangements for 
the journey to England. We left Oslo at the time the trees were fully 
leaved and the lilacs in full bloom. As we traveled toward Bergen 
on June 6, our train climbed gradually to an elevation of 4,000 feet, 
where winter still held its grip. Xot a vestige of a budding shrub was 
visible, and the ice, snow, and shadows cast an unforgetable pattern 
of black and white on the hill slopes. The descent from the summit 
carried the train through several long tunnels. When the mist had 
cleared from our compartment windows we saw pussy willows and the 
unfolding buds of birch trees. We had thus witnessed spring for the 
third time this year : at home before sailing, at our arrival in southern 
Norway, and here once more near Bergen. 

The day following our arrival at Bergen, we visited first the Han- 
seatiske Museum and the restored row of old hanseatic houses along 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 45 

the quay, facing the open fish market, and later the medieval ban- 
queting room of King Hakon's Hall which has been restored and 
decorated with colorful designs by the artist, Gerhard Munthe. A 
good view of Bergen and the fjord was obtained by taking the steep 
funicular railway to the heights above the city. An appointment was 
made with Prof. August Brinkmann to visit the Bergen Museum 
late that afternoon. At least 6 skeletons of as many kinds of whale- 
bone whales, and between 50 and 60 skeletons of toothed whales, of 
which about 40 are killer whales, are possessed by this museum. 

On the morning of June 9 we sailed from Bergen, Norway, on the 
S. S. Vega and arrived the following morning at the Tyne Commission 
Quay near Newcastle, England. Dr. John Beattie, conservator of the 
Museum, Royal College of Surgeons, and Martin A. C. Hinton and 
Dr. Francis C. Fraser, of the British Museum (Natural History), 
made it possible for me to examine a series of skulls and skeletons of 
porpoises in a relatively short time. To Dr. Beattie and Sir Arthur 
Keith, I am indebted for the invitation to visit the research laboratory 
of the Royal College of Surgeons at Downs and the home of Charles 
Darwin. 

Finally, we visited Edinburgh on May 29, where we were the 
recipient of many courtesies from Prof. James C. Brash of the De- 
partment of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh. The Anatomical 
Museum of the University of Edinburgh has a larger and more com- 
plete collection of Cetacea frequenting Scottish waters than any other 
institution in the British Isles. This museum contains a number of 
historic anatomical and osteological preparations which were acquired 
during the periods of activity of Sir Robert Sibbald, Dr. Robert 
Knox, Sir John Struthers, Dr. William Turner, and others. The 
exhibits and study collections of the Royal Scottish Museum in Edin- 
burgh were shown to us by A. C. Stephen, keeper of zoology. A day 
later we were back in London and embarked the following day on the 
S. S. Manhattan at Southampton. 

As regards kinds of whales and number of specimens representing 
each kind, the cetacean collections of the British Museum (Natural 
History) at London, the University Zoological Museum at Copen- 
hagen, and the Naturhistoriska Rijksmuseum near Stockholm are 
unsurpassed by any of the American collections. Although these 
museums were visited primarily for the purpose of examining skeletal 
material of whales not represented in American collections, advantage 
was taken of large series of some kinds of cetaceans to appraise the 
range of individual variation in diagnostic structures. These superb 



4 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



and well-rounded cetacean collections have been assembled only by 
close cooperation between the museums and agencies in a position to 
assist with the collection of such material. Of all the European mu- 
seums, the British Museum (Natural History) in London is probably 
the most active at present in building up the cetacean collections. 
Besides older material, some of which dates back a century or more, 
this collection has been augmented from time to time by specimens 




Fig. 43. — Home of Charles Darwin. 

received from various exploring expeditions. The British Museum 
has profited greatly since 191 2 by the arrangements made by Sir 
Sidney F. Harmer with the Receivers of Wrecks and with the Coast 
Guard Officers for the receipt of telegraphic reports of all strandings 
of whales on the British Isles. The staff of the "Discovery Expedi- 
tion," organized for whaling research under the auspices of the British 
Colonial Office, have transmitted numerous cetacean specimens, and 
British whaling: vessels have assisted in a similar manner. 



A SEARCH FOR BIRDS AND MAMMALS 
IN KENTUCKY 

By W. M. PERRYGO 

Scientific Aid, Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museum 

Kentucky has long remained a section whose bird and mammal life 
was represented in the United States National Museum by few speci- 
mens, so that it was with interest that I undertook a survey that was 
to cover much of the State. Arrangements were made with Maj. 
James Brown, Commissioner of Game and Fish, Department of Con- 
servation, for the necessary permits, and through his kind offices we 
received aid without which the work could not have been successful. 

With James Cole as assistant, I left Washington on April 15, 1938, 
to begin work a few days later near Brandenburg, in Meade County, 
in a region of rolling hills and the level bottomlands along the Ohio 
River. We remained here for 2 weeks collecting many interesting 
specimens, including the Bachman's sparrow, and various kinds of 
mice. 

Leaving here we went to the extreme southwestern part of the 
State, near the Mississippi River, to investigate an area in the Austro- 
riparian life zone at the northern end of Reel foot Lake. Only a small 
portion of the lake, or the arms, as they are locally called, extends 
across the State line, but our observations gave much of interest to 
supplement the material obtained last year in the adjacent Tennessee 
section. Our collecting here was done in beautiful cypress swamps 
and around the edges of the many cotton fields. 

We moved then to Monticello to investigate the dry oak-wooded 
hills of Wayne County and then, working our way northward into 
Harlan County, put up in an abandoned C. C. C. camp near Cumber- 
land. This gave us easy access to Black Mountain, southeast of 
Lynch, the highest mountain in the State, with an altitude of 4,150 
feet. Black Mountain is unlike the higher mountains of West Virginia 
and Tennessee in that it lacks the typical Canadian zone, having no 
spruce or balsam trees. Here, in spite of continuous rains and dense 
fogs, we obtained many interesting specimens, one being a new type 
of red-backed mouse. This was our first experience in catching mice 
of this group in flying squirrel traps set on trees. 

After 2 days' work on Pine Mountain, in Letcher County, we 
moved northeastward to Belfry, a mining town in Pike County, where 

47 



4 8 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



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Fig. 45. — Looking east from Black Mountain. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



49 




Fig. 46. — The Ohio River near Owensboro, Ky. 




Fig. 47. — Our camp near an Indian mound at Fullerton, Ky. 



50 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

we spent the week of July 4, Cole collecting in Kentucky, while I 
crossed to secure certain desired specimens of birds from Wayne, 
Logan, and Mingo Counties in West Virginia. 

Our work completed here, we moved to Lewis and Greenup Coun- 
ties, pitching our tent beside an Indian mound at Fullerton, for work 
along the Ohio River. This completed the investigations for the early 
part of the season, and we returned to Washington July 15. 

Accompanied by Herbert Deignan, of the Division of Birds, and 
Gregor Rohwer, I left for the autumn collecting trip on September 15. 
At Middlesboro we obtained permission from the American Associa- 
tion Coal Company to investigate the deciduous forests covering Log 
Mountain whose summit rises to approximately 3,100 feet above the 
sea. We had a profitable 2 weeks here, with the birds and mammals 
typical of mountains of this altitude. While here we were joined for 
a few days by Dr. Alexander Wetmore. 

Leaving Middlesboro on October 1, we moved to Rockcastle and 
Madison Counties, collecting south of the college town of Berea. A 
considerable part of this region, with an altitude of 1,000 feet, is flat 
with poor drainage, forming many wet meadows. This made it an 
excellent country for marsh wrens. Savannah sparrows, and many 
other birds and mammals. 

We moved from here to the Ohio River south of Covington, to 
catch the fall migration along the Ohio and its lowlands. Here we 
secured the long and short-billed marsh wrens, American bittern and 
coot in the cat-tail marshes, while along the bluffs and rolling hills 
near the river were various wood and field birds. 

On October 15 we journeyed to Madisonville to examine the low 
cypress swamp country in Hopkins, McLean, and Muhlenberg Coun- 
ties. Although swamp rabbits occur here, they were scarce, and we 
were unable to get any. However, we did find LeConte's sparrows 
and the prairie horned lark. The lespedeza (Japanese clover) recently 
widely distributed in this county made good feeding ground and cover 
for marsh wrens, sparrows, and many other birds. 

The Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers which flow northward into 
the Ohio River run near and parallel to each other in Trigg County, 
where we spent a successful week collecting in the bottomlands. Here 
we saw several swamp rabbits in patches of cane. 

Our last week was spent in the cedar-covered hills and in the farm- 
lands of the Mammoth Cave area in Edmonson County, and on 
November 15 we were once more in Washington. 



COLLECTING TURTLES AND FISH IN FLORIDA 

By C. R. ASCHEMEIER 

Taxidermist, U. S. National Museum 

Having planned a trip to Florida in February 1938, I was requested 
to extend my stay there for a couple of weeks for the purpose of col- 
lecting turtles and fish for the National Museum. 

I arrived at Gainesville on February 21 and through the kindness 
of Dr. Van Hyning, Director of the Florida State Museum, and with 
the generous cooperation of members of his staff, I established head- 
quarters there. I then proceeded to Cedar Key, approximately 50 
miles southwest of Gainesville on the Gulf of Mexico, where I col- 
lected both fish and turtles. Having on several previous occasions 
visited this quaint old fishing town to collect porpoises for the 
Museum, I was given valuable assistance by old acquaintances. Some 
large fish, among them red snappers, kingfish, mackerel, sheephead, 
and mullet were taken, mostly for their otoliths, while from the small 
pools left by the receding tide several hundred smaller fish were 
collected. 

A rare opportunity to get some turtles easily was unfortunately 
missed here. I had visited Lake Johnson to catch some large black 
bass, and during my absence a fisherman, being unable to get a haul 
of fish, decided to haul his seine for sliders or "streaked-headed 
cooters" as they are called by the Floridians. He was very successful 
in this respect, bringing in about 75 turtles. On hearing this I hur- 
riedly looked up the captain of the boat but found he had disposed of 
the lot. Together with the proprietor of the hotel I then made a house 
to house canvas for turtles and managed to get three specimens. 
Sliders are preferred to chicken by many of the inhabitants ; I have 
myself feasted on turtle stew several times and can pronounce it 
delicious. Three diamond-back terrapins were obtained at the mouth 
of the Suwannee River, at which place the sliders also were collected. 

After spending a week at Cedar Key I went to Tallahassee where, 
with the kind assistance of my friends, Dr. Herman Gunter and a 
member of his staff, Mr. Clarence Simpson, arrangements were made 
which resulted in the collection of a fine series of turtles at the 
neighboring Lakes Jackson and Iamonia. 

The lakes of Florida are variable in origin and development as well 
as in other characteristics, and during my visit I became acquainted 

51 



52 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 48. — View of Lake Iamonia, Fla. Taken before the water disappeared. 




Fig. 49. — View of Lake Iamonia, Fla., after the water disappeared. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 

IMI l l . lll iiWHWI 




Fig. 50. — Thousands of fish stranded around the "sink hole," Paynes Prairie, 
showing how the lakes of Florida teem with fish. 




Fig. 51. — Two large-mouth black bass. Taken in Orange Lake, Fla., with 
artificial plugs or bait. 



54 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

with what are known as "disappearing lakes" and witnessed the 
disappearance and reappearance of two of them — Lake Iamonia, 18 
miles north of Tallahassee, and Alachua Lake (also known as Paynes 
Prairie) 4 miles east of Gainesville. Under normal conditions these 
lakes of considerable area are filled with clear water and abound in 
fish of various kinds. In most instances after disappearing they refill 
slowly, depending upon the rainfall ; some have remained dry for 
years. I have seen fish lying dead by the thousand in the beds of these 
lakes after the water has drained. The area surrounding these sinks is 
more or less cavernous, with perhaps developed channels for a greater 




Fig. 52. — The beach at low tide, Daytona, Fla. 

or less distance in the subsurface limestone. Thus the small area of 
surface water and the subsurface solution channels afford a harboring 
place for a number of the fish and other aquatic life until such time 
as the lake refills. 

It so happened that during part of my stay at Tallahassee and 
vicinity the weather was cool and the turtles did not show themselves 
very often, but with the help of "Mose," a local farmer, and a leaky 
rowboat, I managed to collect a total of 12 turtles at Lake Iamonia, 
and with the cooperation of Dr. Gunter and Mr. Simpson, about 20 
turtles from near Tallahassee. Altogether I obtained 28 turtles and 
1,862 fish, among which were two large-mouth black bass weighing 
10 pounds 2 ounces and 10 pounds 3 ounces respectively and con- 
sidered very fine specimens. 



THE FRESH-WATER FISHES OF VIRGINIA 

By LEONARD P. SCHULTZ 
Curator, Division of Fishes, U. S. National Museum 

During 1937 and 1938 Earl D. Reid, also of the Division of Fishes, 
and the author spent 4 weeks on four different trips for the purpose 
of collecting fishes in Virginia. This field-work is preliminary to the 
laboratory study of Virginia fishes. The Smithsonian Institution fur- 
nished the traveling expenses for this field-work, and we hope to con- 
tinue our investigations until the entire area of the State has been 
explored. Collections have been made in the smaller streams and 
rivers of far western Virginia, along the southern border of the State, 
in the Pamunkey and Rapidan river basins, and in numerous tribu- 
taries of the Roanoke, James, and New Rivers. 

In Lewis Fork, a tributary of Fox Creek, near Mount Rogers, 
figure 53, several small native Salvelinus fontinalis were collected. It 
would have been impossible for us to have made this collection except 
for the guidance of J. M. Reeves, game warden at Galax. The splen- 
did cooperation of M. O. Hart, Executive Secretary, Commission of 
Game and Inland Fisheries of Virginia, and of various game wardens 
has made possible, and pleasant, our field-work in the State. 

Two conclusions are apparent from our field-work. First, fish-life 
is abundant in the upper courses of the streams in the mountainous 
areas, where the bottom offers protection for fish and is suitable for 
the production of fish foods. Such a stream is Crooked Creek, near 
Galax, figure 54. Second, there is a great scarcity of fish in those 
sections of many streams that have shifting sand bottoms, such as 
Leatherwood Creek, figure 55, east of Martinsville. In other similar 
streams no fish were taken by seining for a distance of half a mile. 

An interesting discovery was made in the distribution of the moun- 
tain sucker, Thobumia rhotheca, formerly known only from the 
James River system, but taken by us in the headwaters of the Mayo 
River, a tributary of the Roanoke system. Figure 56 shows one of 
us seining for this sucker in swiftly flowing water. Other unique 
fishes also have been collected by us, such as Parexoglossum laurae 
Hubbs, known only from the New River system, a cyprinid with a 
very peculiar mouth (fig. 57, A) resembling that organ in Exoglossum 
maxillingua (Le Sueur) (fig. 57, B). The latter species is commonly 
taken in the coastal drainage of Virginia, but not in the New River. 

55 



56 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 53. — Lewis Fork, of Fox Creek, near Mount Rogers, Va., from which 
native brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were taken. (Photograph by E. D. 
Reid.) 




Fig. 54. — Crooked Creek, near Galax, Ya. Many species of fish are found 
in this creek because of a fair quantity of food organisms on the gravel bottom. 
(Photograph by E. D. Reid.) 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



5/ 




Fig. 55. — Leatherwood Creek, east of Martinsville, Va. This stream has a 
bottom of shifting sand which makes food organisms scarce and in such areas 
practically no fish were found. (Photograph by E. D. Reid.) 




Fig. 56.- 



-Seining the mountain sucker, Thobunnia rhotheca, near Stuart, Ya. 
(Photograph by E. D. Reid.) 



58 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Several times I have heard accounts of spiders as fishermen, but not 
until this summer did I have the opportunity of verifying them. On 
the afternoon of October 12, in Marsh Run, about 9 miles west of 
Orange, Va., while sorting fish from leaves, some specimens were 
overlooked and tossed back into the creek along with the leaves. The 
minnows were alive, but sick, a few floating near the surface in normal 
position while they were recovering. A little later I saw a spider, 
subsequently identified by Dr. E. A. Chapin, Curator of Insects, 





A B 

Fig. 57. — A. the underside of the head showing the mouth of the cyprinid 
Parexoglossum laurae Hubbs ; B, the mouth of Exoglossitm maxillingua (Le 
Sueur). Both reproduced by permission of Dr. Carl L. Hubbs. 

U. S. National Museum, as Dolomcdcs taiebrosus Hentz, a few inches 
above the water line, with a minnow about 3 inches long, no doubt 
one of the sick fish released by us, held in its chelicerae. Upon my 
attempt to capture the spider and the fish, the former carried its 
victim a foot and a half up the vertical bank at which point both were 
forced into a collecting can. The minnow was held by the mid-dorsal 
region of its back, its head extended in front, and its tail backward, 
between the legs of its captor. The spider measured 3! inches from 
tip of one leg to the tip of the opposite one. 



CRUISE TO NORTHWEST GREENLAND, 1938 

By CAPT. ROBERT A. BARTLETT 

New York City 

I am always glad to go north for the Smithsonian because they 
think of so many interesting things to look for. They gave me a long 
list this year : walrus pups, narwhals, porpoises, birds, marine inverte- 
brates, and plants. Not only were birds desirable, but their skeletons 
and stomachs as well. A lot of useful information has come out of the 
"innards" of birds, for we know so little about their feeding habits 
and migrations which can often be traced through the food found in 
the crop. 

We had a complete outfit, thanks to a visit made to the National 
Museum by David Nutt, who took charge of the collecting. While 
at the Museum, he went over all the work in detail, and as a result, 
he turned in the best collections we have made in many years. In- 
cluding David, there were 13 young men who contributed toward the 
success of the expedition, both financially and by pitching in to do 
their share of the work. These were : David C. Nutt, Cleveland, 
Ohio ; Warner Kent, Scarsdale, N. Y. ; Albert Hoffman, East Nor- 
wick, Long Island, N. Y. ; Leo Silverstein, New York City ; Ray 
Hellmann, Scarsdale, N. Y. ; Arthur DeForest Manice, Old West- 
bury, Long Island, N. Y. ; George Moffett, Queenstown, Md. ; Hugh 
Byfield, Middleburg, Va. ; Arnold Knauth, New York City ; Dr. 
Moore Moore, Jr., Surgeon, Presbyterian Hospital, New York City : 
Don Clark, Radio, New York City; Bob Wurtz, Millburn, N. J.; and 
Rupert Bartlett, Newfoundland. 

Surface thermometer readings during each three hours were taken 
for the Hydrographic Office, and ice data were supplied to them daily 
by radio. Drift bottles with Hydrographic Office papers and data 
sealed in them were thrown overboard, to become the sport of winds 
and currents. During the many years that I have been in the eastern 
and western Arctic in the Morrisscy we have always done this, but 
not until 2 years ago, when we obtained some special sealing wax 
from Captain Hellweg, Superintendent of the Naval Observatory, 
did we begin to have good results. Now many more of our bottles 
are heard from again. Our instruments, also, are obtained from the 
Naval Observatory. 

59 



6o 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 58. — The Morrissey laying to in loose ice. 




Fig. 59. — The north shore of Makinson Inlet. Ellesmere Land. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



6l 




Fig. 60. — David Nutt inspecting the jars of material gathered in dredging 
with the otter trawl. 




Fig. 61. — Repairing our otter trawl. 



62 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

On June 19 we left the McWilliams Shipyard, West Brighton, 
Staten Island, arriving at Brigus the first week in July. Here David 
Nutt and Ray Hellman collected birds. At our next stop in Labrador, 
birds and plants were collected, and the freshwater pools were searched 
for fish and smaller creatures of various kinds. 

While we did not encounter ice in crossing from Labrador to 
Godhavn, Greenland, we were always near it. and when the visibility 
is poor, a thermometer is to the mariner what the trained dog, or 
"Seeing Eye," is to a blind man. Coming north over the West Green- 
land fishing banks, we saw many Portuguese and French fishing 
vessels, but there were no cod because of the nearness of the west 
coast ice. 

We stayed a few hours at Godhavn, only long enough to get fresh 
water and fill our oil tanks from the barrels carried on deck. Governor 
Rosendahl, as usual, did all he could to make our visit a success. Here 
again David had a chance for some collecting. 

As the National Museum was very anxious to obtain specimens of 
young and female narwhals, of which they had none in their collec- 
tions, we persuaded several natives to go hunting with us in Inglefield 
Gulf. Two females and one young were taken, also two males, of 
which the larger had a tusk 7 feet long. It is the largest narwhal ever 
to come to the National Museum. They are most interesting animals, 
with their long tusk, which is an enormous, spirally elongated develop- 
ment of a tooth. This tusk is apparently of no particular service to 
the animal, and being very brittle, it snaps off easily whenever it 
strikes anything hard. 

In Smith Sound we obtained our two walrus pups, and also had the 
good fortune to pick up skulls of three females which the Museum 
was glad to have for study purposes. Looking for the herd consumed 
much time. Once the pups were on board, we built a large wooden 
tank, caulking it to make it tight, so that the little fellows would have 
plenty of clean salt water. We gave them all the fish, milk, and meat 
they could stand. Keeping them in plenty of salt water where they 
could swim about and dive for their food was good for them. They 
were a joy to have and gave us lots of fun. 

Around Cape Alexander, Greenland, and in Murchison Sound we 
used the otter trawl, and so obtained a great deal of marine life from 
the sea floor. Trawling is a fascinating operation. All our boys were 
enthusiastic about it, especially when the net arrived on deck. 

Our farthest north was a few miles south of Cape Sabine. From 
Cape Sabine to Cairn Point the ice was in large, heavy, unbroken 
sheets 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



63 




Fig. 62. — The two walrus pups resting comfortably at bottom of tank on deck 
of the Morrissey. The water had been drained off for a short time. 




Fig. 63. — A polar bear wondering what all the noise is about. 



6j\. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

On the way home we followed the coast of Ellesmere and Baffin 
Land. Off Talbot Inlet we got eight ivory gulls. This is a bird of the 
high latitudes and so is very rarely collected. The Museum has never 
had skeletal material of this gull, and the scientists there were pleas- 
antly surprised to receive a series of specimens such as they hardly 
ever expected to see. We were also able to get some other desirable 
birds : purple sandpipers, dovekies, and Mandt's guillemots. 

Strong easterly gales in the early spring cleared the ice out of 
Melville Bay, leaving large stretches of open water. These were 
followed by southerly gales, raising big swells, which, in turn, broke 
up the shore ice along the Canadian shore. Under these conditions, we 
were enabled to go close in to the shore and, entering Makinson Inlet, 
found it as free of ice as the Potomac in August, except, of course, 
for the bergs from the glaciers that adorn the shores of this seldom- 
seen fiord. I believe that the Morrisscy's keel is the first that has 
graced these waters. The scenery, rivaling the fiords of Greenland, 
held us spellbound. We steamed for five hours in this grand fiord 
before returning to the mouth of it and continuing on south. 

The only landing made on Canadian soil was in a snug, deep-water 
cove inside the point that makes Isabella Bay, where in a strong wind 
and snowstorm we anchored in 24 fathoms of water on a soft bottom. 
Some of the lads went collecting, while the others helped with the 
watering. At dawn next day we hove up the anchor and for an hour or 
two steamed down the bay. There is nothing like a sunrise in this 
north country. It was an unforgettable sight, with the sun spreading 
its golden rays across the snow-clad mountains made whiter by the 
new-fallen snow. As the morning wore on, a pearly mist arose from 
the valleys toward the blue sky above, and the haze assumed a purple 
tint away to the northeast. It reminded one of a vale in Kashmir. 

For several days we cruised along the coast, stopping to take note 
of anything interesting. I had hoped to visit Totness Roads in Exeter 
Bay, but the opportunity of getting south in good weather was too 
good to miss. There was a great deal of ice on the outside, and any 
wind from the northeast would block our way to the south. 

\\ est of Cape Sable Island we got a male porpoise and a little later 
picked up our second one. a female from south of Xova Scotia. The 
National Museum is as anxious to obtain porpoises as any other 
animals that 1 got, because so little is known about their distribution 
and so tew are ever collected. 

At length we reached New York ahead of the disastrous New 
England hurricane with all the boys in good health and no accidents 
to them or to the schooner. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF VIRGINIA 

By AUSTIN H. CLARK 
Curator, Division of Echinoderms, U. S. National Museum 

Just because a certain kind of butterfly happens to be common in 
a given region it does not necessarily follow that it is really at home 
there. It may be a visitor. Regular summer visitors are rather numer- 
ous among Virginia's butterflies, including some of the commonest 
among them. All of these come from the south. Straggling individuals 
in the spring wander north from the Carolinas or from Tennessee and 
lay their eggs on the proper food plants. By the end of the season 
their descendents may be abundant over the whole State. 

On looking over some thousands of records, we find that the least 
sulphur (Terias lisa) , one of the very commonest butterflies in late 
summer and autumn, has never been found in Virginia before the 
end of May, when the second brood begins to appear. It is, therefore, 
only a summer visitor. All of the millions of individuals in the State 
die during the winter. Another butterfly very common all over Vir- 
ginia in late summer is the buckeye or peacock (Precis coenia). For 
this also our earliest records are in the latter part of May. But by the 
middle of July the buckeye is a familiar insect everywhere. These 
two are samples of the regular summer visitors from the south, butter- 
flies that every year become abundant in Virginia, only to be killed out 
at the end of the season by the winter's cold. 

Some visitors come from more distant regions. As an example, 
there is the painted lady (Vanessa carclui). This is the most widely 
distributed of butterflies. It is found all over Africa and over very 
nearly all of Europe and Asia, excepting the plains of India. In North 
America it has been captured in Alaska and in the region of Hudson 
Strait. It reaches Iceland more frequently than any other butterfly. 
Yet in North America it is not known to be a permanent resident 
anywhere north of Mexico. From its home in Mexico it is constantly 
wandering northward, establishing itself temporarily all over the 
United States, and even in Canada. 

Other visitors from the southwest find their way to Virginia. Some 
are very unusual, like the Ontario hairstreak (Strymoii Ontario) and 
the early hairstreak (Erora la eta), but others are more familiar. Once 
in a while wholly unexpected visitors turn up, usually from the south, 

65 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 64. — The southern monarch, Daimus plexippus nigrippus, Spring Grove, 
Surry Co., Ya., June 15, 1938. This southern form differs from true plexippus 
in having the apical portion of the fore wing dark, the subapical spots white or 
nearly white, and the small white spots in the black border of the hind wing 
obsolescent. 







Fig. 05. — Dukes' skipper, Atrytonc dukesi, male (left) and female (right), 
upper (upper) and under (lower) sides. Pocaty Creek, Norfolk Co., Ya., June 
14, 1938. A rare butterfly in collections, known hitherto only from Mobile, Ala. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



67 




Fig. 66.- — The viceroy, Basilarchia archippus archippus, Decatur, 111. 




Fig. 67 — The Florida viceroy, Basilarchia archippus floridensis, Miakka City, 
Fla., July 1900. Some from eastern Virginia are darker than this. 




Fig. 68. — Left, the Olympian marble, Zegris olympia, under side, west of 
Cross Junction, Frederick Co., Va., April 24, 1938. Right, the Virginia white, 
Pieris virginiensis, under side, west of Cross Junction, Frederick Co., Va., 
April 24, 1938. 



68 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

less commonly from the north. It is always a great thrill to get one 
of these lost wanderers, but actually they do not mean very much. 

The regular, or more or less frequent, visitors, however, are of 
considerable importance. For if you are really to understand the 
butterflies of any region you must be able to distinguish the permanent 
residents from the visitors ; and Virginia, with four faunal zones, 
with high mountain peaks offering favorable conditions for northern 
species, a broad coastal plain widely open to the south, and broad 
avenues coming in from the Mississippi valley, is most unusually 
tempting to visitors from all directions. 

No less than six additions were made to the list of Virginia butter- 
flies this year. Three of these were to have been expected, but three 
were wholly unexpected. 

In the middle of June, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Ernest L. 
Bell, we found Dukes' skipper (Atrytonc dukesi) (fig. 65), previously 
known only from Mobile, Ala., on Pocaty Creek, in Norfolk County. 
On the next day we took a southern monarch (Da nans plcxippus 
nigrippus) (fig. 64), not recorded from the United States, in Surry 
County, and later, early in September, found others in eastern Prin- 
cess Anne County. The third unexpected capture was the Florida 
viceroy (Basilarchia archippus floridcnsis) (fig. 67) not known from 
nearer than southern Alabama, which was common in eastern Princess 
Anne County early in September. 

The most interesting of the expected additions to the list was the 
very rare early hairstreak {Brora laeta), of which Prof. Lorus J. 
Milne captured a specimen at Mountain Lake, Giles County. One 
day in the latter part of April along a roadside in Frederick County 
I captured a Virginia white (Pieris zrirginiensis) (fig. 68, right). In 
western Frederick County we found the Olympian marble (Zegris 
olympia) (fig. 68, left) rather common. 

Somehow no account of Virginia butterflies seems quite complete 
without a mention of the magnificent diana fritillary (Argynnis 
cliana). Much to our surprise, we found this more numerous in 
Surry County on the coastal plain than we have ever seen it elsewhere. 
Mrs. Barnes, whose garden we examined, told us that she had seen as 
many as 25 at one time about her butterfly-bush. 

As in past years, we are under deep obligations to many of our 
friends who have generously furnished us with records of their cap- 
tures and turned over to us specimens of unusual interest. 



BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON THE SNOWFIELDS AXD 
GLACIERS OF ALASKA, 1936 

By ERSfiBET KOL * 
Sseged, Hungary 

Many travelers in Alaska have reported seeing red snow, and it has 
long been known that this phenomenon was caused by the presence of 
minute plants that live only in permanent beds of ice and snow. No 
scientific study of these microorganisms had been made, however, and 
it was for the purpose of conducting such a research and comparing 
the cryo vegetation (plants that grow on ice and snow) of America 
with that of Europe that I visited Alaska in the summer of 1936. 
Grateful acknowledgment is made to Dr. C. G. Abbot, Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, for the grant which enabled me to under- 
take this work. 

I left Seattle for Alaska at the beginning of July, going as far as 
Seward by boat and from there by train to Mount McKinley National 
Park, where I lived in Savage River Camp. Using this camp as a 
base, I visited the surrounding glaciers and snowfields that were 
within the radius of a day's journey on foot or horseback. On such 
excursions I was careful to make pH determinations of both snow- 
fields and icefields. I also made microscopic examinations on the spot 
as frequently as possible and always brought back living material in 
thermos bottles to be worked on later in camp. 

My first excursion was to the head of the Savage River. On the 
surrounding slopes grow beautiful iVlpine poppies and other flowers, 
and the many snowfields in this region yielded such characteristic snow 
algae as Chlamydomonas nivalis and Scoticlla nivalis. Because the 
surface was thickly covered with refuse and fragments from the 
slopes, however, the cryoplankton which elsewhere develops in such 
quantities as to color the surface was poorly represented. 

The valley of the Savage River is very large, but at one end it 
branches off into many small, steep gorges through each of which 

1 Holder of the Fellowship Crusade International of the American Association 
of University Women for the academic year 1935-36. The Alaska work was done 
under a grant from the Smithsonian Institution. Although the field-work was 
done in 1936, the report was not received from the author until June 1938. — 
Editor. 

6 69 




71 



/2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

rushes a mountain stream. W here these streams join to form the 
river lies a marshy plain, and here I found very interesting fresh- 
water algae. 

Another very interesting part of the Park is the Teklanika Valley. 
Into this large valley many glaciers descend, and these glaciers with 
their neighboring snowfields afford an excellent opportunity for the 
study of the effect of differing environment upon the ice and snow 
algae of the region. Such studies were continued throughout my 
Alaskan trip on the different mountain ranges visited. Throughout 
my stay in Mount McKinley National Park everything was done by 
the members of the Park Service, and particularly by H. J. Liek, the 
superintendent, to aid me in my work. 

From the Park, I went through Fairbanks to reach the greatest 
glacier of the Wrangell Range, the Kennicott Glacier. In the neigh- 
borhood of this glacier is one of the greatest copper mines in Alaska, 
the management of which invited me to be their guest. The surface of 
Kennicott Glacier is of clean ice, and here I found the characteristic 
ice algae unmixed with the snow algae which had been present on the 
glaciers of Mount McKinley National Park. A difference is to be 
found, too, between the vegetation of the higher and the lower parts 
of the glaciers of both regions, the snow of the higher part of each 
sustaining a mixed growth of both ice and snow algae, while on the 
lower part only pure ice microorganisms are to be found. 

From Kennicott I returned to the coast to continue my studies on 
the different snowfields and glaciers of the Chugach Range. When 
coming from Chitina 1 stopped at the Worthington Glacier from 
which I collected many ice algae, Ancylonema. My next center was 
the little port of Yaldez lying at the foot of Yaldez Glacier, from 
which it was easy to reach the snowfields and glaciers of the Chugach 
Range. 

The most memorable incident of the Alaskan trip was perhaps my 
visit to Columbia Glacier. To reach the ice, I had to take a motor boat 
to a small bay beside the glacier and then proceed by row boat along 
the river that flowed into the bay from the glacier at that point. When 
I stepped on the ice. I saw for the first time a phenomenon of nature 
to be seen only on coastal glaciers. The surface of the ice was covered 
for miles and miles with light brownish-purple algal vegetation called 
ice-bloom. This effect is produced by immense quantities of minute 
plants called Ancyclonema, a characteristic plant of the permanent ice. 
It can never lie found elsewhere, not even on permanent snow. Ancy- 
clonema belongs to the green algae first found by Nordenskiold on 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



73 




Fig. 75. — Teklanika Glacier, Mount McKinley National Park. 




Fig. 76. — Snowfields of Mount Robert above Juneau. 






Fig. 77. — Ice wall of the Mendenhall Glacier. 



74 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

the coast glaciers of Greenland. Since that time, this microorganism 
has been found in several different localities in Europe, and I have 
found it occasionally on the glaciers of the interior but never in suffi- 
cient quantities to form the ice-bloom of the coastal glaciers. 

Here I had the opportunity of studying another striking phenome- 
non of the permanent snow regions of Alaska — colored snow, espe- 
cially red snow. Above Valdez, around the Thompson Pass, the snow- 
fields glitter with a reddish color in the beginning of August. The 
snow was red not only on the surface, but also to a depth of several 
inches and even in one place to a depth of 2 feet, caused by the pres- 
ence of millions of tiny plants, Chlamydomonas nivalis. The snow on 
Thompson Pass looks as though it had been sprinkled with red pepper, 
differing in this respect from the red of other snowfields, which is 
usually a light raspberry red. 

The life of the microorganisms is not yet precisely known. Hereto- 
fore it has been necessary to conduct investigations in the field, as 
these organisms could not be cultivated in laboratories, and field-work 
in the regions of permanent snow and ice is greatly handicapped by 
the difficulty of transporting the necessary apparatus. However, a 
high mountain laboratory has been built in Switzerland on the Jung- 
frau Pass, 11,382 feet high, which is very helpful to research on 
cryovegetation. It would be necessary to build many more such 
laboratories in the vicinity of permanent ice and snow in order to carry 
on continuous study of life under such extreme conditions. 

After a fortnight's stay, I left Valdez by steamer for Juneau to 
continue my research in the Coast Ranges. The snowfields of the 
mountain above Juneau arc very interesting biologically. Here for the 
first time I saw masses of tiny snow fleas. The surface of the snow was 
gray, and the fleas were piled up about half an inch deep and were 
rushing about like bees in the hive. The whole mass was of a deep 
gray-violet color. 

1 visited Mendenhall ( ilacier and found there quantities of the Ancy- 
clonema, which I had aiso found on Valdez ( Ilacier. 

I left Juneau at the end of August and returned to Seattle, bringing 
with me for future study a large and interesting collection of snow 
algae from Alaska in small bottles preserved with formalin. 



EXPLORING A CAVE IN SOUTHWESTERN TEXAS 

By FRANK M. SETZLER 
Head Curator, Department of Anthropology, U . S. National Museum 

Through the generosity and anthropological interest of Laurence L. 
Wilson, the Smithsonian Institution was able to resume an archeo- 
logical program in southwestern Texas begun in 193 1. Previous ex- 
plorations in the Chisos Mountains, around the city of Alpine, and 
near the mouth of the Pecos River had resulted in establishing a fairly 
complete outline of the prehistoric cave-dwellers, their handicraft and 
their simple form of existence. The fact that they lived a rather 
nomadic type of life, seemingly isolated from their more advanced 
and sedentary neighbors, and the relative narrowness of their skulls, 
presented a host of anthropological problems. 

The writer, who had directed the previous excavations, left Wash- 
ington April 1, 1938. Thanks to the cooperation of R. E. McDonald, 
United States Department of Agriculture, at San Antonio, Texas, a 
small truck was again put at his disposal, which contributed largely 
to the success of the expedition. After consultation with the late 
sheriff of Terrell County, Lee Cook, and Judge W. F. Boggess, of 
Del Rio, the M. H. Goode ranch (fig. 78) was selected as headquarters 
for initial reconnaissance. Situated in the extreme northeastern corner 
of Terrell County and only a few miles west of the Pecos River, it 
was ideally located. 

Five memorable days were spent in the company of Mr. and Mrs. 
Goode and their son "Dune," while most of the larger canyons and 
tributaries were tramped over in search of suitable sites for excava- 
tion. Caves were examined along the Pecos River, Independence 
Creek, Richland and Big Canyons, and their smaller tributaries. 

In gratitude for the many personal favors extended by the owner of 
the ranch, the site selected (fig. 79) was officially designated as the 
"Goode Cave." It is located on the south side of Richland Canyon 
1 mile west of the ranch house and 4 miles west of the Pecos River. 
The cave faces approximately 15 degrees north of west, overlooking 
two small box canyons. 

After camp was established in a grove of cedar and persimmon trees 
(fig. 80) the first operation was to bisect the large mound of fire- 
cracked stones outside the overhang which was formed by the abori- 
gines living in the cave. Besides the angular, fire-cracked stones 
averaging in size about 6 cubic inches, it contained small quantities of 

75 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 78. — Richland Canyon, as seen from the mouth of Goode Cave. Camp 
in the center foreground. 




Fig. 79. — View of Goode Cave from floor of canyon. Note mound of stones 

in front of cave. 




Fig. 80. — Our outdoor kitchen and dining room. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 yj 




Fig. 81. — Mouth of Goode Cave. 




Fig. 82. — Nine feet of deposit above floor of Goode Cave. 



/8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

sotol ashes, an occasional flint knife, broken arrowheads, and a few 
clam shells. The ashes were very fine and powdery, penetrating 
everything, especially our eyes, when the wind blew from the wrong 
direction. 

Inside the cave ( fig. 81 ) our trenches were dug down to the live 
rock. Large boulders — from the ceiling — had to be broken or worked 
around when too large. In the second 5-foot section we began to 
realize how deeply these deposits had accumulated (fig. 82). We. were 
not only surprised at the depth of deposits, but amazed to find small 
natural alcoves at each side of the cave which were completely filled 
to the roof with occupational debris. One large rock had fallen from 
the ceiling during the time the cave was inhabited, and subsequently 
a large mortar hole had been ground into it. Near this hole we found 
an interesting roller type of pestle used no doubt for grinding seeds 
and perhaps corn, although no cobs were found. 

Because of numerous sotol plants in the region, the cave may have 
served as a ceremonial center where large quantities of sotol stalks 
were roasted and the liquid, extracted from these roasted plants, 
permitted to ferment in order to supply a mildly alcoholic beverage. 
Limestones were probably used in the process of roasting, which 
accounted for the unusually large deposit. The small amount of 
animal and fish bones within the cave may indicate that the site was 
used only as a temporary habitation. The similarity in artifacts, the 
lack of any European objects, and the absence of pottery vessels lead 
to the assumption that the people were culturally related to, and lived 
contemporaneously with, the cave-clwellers farther south and west. 
No cave in West Texas seemed so suitable for burial purposes, yet 
not a single human had been buried within the cave. Nevertheless, 
the depth of the deposits as well as the tons of fire-cracked stones out- 
side the mouth of the cave certainly indicate that the site was used by 
prehistoric man for many years. 

During a short visit to Carlsbad, N. Mex., a study was made of the 
cave material from the Guadelupe Mountains collected by R. M. P. 
Burnet, who assisted me in the excavation of the Goode cave. After 
seeing a few examples of sandals and coiled baskets in the Anthropo- 
logical Museum at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, the 
writer is convinced that the general Big Bend cave culture had a much 
wider distribution than heretofore conceded. This simple, non-pottery- 
making, seminomadic, prehistoric complex probably extends as far 
west and north as the central portion of New Mexico. Its exact rela- 
tionship to the other cultural complexes in the general Southwest has 
yet to be clarified. 



EXPLORATION IN THE ALEUTIAN AND THE 
COMMANDER ISLANDS 

By ALES HRDLICKA 

Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, U. S. National Museum 

With the 1938 expedition to the Aleutian and Commander Islands, 
ends the writer's tenth season of work in the Far Northwest. Begun 
in 1926 with a survey of the Yukon and a large part of the coasts, the 
explorations were gradually extended to the Kuskokwim and Nusha- 
gak Rivers, to the base and adjoining parts of the Peninsula, to Kodiak 
Island, and finally, since 1936, to the Aleutian chain and the Com- 
mander Islands. 1 Their still further extension into Siberia proved for 
the present unfeasible. 

The 1938 journey, undertaken at first with five and later with three 
volunteer students, began on May 21 at Seattle and ended at the same 
port August 25. The students who accompanied the expedition 
throughout were Alan May, of Wenatchee, Wash., a third-year 
veteran of these trips, and William Laughlin and William Clemes, of 
Willamette University, Salem, Oreg. 

The sea transportation was furnished throughout by the United 
States Coast Guard. The Service deserves great credit for their 
invaluable aid throughout these expeditions ; without this generous 
aid the carrying out of the tasks would have been impossible. 2 



1 For preliminary reports of the trips see the "Explorations and Field-Work 
of the Smithsonian Institution," 1926 (1927) to date. 

2 Cordial thanks this year are especially due to Capt. L. C. Covell, Chief of 
Operations of the Coast Guard, Washington, D. C. ; Capt. R. W. Dempwolf, 
Commander, and Capt. M. J. Ryan, Chief of Staff, of the Seattle Division ; 
Capt. J. A. Alger, Commander of the Bering Sea Patrol ; Capt. F. A. Zeussler 
of the Northland, and Capt. H. W. Stinchcomb of the Ariadne; to Capt. J. 
Trebes, Jr., of the Shoshone ; together with their fine officers and crews. Thanks 
are further due to Mrs. Margaret Pedler and Mr. Pedler, of Unalaska, to 
Mrs. Mary Benson and Mr. Benson, teachers at Nikolski, Umnak, and to 
Gordon Jones, Superintendent of the Alaska Packers Co. Cannery at Uyak, who 
provided the expedition once more with packing material and boxes. A grateful 
acknowledgment for important aid rendered to us with our housing at the 
island of Amchitka is due to the United States Bureau of Fisheries and 
Mr. Christofer, their Bering Sea representative. We deeply apprec'ate the aid 
received from Mr. Oumansky, Counselor of the Soviet Embassy in Washington, 
and from the Soviet representatives, as well as many others, on the Commander 
Islands. Had it not been for the friendliness of everyone, the results realized on 
this and former expeditions could not have been attained. 

79 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 





Fig. 83. — Lower site, Constantine Harbor, Amchitka Island. 




Fig. 84. — Stratified deposits, lower site, Amchitka Island. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



8l 




Fig. 85. — An Aleut burial (contracted position), lower site, Amchitka Island. 




Fig. 86. — -"Calico deposits," hill site, Amchitka Island. 



b2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The main objects of the 1938 expedition were, first, to obtain 
further light on the existence and extension, in the Aleutian Islands, 
of the pre- Aleut stock, evidences of which were encountered in our 
excavations in 1936 and 1937 ; second, to determine definitely whether 
or not the Commander Islands have served as a part of a second, 
southern, Aleutian chain bridge for the coming of man from Asia ; 
and third, to reexamine the burial caves found in 1936-37 and to 
search for several other reported caves of the same nature. 

The first visit was to the rock shelters on Shiprock, in the Unalaska- 
Umnak Pass, where numerous skeletons and mummies were obtained 
on the last day of the trip of 1937. The mummy shelter was seen to 
have been exhausted by us, but a large broken slab, which was cov- 
ered with dirt last year, had meanwhile been cleaned by rains, reveal- 
ing several petroglyphs of a peculiar character. And a whale scapula, 
which originally covered one of the mummies, was found to have been 
decorated with broad parallel lines in red. Both these features are 
unique in our experience in these islands. A day's excavation in 
nearby shelters on the Rock yielded several Aleut skulls and skeletons, 
three stone lamps of the interesting flat variety found for the first 
time in 1937, and other objects. 

The next visit was to Sviechnikov Harbor on the south shore of 
Amlia Island, where in 1937 human remains were found in several 
rock shelters. Two good days were spent here in reexamination of 
the shelters, exploration of a despoiled burial cave, and excavation in 
two sites located in the harbor. 

The third point which it was possible to revisit was the little 
island of Ilak where we satisfied ourselves there were no burial caves 
other than the two we had examined the previous year. 

The next stop was on the island of Amchitka. After a stormy night 
on the little Ariadne we were put off in Constantine Harbor, where 
there are a couple of small houses recently constructed by the Bureau 
of Fisheries and four native trapper dwellings, with an attractive little 
native church. There are no inhabitants on the island in summer. We 
found here two good sites, largely pre-Aleut, and had 3 weeks of 
assiduous excavation. This yielded, aside from a variety of cultural 
objects, several of the oblong-headed pre-Aleut skeletons, and, deep 
in the deposits, the first specimens found in these parts of the world 
of well-wrought deep stone pots and dishes. 

From Amchitka in another storm we were taken back some 
hundreds of miles to the village of Nikolski, on the island of Umnak, 
where we were kindly given accommodation by the local teachers, 
Mr. and Mrs. Benson. A short distance south of the school, across a 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



83 








Fig. 87. — The great pre-Aleut mound at Nikolski, Umnak Island. 




Fig. 88. — Stratification and disturbance of deposits, great pre-Aleut mound, 

Umnak. 



84 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

creek, is a hill 600 feet long, 250 feet broad, and 30 feet high, on the 
highest point of which, now marked by a stout Russian cross, stood, 
according to tradition, the first Russian chapel, and on which are now 
located two native houses and two semi subterranean dwellings. From 
this hill in 1937 we obtained three of the oblong-headed skeletons, 
and here, on the southeast side, we made in 1938 extensive and most 
fruitful excavations. These showed that the eastern main part of the 
knoll, if not all of it, was not a natural hill, as first supposed, but a great 
accumulation of human refuse. The maximum thickness of these 
layers on the south side, facing a lake, was found to be at least 
20 feet, and, what proved even more important, the whole except the 
surface dated evidently from pre-Russian times and belonged to the 
oblong-skulled pre-Aleut people. The 3 weeks spent at work here 
proved fruitful in every particular. We recovered a whole series of 
skeletons, some of which rested below 8 feet of deposits; deep in the 
deposits were found many fragments of large well-wrought stone pots 
of various shapes, resembling those of Amchitka; and we recovered 
many bone and stone implements, among them several 13- to 14-inch 
beautifully chipped black basalt blades, a series of excellent large 
bone harpoon points, and several decorated ivory articles. Notwith- 
standing some local spoliation, the bulk of this site, and especially its 
lower and most important levels, remains intact, and the whole site 
deserves to be set aside as a scientific reservation. 

From Umnak, late in July, we were taken by the United States 
Coast Guard vessel Shoshone to the Commander Islands. The visit 
to these islands occupied 5 days. The Russian authorities welcomed 
us, and the weather for once proved all that could be desired for our 
work. Accompanied by Lieutenant Lazarev, chief of the Border 
Guard in the islands, whose aid was very valuable, we were enabled 
to examine all the most likely locations for old settlements on both of 
the islands. We found a number of settlements, two of them — at 
Sarania and at Korabelni Bay — of considerable size, but on examina- 
tion, some digging, and from inquiries among the oldest natives, all 
the sites without exception were found to date from the Russian 
period, and to be those of Aleuts brought there in the earlier part of 
the nineteenth century from the Aleutian Islands by the Russians. 
Xot a trace of anything pre-Russian was seen or learned of on either 
Bering Island or Copper Island. Most of the places examined were 
so favorably located as to fine streams, lakes, and the seas, that, had 
there been any pre-Russian people on the islands they would certainly 
have settled there and left their remains ; but there is definitely nothing 
of that nature. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



85 




Fig. 89. — Deep pre-Aleut burial, below an undisturbed stratum of alluvial 
sand, in the great mound of Umnak. 




Fig. 90.- 



-Deep pre-Aleut burial, below undisturbed alluvial layer of sand, 
in the great mound of Umnak. 



86 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

It was necessary, therefore, to reach the conclusion that these 
islands had had no pre-Russian population, which sustains the previ- 
ously expressed opinions on the subject, especially that of Dr. L. 
Stejneger, of the United States National Museum, who between 1882 
and 1922 made several visits to the islands on biological quests. This 
result, though negative, is of substantial value. It removes beyond 
all conjecture any doubt on that moot point and establishes a solid 
fact which must be taken into account in all further work in these 
regions, and on the problem of the peopling of the Aleutian chain. 
It does not, however, do away with the probability of this chain having 
once received a direct native increment from x\sia. This increment 
mav have reached the chain from the Kuriles or from the north of 
Kamchatka. It did not. it is now certain, reach it from Kamchatka 
across the Commander Islands ; this throws a reasonable doubt on any 
early peopling of even the Kamchatka Peninsula. 

The whole Commander Islands' visit proved a rare treat. The 
islands are rich and highly interesting biologically, geologically, and 
in many other ways. 

From the Commander Islands we returned to the Aleutians, and 
our first stop was at the Four-Mountain Islands. There, after a day 
of "full gale," we were enabled to revisit the burial caves on Kagamil 
and explore the rough, volcanic region in the vicinity. A number of 
additional skulls and specimens were recovered, but it was determined 
that no further burial caves exist in this part of the island. 

The party was then able to spend another profitable day at Umnak ; 
we visited the famed Boguslav Island, which was found to be not 
only a wonderful aviary, but also what now is doubtless the greatest 
breeding ground in Alaska of the sea-lions, hundreds of which, roar- 
ing, surrounded and followed the two boats in which we explored 
the place. 

On August 15 we reached Dutch Harbor, Amoknak Island, and 
until the evening of the 17th excavated at our old site there, which 
since our departure in May had been badly vandalized. We left that 
same night on the Shoshone for Seattle, which was reached August 23. 

The trip this year capped the Alaska work begun in 1926. The 
total results of these expeditions, while already obvious in the main, 
cannot be definitely presented before this year's collections are more 
fully examined. They will not solve all the problems, anthropological 
and archeological, of Alaska ; but they will have paved with substantial 
facts a good part of a road which previously had been mostly but a 
trail of speculation. 



EXCAVATING THE INDIAN VILLAGE OF 
PATAWOMEKE (POTOMAC) 

By T. D. STEWART 

Assistant Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, 

U. S. National Museum 

In describing his trip up the Potomac river in 1608 Capt. John 
Smith states that one of the Indian villages on the west shore, named 
Patawomeke, had 160 to 200 able men (upward of 1,000 inhabitants) ; 
it seems thus to have been the largest village along the river at the 
time. According to Smith it was at Patawomeke that Captain Argall 
abducted Pocahontas in 161 2. We learn from this source also that in 
1622 Captain Crashaw spent some time here trading. After this we 
find little information regarding the village. The date of its abandon- 
ment remains unknown. 

Inspection of Smith's map of the Potomac River, on which Pata- 
womeke appears as a king's residence, shows that this village was 
situated on the north side of what is now Potomac Creek, near 
Marlboro Point. Stafford County, Va. The Virginia land records 
indicate that the land constituting the "Potomac neck" was patented 
around the middle of the seventeenth century. About this time "Marl- 
borough town," with a court house, came into existence less than a 
mile away from the Indian site. Thus it appears that the Indians 
rapidly gave way to such famous colonial families as the Brents, 
Fitzhughs, Masons, and Mercers. 

For many years students of Indian history have visited Marlboro 
Point to obtain potsherds and other artifacts. Archeologically the 
old village site here is important because of its known contact with 
the Jamestown colonists. No extensive excavations were undertaken, 
however, until 1935, when the late William J. Graham, Presiding 
Judge of the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, 
Washington, became interested. Working intermittently during the 
next 2 years, until his death on November 10, 1937, Judge Graham 
succeeded in locating three large ossuaries, two small burial pits, 
many post holes, trenches, etc. From the largest ossuary and one of 
the small burial pits Judge Graham recovered European objects : glass 
beads, iron, copper, and a silver cup made at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. In another ossuary he found what is probably 
the largest human skull yet recorded. 

87 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 91. — Marlboro Point from 5,000 feet. Accokeek Creek (left) flows 
into Potomac Creek (foreground) which in turn flows into Potomac River 
(distance). Indian village of Patawomeke was located at the lower end of 
fence row in foreground. Colonial town of Marlborough was located on river 
side of point. (Photograph by U. S. Army Air Corps.) 



"V"*".- . : ir .IgfKlir 












§p^R|» 


WJ^Hta^k "~ 1 ~~ '^1 



Fig. 92. — The road to Marlborough from Stafford. One of the deep cuts 
bearing witness to the fact that this road has been in use since the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



89 




Fig. 93. — This bit of masonry is 
said to be all that remains above 
ground of the colonial town of 
Marlborough. 



Fig. 94. — Post holes are one of 
the few remaining signs of the In- 
dian village of Patawomeke. 




Fig. 95. — The Late Judge William J. Graham shown removing human bones 
from an ossuary at Patawomeke. 



90 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Following Judge Graham's death, and in accord with his wishes, his 
collections from Patawomeke and their accompanying records were 
presented to the National Museum. Early in 1938, through the kind- 
ness of J. L. Pratt, of Fredericksburg, Va., permission was obtained 
to continue the investigation begun by Judge Graham. Since the 
writer had accompanied the latter on several occasions to aid in 
preserving skeletal remains, he was asked to take charge of the work. 
The sum allotted being rather small, it was decided to make the 
delimitation of the site the first objective. 

During the summer of 1938 five trips were made to Patawomeke 
(60 miles from Washington) for the purpose of re-establishing 
Judge Graham's system of squares, checking the locations of his 
trenches and making a topographic map. Beginning September 8, 16 
trips, 2 a week, were made to the site. During this period, with the 
aid of two local laborers and the trained assistance of Robert Ladd, 
of Washington, it was possible to remove 6,425 square feet of topsoil 
and examine the subsoil for signs of disturbance, such as post holes, 
pits, trenches, etc. 

Unfortunately, the eastern part of the site was placed under cultiva- 
tion during the fall. By the close of the season, however, we had 
obtained the outlines of what is probably the main part of the Indian 
site. Located on a 30-foot bluff just above a spring that is still in use, 
the village was surrounded by one or more circular stockades. What 
appears to have been the inner stockade had a diameter of about 175 
feet. We were not able to trace as completely the outer concentric 
rows of post holes, but these may extend the diameter of the village to 
280 feet or more. In this connection it may be recalled that some of 
John White's drawings of the period show Indian villages surrounded 
by circular stockades. 

The post holes which now mark the village outline appear as round 
dark spots in the yellow subsoil. When a post was removed, or was 
burned or rotted, its place was soon taken by surface soil and camp 
debris. Today when we uncover these old post holes they are found 
to contain soft black humus, potsherds, charcoal, animal bones, shell, 
etc. Typical holes are 3 to 4 inches in diameter ; they rarely penetrate 
the subsoil more than a foot. 

Although this brief season's work has broadened considerably our 
knowledge of Patawomeke, many details still remain to be cleared up. 
For instance, the entrances to the stockade have not yet been identi- 
fied ; the locations of the dwellings and ceremonial structures, the 
manner of their construction, and the nature of their furnishings are 
vet to be ascertained. 



ARCHEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE IN SOUTH- 
EASTERN COLORADO 

By WALDO R. WEDEL 
Assistant Curator, Division of Archeology, U. S. National Museum 

On August 14, following intensive excavations in western Missouri, 
the writer proceeded to Pueblo, Colo., to investigate caves reported 
to have disclosed traces of Indian occupancy. These reports, origi- 
nating from cowboys and pipeline workers, were expectably vague, 
but it seemed possible that some of the shelters might yield evidences 
of geologically ancient man. About 2 weeks were devoted to recon- 
naissance in the Purgatoire and tributary canyons, Las Animas 
County, and to brief inspection of several open sites in Baca County. 
During this work I was accompanied by L. L. Wilson, retired mining 
engineer from Manila, P. I.; my assistant, M. F. Kivett ; and at 
various times by local residents serving as guides. Among the latter, 
J. J. Breslin, of Higbee, was particularly helpful. 

In marked contrast to the surrounding flat High Plains, the region 
immediately adjoining the Purgatoire is surprisingly rugged, with 
sandstone plateaus cut by deep canyons (fig. 96). Here and there 
below the ledges forming the canyon rim are small overhangs and 
natural shelters. Several of these within 6 or 7 miles of the Model 
camp of the Colorado Interstate Gas Company were visited. On the 
low ceiling of a small shelter some miles to the southwest were 
simple red pictographs. From another at the head of a branch canyon 
to the southeast came the fragmentary skeleton of a young female 
accompanied by plain and incised tubular bone beads. In the shallow 
dirt floor were a few flints and cord-roughened, grit-tempered pot- 
sherds. Said to be identical with sherds previously found in other local 
shelters, these apparently were related to certain "Plains Mississippi" 
wares. A third and much larger overhang on the right rim of 
Purgatoire canyon about 3 miles east of the Model pumping station 
yielded corncobs, wooden foreshafts, nocked arrow fragments, painted 
and sinew- or grass-wrapped sticks, pumpkin seeds, a bone awl, and 
other remains. All finds were within 8 inches of the surface ; other- 
wise, the fill, which in places reached 3 feet, was culturally barren. 
Ledges in both the larger caves bore grooves and circular basins from 
food-grinding activities. Probably these can be ascribed to Indians 
who perhaps farmed nearby alluvial flats rather than to Mexicans. 

91 



9 2 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 







Fig. 96. — Canyon of the Purgatoire from large rock shelter under east rim 
about 25 miles east of Model, Colo. 








Fig. 97. — Site of cave near Dougherty ranch house, Chacuaco canyi 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



93 




Fig. 98. — Sunset on the Purgatoire. Spanish Peaks, 60 miles distant, on 

skyline at left. 



w """""* 



I^PJ|W"i* 




Fig. 99. — Farmstead and country road at Baca County, Colo. Blown fields 
beyond the buildings have yielded Folsom points. 



94 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Three days were spent in the Chacuaco-Plum creek canyons farther 
east. On a lofty butte near the Bob Dougherty ranch house a small 
cave was cleaned out (fig. 97), yielding bone and shell disk beads, 
small projectile points, mullers, and similar camp debris. Near the 
upper end of the "Red Rock" exposure in Plum canyon another small 
shelter was tested. Here, too, were seen crudely laid up walls atop a 
small steep butte on whose lower slopes were scattered a dozen or 
more crude boulder circles 8 to 15 feet across and up to 3 feet high. 
Arrowheads and chipped flints were plentiful nearby but no pottery 
was found. Similar structures are said to be fairly common on the 
less accessible elevations of the region, and locally they are known as 
"Indian forts." From our limited examination, an Indian provenience 
seems more likely than the suggestion that they were left by Mexican 
sheepherders. 

In Baca County, heart of the "dust bowl," we visited three open 
camp sites about 20 miles south of Pritchett. From badly blown fields 
(fig. 99) local collectors here claim to have taken Folsom and Yuma 
artifacts and, in one instance, remains of an extinct camel. Miscel- 
laneous flints, scrapers, knives, projectile points, and hammerstones 
were gathered by us, but nothing of demonstrably ancient date. On 
one site were small scattered piles of burnt and cracked stones ; others 
showed black soil areas suggestive of hearths. All sites examined 
were near dry watercourses or on old dried-up shallow lake beds. 

From Pritchett our party proceeded to Kenton, Okla., thence west- 
ward up the picturesque Dry Cimarron and over to Trinidad, en route 
making a fruitless side trip into Travaseer canyon east of Folsom, 
N. Mex. From Trinidad, where local collections of Folsom artifacts 
were examined, we headed east via Springfield to Lamar and Pueblo. 

In general it was found that ( 1 ) local rock shelters are mostly 
small and shallow, giving little promise of producing cultural remains 
as old as Folsom or Yuma are usually believed to be ; (2) local col- 
lectors unanimously aver that such ancient remains are exceedingly 
rare in the cave and canyon country, though many occur in the sandy 
blown-out region from Baca County north ; ( 3 ) occasional rock shel- 
ters do contain cultural vestiges which, while apparently not geologi- 
cally ancient, certainly merit careful scientific scrutiny before un- 
trained excavators destroy the record. 



EXCAVATIONS IN PLATTE COUNTY, MISSOURI 

By WALDO R. WEDEL 

Assistant Curator, Division of Archeology, U. S. National Museum 

Scattered along the timbered bluffs of the Missouri River from its 
mouth to a point near St. Joseph, Mo., are groups of small mounds in 
which excavation has revealed stone enclosures containing burials. 
Their age, origin, and tribal identity have long resisted interpretation, 
though from the uniformity of construction it has been thought by 
some that they were left by a single people moving up or down the 
valley. Below the mouth of the Osage River, such pottery and other 
materials as have been found in the chambers suggest affinities with 
remains usually termed "Woodland" in the eastern United States. 
Farther west there is less internal evidence, so that assignment of 
those in the Kansas City region to a given archeological horizon has 
been well-nigh impossible. During the summer of 1937, however, 
my investigations in southern Platte County had disclosed village 
sites with artifacts evidently related to the Hopewellian complex of 
the upper Mississippi drainage ; concurrently amateurs nearby re- 
ported the finding of similar pottery in a stone enclosure. With 
renewed hopes that some of the mystery still surrounding these struc- 
tures might finally be dispelled, I resumed excavations in May along 
the north bank of the Missouri between Parkville and Farley. 

Nine enclosures were examined ; all had been dug into previously 
and two were so hopelessly plundered as to give no reliable informa- 
tion. From the others it was established that the chambers vary from 
6 to about 9 feet across, square to oval in outline, and range from 2 
to nearly 4 feet deep. They consist of a carefully laid up mortarless 
wall of horizontal slabs, against which other large flat rocks were 
leaned. The area thus covered was about 15 feet in diameter. Some- 
where in the south half the wall is ordinarily broken by a narrow 
entrance passage. It is not certain whether the chamber was roofed, 
but if not it is difficult to understand the reason for a passage. Two 
mounds yielded the dismembered skeletons of perhaps a dozen indi- 
viduals, apparently of a medium-statured long-headed people. Al- 
though less than half the bones were actually burned or cremated, fire 
evidently played an important though undetermined role in the mortu- 
ary complex. Artifacts were very rare and inconclusive, but it was 
noted that shell-tempered smooth and incised pottery occurred in por- 

95 



9 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



kd&^^y 




Fig. ioo. — Ridge bearing- stone enclosures ; Missouri River in background. 




Fig. ioi. — Cross-section of burial enclosure, Nolan mound C. 




Fig. 102. — Xolan mound C, partially excavated. Note square burial chamber 
opening toward south ; also large leaning slabs and outer sheath of earth 
and stones. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



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98 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

tions of the structures which had been disturbed in pre-white days. 
In five mounds which were entirely excavated we found that earth 
had been piled against the large leaning slabs and that a mantle of 
smaller slabs had then been laid over the entire (?) mound to cover 
an area 25 or 30 feet across (fig. 102) . Without detailing the evidence, 
I am inclined to attribute the earth fill and outer slab sheathing to a 
later people than those who erected the original vault, perhaps to the 
same group which left shell-tempered pottery in the tombs. Although 
direct proof is mostly lacking, it seems likely, too, that the original 
structures in this vicinity were built by a people with Hopewellian 
affinities who were probably among the earliest potters and farmers 
in the eastern plains. 

Near Farley, on the right bank of the Platte River, a prehistoric 
village and cemetery with different cultural connections was explored. 
Here the natives dwelt in earth-covered partly subterranean struc- 
tures whose roofs were borne by four central posts. Shell-tempered 
pottery, often with incised lines, was abundant. Small modeled human 
heads and animal effigies occur on some vessels. Low recurved rims, 
angular to rounding shoulders, dippers, water bottles, and flat- 
bottomed vertical-walled bowls are other traits. Present also are 
small notched and unnotched points, scrapers, knives, drills, paired 
sandstone shaft buffers, the polished adz or gouge, effigy pipes, fine- 
grained sandstone ornaments, bone awls, socketed antler cylinders 
(handles?), deer jaw sinew stretchers, longitudinally pierced deer 
phalanges for cup-and-pin game, shell hoes, twisted cordage, maize, 
beans, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, and a few animal bones. In 
the nearby cemetery were more than 80 primary extended (fig. 103), 
bundle, and flexed burials, apparently of a short broad-headed popula- 
tion. Accompanying artifacts were scarce, but several restorable 
and one complete pot conclusively link the burials with the village. 
Near Smithville, a few miles up the Little Platte, similar vessels 
have been found recently by amateurs in a large earth mound, appar- 
ently with flexed mat- wrapped burials. Pottery (fig. 104) generally 
indicates close relationships to that found on certain so-called Middle 
Mississippi sites in southern Illinois and elsewhere. Though occa- 
sional trade pieces of this type have been coming to light even farther 
up the Missouri, no communities have heretofore been reported this 
far west. 

Gratefully acknowledged is the cooperation of property owners 
during the past two seasons in Platte County, and invaluable assistance 
given by J. M. Shippee and other local enthusiasts. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE ROUTE OF DE SOTO 

By JOHN R. SWANTON 
Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

During the greater part of the month of October and the first half 
of November, 1938, I continued reconnaissance work in the interest 
of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission. I left Wash- 
ington by automobile on October 3 with my son as driver and on the 
way south made another visit to Towns Hill near Walhalla, S. C, 
which I regard as the site of the Cheraw town visited by the Spaniards 
in 1540, and examined the lower end of the old Winding Stair Trail. 
The next stop was at Arlington, Ga., where Mrs. Wm. E. Bost- 
wick, Jr., assisted by a group of girl scouts, has been trying to identify 
land-marks on that part of De Soto's route which passed through 
Decatur, Miller, Baker, and Early Counties. Under her guidance a 
visit was made to a spring at the head of Alligator Creek in Baker 
County, which may be the White Spring where De Soto's army passed 
the night of March 17-18. It is in competition for that honor with 
Holyhead Spring, some miles to the west. 

From there we went to Tallahassee via Bainbridge, stopping at Mil- 
ford to photograph the Ichawaynochaway River, believed to be the 
River of Toa of the Spaniards. At Tallahassee I had the pleasure of 
meeting and consulting with Dr. Herman Gunter, the State Geologist, 
and with J. Clarence Simpson, who is well acquainted with Indian 
remains in the northwestern part of the State. Mr. Simpson accom- 
panied me to some neighboring sites including that of San Luis Mis- 
sion, the Lake Jackson mound group, and sites occupied by the 
Apalachee Indians in the direction of the Gulf. 

Going on south from Tallahassee, we stopped first to examine 
Aucilla River, former boundary of the Apalachee tribe toward the 
southeast, on the banks of which these Indians put up a stout resis- 
tance to their Spanish adversaries in the fall of 1539. We then pro- 
ceeded as far as the Withlacoochee and followed the road along the 
west side which must lie very near the trail followed by De Soto on 
leaving Tampa Bay. On the way back a brief stop was made at 
Ocala and a somewhat longer one at Lake Butler, the county seat of 
Union County. The Narratives would indicate a considerable Indian 
population here, but few signs of it were discovered. On the way back 
to Tallahassee a stop was made at Madison and several Indian sites 

99 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



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SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



IOI 




Fig. 107. — The Withlacoochee from bridge on State Route 74, Florida, not 
far from the place where it was crossed by De Soto in 1539. 




4 




Fig. 108. — Mouth of Boeuf River from launch, where it falls into the Ouachita 
River, La., supposed scene of De Soto's wanderings in 1542. 



102 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

visited under the guidance of Mr. Carlton Smith. On returning to 
Tallahassee another conference was had with Dr. Gunter and Mr. 
Simpson, and we then crossed the State of Alabama to Aberdeen, 
Miss., merely making a stop at Tuscaloosa to call upon the Alabama 
member of the Commission, Dr. Walter B. Jones. 

At Aberdeen I was met by Col. John R. Fordyce, of Little Rock, 
Ark., member of the Commission from that State, and was driven by 
him to various points of interest. In company with Dr. W. A. Evans, 
of Aberdeen, we made a further examination of the territory along 
the Tombigbee and visited a town site in Chickasaw County which is 
possibly that in which De Soto spent the winter of 1540-41, though 
it is a trifle far south. From this place we went to Helena, Ark., via 
Clarksdale and spent 2 days visiting sites along Crowley's Ridge 
believed to have been the location of the Province of Casqui in 
De Soto's day. On the way to Little Rock we stopped at some points 
on White River where trails are known to have crossed, because it is 
evident that the Spaniards used one of these in the summer of 1541 
on their way toward the south. 

At Little Rock I was the guest of Colonel and Mrs. Fordyce. Visits 
were made to the Menard Mounds east of Arkansas Post, possibly 
the site of the town of Quiguate, and the valley of the Little Missouri 
by which the Spaniards probably sought an exit to the south after 
leaving the Tula province at Caddo Gap. 

On October 26, Colonel Fordyce and I joined Miss Caroline 
Dormon, the Louisiana member of the Commission, and her sister at 
Jonesville. and we spent 2 days exploring the Ouachita and Tensas 
Rivers in launches kindly put at our service by Brig. Gen. Harley B. 
Ferguson, president of the Mississippi River Commission. Although 
the region which the Spaniards visited in the neighborhood of these 
rivers is plainly indicated, their exact movements are difficult to trace. 

A few days were taken up with a visit to Baton Rouge to consult 
with the geologists of Louisiana State University. Drs. Russell, Fisk, 
and Huner, and the archeologist, James A. Ford, regarding the late 
geological history of the lower Mississippi valley and the relation 
of the archeological remains to it. This conference proved to be of 
the utmost value. Mr. Ford brought me back to Alexandria, and on 
the way gave me a chance to examine the Coles Creek site near Marks- 
ville which is being excavated under Mr. Ford's direction under a 
large grant from the WPA. 



ON THE TRAIL OF ANCIENT HUNTERS IN THE 

WESTERN UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA 

By FRANK H. H. ROBERTS, JR. 
Archeologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Search for further information on Folsom Man, the aboriginal 
nomad who hunted big game on the western plains during the closing 
days of the Glacial Period, was continued throughout the summer of 
1938. Excavations at the Lindenmeier site in northern Colorado, 
where previous investigations had revealed the remains of a camp 
once occupied by that early New World inhabitant, comprised a major 
part of the season's work. After the termination of the digging the 
writer visited sites in Nebraska, Wyoming, and Saskatchewan, Can- 
ada, where local collectors have found implements indicative of the 
Folsom or some presumably associated complex. 

When the Bureau of American Ethnology-Smithsonian Institution 
Expedition had established camp at the Lindenmeier site (fig. 109), 
activities were resumed where the excavating was stopped at the end 
of the 1937 season and were continued until six additional parts of 
the area had been examined. Despite an unusually stormy summer 
(fig. no), and the handicap of numerous heavy rains, some of cloud- 
burst proportions, a total of 3,500 square feet of the original surface 
of occupation was uncovered. Removal of the overburden (fig. in), 
ranging from 3 to 8 feet in depth, exposed various concentrations of 
stone implements, cut and split animal bones (figs. 112, 113, 114), 
the remains of several hearths, and places where stone chippers had 
fashioned different kinds of tools from nodules gathered from the 
surrounding countryside. The collection of specimens obtained in- 
cludes several new types of knives and scrapers in addition to typically 
fluted points and other implements similar to those found in former 
years. There is also a series of bone fragments bearing incised lines, 
indicating that the people had a simple form of geometric art, and 
there are bits of polished bone suggesting that tools were made from 
that substance as well as from stone. 

The hearths were not well-made fire pits. They were either simple 
depressions in the earth or merely places where fires had been kindled 
on the surface. Most of the animal bones are from bison, the 
extinct taylori, although there are some from deer and antelope of as 
yet undetermined species and from smaller mammals such as the fox 

103 



io4 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 109. — Expedition camp at the Lindenmeier Site. (Photograph by Charles 

R. Scoggin.) 




Fig. 1 10. — Electrical storms were frequent during summer of 1938. This pic- 
ture was taken at 11:30 P. M. (Photograph by Charles R. Scoggin.) 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



I05 




Fig. hi. — The overburden being removed, layer by layer, from sections con- 
taining bone deposits. (Photograph by Charles R. Scoggin.) 





-f . . ■■■■.-■ 



?%£& 






Fig. 112. — Plotting and photographing bones and stone implements before their 
removal. (Photograph by Charles R. Scoggin.) 



IOO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

and jackrabbit. At some distance from the main diggings a portion 
of a mammoth tusk, together with some small splinters from split 
bones and some pieces of charcoal, was found in the same horizon as 
the other material. There were no implements or stone flakes in 
association with the tusk, and as a consequence it cannot be stated 
definitely that the creature was killed by the people who hunted the 
bison and other animals. There was nothing to indicate that the 
tusk and bone splinters were rolled or washed into the location where 
they were found. The edges are sharp and show no marks of abrasion. 
Evidence from other places has demonstrated that Folsom Man preyed 
on the mammoth, and it is possible that the dwellers at the Linden- 
meier camp did likewise. The tusk at least shows that mammoth were 
in the vicinity at approximately the same time as the Folsom men, 
an occurrence previously suspected but for which there was no proof. 
One of the main objectives of the expedition, the recovery of a human 
skeleton, was not attained. Thus far not one bone attributable to man 
has come from the excavations, and the physical characteristics of the 
people are still unknown. 

The sites visited in Nebraska are located in the southwestern corner 
of the State in Chase and Dundy Counties. All those seen by the 
writer are "blow-outs/' places where constant action by strong winds 
has swept away areas of surface soil exposing the underlying stratum 
of harder, claylike earth. The artifacts — points, scrapers, knives — 
are found lying on these exposed surfaces. Folsom type points occur- 
ring there are quite like those from the Lindenmeier site. In addition 
there are numerous long, narrow, thick-bodied points with a triangular 
or oval cross-section that have been given the name Yuma. The latter 
are a complicating factor in that their meaning is not clear. They may 
belong to the Folsom series or be an indication of another complex. 
They are found in association with Folsom material in some localities, 
but in others they are not. Only a very small percent of the points 
from the Lindenmeier site can be regarded as having Yuma character- 
istics, and the majority of these come from higher levels. Hence for 
that district they can be regarded, at most, as demonstrating a very 
late contemporaneity between the two forms. Information, from the 
Nebraska sites contributes little toward answering the relationship 
question because no digging was done. 

On the strength of information from D. B. Hilton, of Sundance, 
Wyo., the writer went to that place to investigate the finding of two 
Yuma type points and a series of five bison skulls. The discoveries 
came as the result of work on an earth dam across Sundance Creek 
just east of the town. The points were at the bottom of the soil zone 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



I07 




Fig. 1 1.3. — Chopped and split bones in place before removal. Measuring stick 
is 2 feet long. (Photograph by author.) 




Fig. 114. — Bones and stone tools in situ. Small numbers indicate location of 
implements. (Photograph by author.) 



10© SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

that forms the present floor of the valley. When first seen they were 
protruding from the bank of the stream 2 feet below the present 
surface and several feet above the water line (fig. 115). They were 
just above a bed of hard red clay that forms the substratum for the 
area. The bison skulls were scooped out by a grader gathering dirt 
to be used on the dam. They were together, forming a single group, 
and no other bones accompanied them. They came from the same 
horizon as the points, and although conclusions cannot be formed 
from material not actually in situ, it seems reasonably certain that 
they belong to the same period of deposition as that represented by 
the points. The skulls are definitely those of modern buffalo. Numer- 
ous flakes and chips of stone, pieces of charcoal, and traces of ashes 
occur at the same level. These suggest a surface of occupation and 
the possibility of the remains of a camp nearby. 

There are several places in the vicinity of Sundance where stone 
artifacts are found on the surface, and many local residents have 
sizeable collections gathered from them. All of these were seen and 
studied and a dozen more Yuma points, either complete or represented 
by easily identifiable fragments, noted. There were no points or frag- 
ments of the Folsom type. The collections also contain many examples 
of the barbed arrowheads so widely used by the Plains Indians, as 
well as knives and scrapers, none of which exhibit characteristics of 
the Folsom tools of similar form and purpose. One group of points 
from a single location on a hillside a short distance from Sundance is 
of particular interest because all are of the same type as an example 
obtained from a stratum lying 2 feet above the Folsom layer at the 
Lindenmeier site. They apparently are older than the ubiquitous 
barbed arrowhead, but are much later than Folsom. Their occurrence 
with Yuma specimens indicates that in the Sundance area, at least, 
there was a much later survival for the Yuma than for the Folsom. 

In the vicinity of Mortlach, Saskatchewan, are a number of "blow- 
outs"' that developed as a concomitant of the droughts and high winds 
prevailing there in recent years. They are much like the "blow-outs" 
in the plains districts farther south in the United States. At various 
places the completely dried out top soil has been swept from the sur- 
faces of fields, exposing a hard, grayish-black, sandy-clay deposit. 
Animal bones and stone implements are weathering out of this sub- 
stratum (fig. 116), and large collections of points and other tools have 
been gathered by local people interested in Indian artifacts. The exis- 
tence of these sites was called to the writer's attention in the autumn 
of 1937 by Kenneth F. Jones, of Mortlach. Letters and pictures sent 
by Mr. Jones indicated that he had found portions of Folsom points, 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



IO9 




Fig. 115. — Bank where Yuma points were found near Sundance, Wyo. Loca- 
tion was at left of standing figure. ( Photograph by author. ) 




Fig. 116. — Exposed surface in "blowout'' near Mortlach, Saskatchewan. 
Light spots in foreground in front of standing figure are bones weathering 
out of the sandy-clay. (Photograph by author.) 



110 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

numerous examples of the Yuma, and other implements suggestive 
of an older horizon than that of the recent Indians. 

Air. Jones took the writer to the places where he obtained the 
various specimens comprising his extensive collection. Most of them 
lie to the north of Mortlach, but some are to the west and the south. 
The district is typically plains land, mainly flat, although there is 
some slightly rolling terrain. The area north of the town, where the 
best artifacts occur, suggests the former existence of a series of 
shallow lakes or ponds, marshes, and bogs extending in a northwest 
to southeast direction. These no doubt attracted game animals and 
their shores would provide good camping places for the people hunt- 
ing them, which probably accounts for the presence of the extensive 
remains of both. Most of the bones scattered over the surface and 
weathering out of the bottoms of the "blow-out" basins appear to 
be from bison, although other smaller forms are present. Many of 
the bison bones correspond in size to those from modern buffalo and 
may represent that animal. Others are larger and may possibly be 
from one of the extinct forms. To settle this question, it would be 
necessary to obtain by excavation those portions of skeletons on which 
species identification is based. Only a few points and fragments of 
Folsom type, five or six at most, have been found in this region, but 
there are literally hundreds of the Yuma and barbed forms. Most of 
the specimens have been picked up from the surface, but a few have 
been scratched out of the top of the exposed substratum. 

The constant association between Yuma and barbed types should 
not be stressed too strongly at this time ; the latter could have been 
in higher levels and dropped down to the top of the hard layer as the 
overlying soil was blown away. Yet the writer dug one barbed 
example from the substratum and found another partially embedded 
in it. On the other hand, many Yuma pieces lying loose on the surface 
have been picked up by collectors. In view of this, coupled with the 
indications at Sundance, it seems that a somewhat later horizon is 
indicated than is the case where points are predominantly of the 
Folsom type. The Mortlach sites are important, however, because of 
their size and the amount of material present in them and because 
there is the possibility of finding places along the edges of the "blow- 
outs" where excavation would reveal stratified deposits and produce 
evidence on the sequence of the different forms of implements. They 
extend the range of Folsom and Yuma artifacts well toward the north 
along the supposed avenue of migration for peoples coming over from 
Asia, and investigations in the Mortlach district may furnish much 
needed data on the Yuma problem. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE IN SOUTH 

AMERICA 

By JULIAN H. STEWARD 
Associate Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

En route to Ecuador and Peru to spend several months during the 
summer of 1938 in anthropological reconnaissance, a visit was made 
to the picturesque ruins of Old Panama (fig. 117), a few miles south 
of modern Panama City. Founded in 15 19 and sacked by Morgan, 
the English pirate, in 1 671, this large town had flourished and passed 
into history before the sites of most cities of the United States had 
been visited by white men. 

Surprising and gratifying results came from this visit to Old Pan- 
ama. It was found that the site has archeological importance as well 
as historical appeal. During the century and a half that the city 
had been occupied, refuse such as accumulates around any site in- 
habited by people had been piling up on the ground. Broken and 
discarded tiles, bits of pottery, bones, and many other objects were 
scattered through the earth. After the town was abandoned, the 
Pacific ocean began to encroach upon part of the refuse, eating it 
away and leaving a vertical face or cliff some 6 to 8 feet high. In the 
cross-section thus exposed, many fragments of unmistakably abori- 
ginal Indian pottery were abundant at and near the bottom of the 
refuse but disappeared toward the top. The archeological story was 
plain. When the town was founded, Indians were amongst its popu- 
lation and at first made their own native style of pottery. After a 
generation or two, however, they learned to make glazed pots of the 
Spanish style and forsook their own ware. 

Though not spectacular, this Indian pottery has great importance 
for archeology. It is one of the oldest pottery types of known date 
in Panama and will serve, therefore, to date strictly Indian sites in 
which it is found. It will also provide an important datum point 
for determining the sequence of Indian pottery styles in the region of 
Panama. 

The trip was resumed by boat to Guayaquil and thence by train to 
Quito, the beautiful capital of Ecuador situated at. 9,500 feet in the 
Andes. Subsequently, a visit was made to Cuzco located at over 11,000 
feet in the Peruvian highland. In both nations, the bulk of the moun- 



112 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 117. — The ruins of Old Panama, built in 1519 and the oldest European city 
on the American mainland, cover a hidden story of archeology. 




itfe 



Fig. 118. — Llamas, well adapted to high altitudes, graze at 14,000 feet in 
the Peruvian Andes. Though only 14 degrees south of the Equator, large 
glaciers cap the i8,ooo-foot peaks in the background. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



113 




Fig. ik 



-Musicians and bearers of fireworks lead a religious procession 
through the Ecuadorian highland village of Pillaro. 




■g^:' "$*•<*. 





1 * ^-y# . v 





Ilk 



Fig. 120. — Crumbling adobe walls of the ghost city of Cajamarquilla, believed 
to have been built for the dead and not for the living, cover a square mile. This 
prehistoric site is on the Peruvian coast near Lima. 



114 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

tain population is Indian. These people are true Highlanders, for many 
hundred thousand live above 10,000 feet altitude, and villages may 
even be encountered at more than 14,500 feet — higher than the highest 
point in the United States. But the Indians seem well adapted to the 
thin mountain air which causes great discomfort to lowland-born 
white men. 

The Indians of the Andes speak Quechua and once shared a high 
aboriginal civilization, most commonly known as Inca after its ruling 
family of late prehistoric times. Though many European customs 
have been adopted by these Indians, four centuries of contact with 
the Spanish have not served to eradicate features that flourished long 
before Pizarro's conquest in 1532. Such important aboriginal prod- 
ucts as potatoes and corn are grown along with wheat and other 
cereals of European origin. Llamas continue to outnumber other 
beasts in the high altitudes to which they are suited (fig. 118). The 
Indians still weave with remarkable skill, especially in Peru, where, 
in pre-Columbian epochs, some of the world's finest textiles were 
produced. The woven poncho, often brightly colored according to 
local styles, continues to be the favorite garment, and native woven 
sandals are the main footgear — though pieces cut from old tires now 
threaten the popularity of the latter. 

Should one visit an Andean village on the day of the patron saint 
or of some other religious fiesta — and these are frequent, as the entire 
population has embraced the Catholic religion — he would find the 
Indians devoting themselves with boundless enthusiasm to the festiv- 
ities. The main out-of-door event is a colorful and often noisy pro- 
cession. The processions are somewhat stereotyped (fig. 119). The 
padre leads the parade, perhaps on horseback. Next come the musi- 
cians, consisting of a fife and drum corps, followed by men bearing 
effigies of chairs, automobiles, ships, and various other objects 
sketchily constructed of bamboo. As the procession strolls through 
the narrow streets and several times around the plaza, on which the 
church invariably fronts and where the spectators have gathered, 
home-made sky-rockets affixed to the bamboo effigies are shot off 
from time to time, punctuating the music and delighting the crowd. 

Other assemblies are held weekly or monthly when the people of 
each district gather to exchange produce and every conceivable variety 
of object in the market. 

Visits were also made to many of the archeological sites of Peru. 
These monumental aboriginal works are even more impressive than 
the incomparable specimens of pottery, textiles, and metals which have 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I938 



"5 




irfg^SferiSfltefei 



Fig. 121. — Sacsahuaman, built on a hill overlooking Cuzco, Peru, is a splen- 
did example of megalithic construction. Though commonly called a "fort," 
these walls, a mile in circumference, were probably a religious structure. 




Fig. 122. — Many modern buildings of Cuzco incorporate prehistoric masonry. 
The dark portion of the wall is the Inca Sun Temple, over which was built 
the Convento de Santo Domingo. This room is alleged to have been nearly 
filled with gold to ransom the Inca from Pizarro. 



Il6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

been dug from them and are exhibited in museums in all parts of the 
world. Archeology as well as historical documents left by the con- 
quistadores evince an extraordinarily great and powerful native popu- 
lation. The ancient cities, which are built of adobe on the coast and 
are so numerous as to be local commonplaces, are many times larger 
than those of any North American Indians, their tumbled walls often 
covering scores of acres. The rooms, enclosures and mounds of Caja- 
marquilla, for example, a small portion of which appears in figure 120, 
occupy a square mile. Cajamarquilla is not only astonishing for its 
magnitude but has the peculiar interest, according to some local 
authorities, of having been built for the dead, not the living. The 
deceased were elaborately interred in the floor of each room. 

Highland construction was primarily of stone, and many of the 
sites are renowned for the size of the building- blocks and the skill 
with which they were fitted (fig. 121). Modern Cuzco, which prior to 
the conquest was long a center of Inca and pre-Inca civilization, has 
today scarcely a building the walls of which do not include the masonry 
of some prehistoric period. The Convento de Santo Domingo, for 
example (fig-. 122), has incorporated the complete Inca Sun Temple, 
famous in history for allegedly having been filled two-thirds full with 
gold as the ransom demanded by Pizarro for the release of the Inca 
whom he had treacherously captured. 

No less interesting than the ruins are the evidences of prehistoric 
agriculture. In these days of discussion and controversy about such 
agrarian matters as dust bowls and marginal land, it is astonishing to 
view the extensive land-utilization of ancient Peru. The pressure of 
that huge population which had made possible the construction of 
cities, temples, and mounds, and which is reckoned to have surpassed 
the present population in size, required utilization of land which today 
would be considered less than submarginal. Miles of steep and arid 
mountainsides were laboriously terraced and water carried for leagues 
in aqueducts to provide a few extra acres of arable land. 

Thanks must be extended to innumerable officials and scientists of 
both Ecuador and Peru and to many other friends for their kindness 
and helpfulness on this trip. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



EXPLORATIONS ANDFIELD-WORKOFTHE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1939 




(Publication 3586) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

APRIL 3, 1940 



£0e Jioro QjJafftmore (preee 

BALTIMORE, MD., D. S. A. 



PREFACE 

This pamphlet is intended as a preliminary announcement of the 
results of the year's field expeditions. The scientific results will be 
presented in technical form in the various other series published by 
the Institution. 

All the work of the Smithsonian Institution is directed toward the 
"increase and diffusion of knowledge." In certain of the branches 
of science in which the Institution has been particularly active — - 
geology, biology, and anthropology — field work plays an important 
part by furnishing additional collections for laboratory study and 
by giving opportunity for first-hand observations .on the ground, so 
essential in the prosecution of these sciences. 

The photographs presented herein were taken for the most part 
by the authors of the various articles. 

W. P. True, Editor. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Bartlett, Robert A. Greenland expedition of 1939 57 

Benn, James H. Quarrying fossil sea urchins 21 

Bridge, Josiah, and Cooper, G. Arthur. Collecting fossils in Utah, Nevada, 

Texas, and the Midwest 9 

Clark, Austin H. Butterflies of Virginia 63 

Cooper, G. Arthur. Collecting Ordovician fossils in the Southern Appa- 
lachians 17 

Deignan, H. G. Bird study in European museums 41 

Fenton, William N. A further quest for Iroquois medicines 93 

Foshag, W. F. Quest for gems and minerals in Mexico 1 

Gazin, C. Lewis. The third expedition to central Utah in search of 

dinosaurs and extinct mammals ; 5 

Hrdlicka, Ales. Anthropological studies in England, Russia, Siberia, and 

France, 1939 y^ 

Killip, Ellsworth P. Botanical exploration in Colombia 67 

Mann, W. M. Bringing live animals from the Argentine 25 

Perrygo, W. M. Collecting birds and mammals in North Carolina 27 

Roberts, Frank H. H., Jr. Excavations at the Lindenmeier site contribute 

new information on the Folsom complex 87 

Schmitt, Waldo L. Hancock expedition of 1939 to the north coast of South 

America 51 

Schultz, Leonard P. The Navy surveying expedition to the Phoenix and 

Samoan Islands, 1939 45 

Stewart, T. D. Further excavations at the Indian village site of Pata- 

womeke ( Potomac) 79 

Wedel, Waldo R. Archeological explorations in western Kansas 83 

Wetmore, Alexander. An ornithologist in southern Mexico 31 



QUEST FOR GEMS AND MINERALS IN MEXICO 

By W. F. FOSHAG 

Curator, Division of Mineralogy and Petrology 

U. S. National Museum 

In continuation of previous work in the mining districts and min- 
eral localities of Mexico, I visited some new localities and revisited 
some old ones where desirable material had been reported. It was 
planned to visit, by car, a number of smaller mining districts, remote 
from the railroad lines and main highways, which gave promise of 
yielding unusual material. Owing to the condition of the roads and 
the state of the mining industry of Mexico, however, my program 
could be carried out only in part, and more time was spent at accessi- 
ble localities. 

Among the places visited was Diente, a small district lying in a 
rugged range of limestone mountains that extend from Monterrey 
to the valley of Saltillo. It is chiefly interesting because of the geo- 
logic structure of the rocks that contain the lead-zinc ores. A simi- 
lar occurrence of lead-zinc ores is found at Higueras, near Saltillo. 
Mining operations at this place have been reduced to the production 
of iron oxide ores for fluxing. 

From Saltillo, I went to Ojuela, near Mapimi, in the state of 
Durango, a famous old mining district now in its last stage of ex- 
ploitation. I had visited this mine in 1926, when it was in fullest 
operation, but the active mining was confined to the lower sulfide ore 
zones (now under several hundred feet of water). The reopening 
of the upper oxide ore zone by Mexican miners working on a small 
scale provided a last opportunity to obtain specimens from this zone, 
one in which the finer minerals are usually found. The extent of 
the mine workings at Ojuela are tremendous, for the ores were 
abundant and yielded rich returns. It is reported that there are 
about 200 miles of tunnels in this single mine. The mine workings 
are situated at the base of a high limestone bufa (cliff), 3,000 feet 
high and unscalable along most of its front. The name Ojuela ("little 
eye") is derived from one of the limestone spires of the cliff that is 
pierced by a small hole, suggesting the eye of a needle. To go from 
level to level in the mine, one must now use notched beams called 
"chicken ladders," and the search would have been difficult without 
the aid of the Mexican miners who knew the location of many pockets 
of the unusual ores. 

1 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. i. — Hauling mining machinery by oxcarts. Heavy supplies are often 
transported in this manner. 



>$ 




Fig. 2. — Pack burros transporting ore from the mine to the mill. Cusihuiri- 
achic. These sturdy animals are much used for this heavy work. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 




Fig. 3. — The cathedral at Durango, built with the silver from the bonanzas 

of Guarisamey. 




Fig. 4. — A cactus-linecl road near Zimapan, Mexico. This cactus is useful 
for impenetrable fences and hedges. 



4 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The yield included a number of unusual arsenate minerals, some 
very rare, others well crystallized, and groups of scorodite, an arsenate 
of iron — the finest, I believe, yet to have been found. There were 
also specimens of fluorite of various colors, some clear and flawless 
and suitable for optical purposes, and others of a fine wine-red color 
suitable for gems. 

From Ojuela, I attempted to reach by automobile the Sierra de 
Banderas, where large sulfur deposits are known to exist. The road 
led over a "barreal," or mud plain, and since this was the season 
when one could expect sudden and violent storms, we proceeded with 
one eye on the sky. When we were within sight of our objective, 
a tremendous storm broke. The deluge, fortunately, caught us on 
a small gravelly knoll, where we spent the night. The surrounding 
terrain was converted into a sea of soft, tenacious mud, and we spent 
almost the entire next day in returning to the main road 12 miles away. 

Another prolific locality was Cerro Mercado, the famous iron 
mountain and Mexico's chief source of iron ore, just outside the 
city of Durango. Here huge banks of high-grade iron ore are mined 
by open quarry methods. These quarries are famous for their fine 
clear yellow apatite crystals, which are found in scattered pockets, 
in the mineable material, and I was fortunate in arriving at a time 
when these crystals were being obtained in unusual size as well as 
numbers. Many of these crystals are clear and flawless, of a sparkling 
yellow color, and are suitable for gem cutting. 

A visit was made to Guanajuato, primarily to inspect the mineral 
collection of the late Don Ponciano Aguilar. Guanajuato is the center 
of an important mining area and has been the greatest producer of 
silver in the world. The rich ores consisted of beautifully crystallized 
silver minerals — argentite, pyrargyrite, polybasite, and others — but 
desirable museum specimens are now available for purchase only in 
an occasional old collection. 

The mineral deposits of Mexico have received comparatively little 
attention from mineralogists, and precise information of the character 
of the ores from even some of the most prolific mining districts is 
very meager. Field work by the Smithsonian Institution, carried on 
intermittently since 1926, has resulted in the accumulation of the 
greatest collection of Mexican ores and minerals extant. During 
the 15 years this survey has been in progress, important mining dis- 
tricts have become exhausted and the minerals and ores are, even 
now, no longer obtainable. This material will be made the basis of 
two reports, one on the ore deposits and another on the minerals of 
Mexico. 



THE THIRD EXPEDITION TO CENTRAL UTAH 

IN SEARCH OF DINOSAURS AND 

EXTINCT MAMMALS 

By C. LEWIS GAZIN 

Assistant Curator, Division of Vertebrate Paleontology 

U. S. National Museum 

The 1939 Smithsonian Institution expedition in search of the re- 
mains of extinct vertebrate animals in central Utah had for its 
special mission the further investigation of Cretaceous and Paleocene 
formations exposed along the east side of the Wasatch Plateau. It 
was hoped to obtain additional remains of dinosaurs and lizards 
from the older rocks and a greater representation of the Paleocene 
mammalian fauna. 

The party, consisting of George F. Sternberg, Franklin Pearce, 
and the writer, met June 2 in Price, Utah. After assembling our 
camp equipment and supplies in Price, we proceeded by truck about 
50 miles in a southwesterly direction into the mountains. Camp was 
made at a site locally known as Lone Pine Spring on the east slope 
of Wagon Road Ridge near its southern extremity, commanding an 
impressive view over the upper portion of Dragon Canyon toward 
North Horn Mountain. 

Saddle horses were found indispensable in prospecting this region 
of few roads, strong relief, and scattered exposures. Also, the use 
of horses in getting large specimens from places of difficult access 
to roads where the large plastered blocks could be handled by truck 
was the only feasible solution to one of our most trying problems. 
Roads in the region, though graded yearly by the Forest Service, 
were generally rendered impassable for hours or even days after 
each rain. This particular year, however, was one of marked drought 
during the early summer, and in July the spring near which we 
were camped nearly stopped flowing so that it became necessary to 
haul water from another spring a few miles to the west. Heavy 
rains toward the end of the month made secure the water supply for 
the balance of the field season but greatly restricted the use of the 
truck. 

Our first attack, after horses were obtained, was made on the 
Cretaceous outcrops along the westerly slope of North Horn Moun- 
tain. Here the party was successful in discovering fragmentary re- 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



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Fig. 5. — Camp in the quaking aspens near Lone Pine Spring on Wagon 
Road Ridge, Manti Forest, Utah. Photograph by G. F. Sternberg. 




Fig. 6. — View mirth across a portion of the newly discovered Paleocene 
locality in the western part of the Dragon Basin. Jaws and teeth of small, 
primitive mammals were found intermingled with concretions and pebbles in 
the foreground and along the lower slopes to the right in the middle back- 
ground. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 939 




Fig. 7. — View to the southeast over the lower portion of Dragon Canyon, 
showing badland exposures of Cretaceous rock from which skeletons of 
extinct lizards were obtained. 




Fig. 8. — Encasing portion of a ceratopsian skull with burlap soaked in 
plaster of paris prior to its removal. View of operations at a locality in 
Cretaceous rock exposed around the southeastern portion of North Horn 
Mountain. 



8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

mains of armored and trachodont Dinosauria new to the fauna and 
additional skull material of horned forms. A large part of one cera- 
topsian skull, badly checked, was discovered in a patch of exposures 
about midway along the west side of North Horn Mountain, and 
later a second skull portion of this type was found around toward the 
southeast part of the mountain. 

In the latter part of the season investigation was made of several 
large exposures of the Cretaceous in Dragon Canyon, notably a lo- 
cality in the lower part of the canyon which has now produced the 
remains of an astonishing array of large lizards, particularly re- 
markable since Cretaceous lizards were so poorly represented prior 
to discovery of the material at this locality in 1937. Remains of no 
less than 22 individuals were added to the collection this season, and 
it is anticipated that many of these, when completely prepared, will 
prove to include good portions of the skeleton. 

Further investigation of the Paleocene deposits, principally those 
in Dragon Canyon, has added a number of new forms to the fauna, 
and has resulted in the discovery of a new locality, some distance to 
the west of the badland area previously worked. Material from the 
new locality was found to occur at two horizons, the upper of which 
appears to be equivalent to the fossiliferous Dragon horizon at the 
locality worked in previous years, whereas the lower level may be 
as old as the Puerco, as this stage of the Paleocene is represented in 
New Mexico. 

Among the forms recognized in the Paleocene collections of this 
year, primitive mammals known as multituberculates, taeniodonts, 
and periptychids are representative of groups which became totally 
extinct in remote time. Remains found of other primitive types, such 
as insectivores and carnivores, belong to orders of mammals that 
have representatives in the living fauna. Included also were a notable 
variety of condylarths — archaic types that may have included the 
stems of our modern ungulates. The condylarths here represented 
were for the most part small animals, the diversification of which 
during Paleocene time must have been comparable to that of rodents 
in the living fauna. 

By the early part of August about all the promising-looking ex- 
posures of Cretaceous and Paleocene rock around North Horn Moun- 
tain and in Dragon Canyon had been prospected, and there remained 
only the task of building boxes and packing the season's collection. 
This was done at a lumberyard in Price, which, being on a railroad, 
made a convenient shipping point. The field season was terminated 
there on August 12. 



COLLECTING FOSSILS IN UTAH, NEVADA, TEXAS, AND 
THE MIDWEST 

By JOSIAH BRIDGE 

U. S. Geological Survey 

AND 

G. ARTHUR COOPER 
U. S. National Museum 

Gathering an important collection of fossils useful in the study 
of stratigraphy and paleontology requires careful planning and exten- 
sive field work. The National Museum collections of Paleozoic fossils, 
although fairly representative of United States stratigraphy, are 
lacking in fossils from some parts of the country and some portions 
of the geologic column. In order to correct some of these deficiencies, 
we planned to visit little-known or important localities in Utah, 
Nevada, Texas, and the Midwest. Our purpose was twofold, for 
besides the search for desired fossils, we wished to examine and col- 
lect from Lower Ordovician sections in the western States in order 
to obtain more exact information for use in the interregional corre- 
lation of these rocks. 

Utah. — Our trip started in northeastern Utah. Bridge, who had 
been working about Eureka, Nev., for several weeks with a Geo- 
logical Survey field party, came east and met Cooper at Salt Lake 
City. From here we went north to Logan to visit Dr. J. S. Williams, 
of Utah State Agricultural College, who took us to fine localities of 
Lower Ordovician rocks in Blacksmith Fork and Logan Canyons 
near Logan. While Bridge made detailed measurements of the long 
Lower Ordovician sequence in Blacksmith Fork Canyon, Cooper 
collected Mississippian fossils with Dr. Williams southeast of Logan. 
One of the prizes of the trip — a small but practically complete star- 
fish, the oldest yet known in North America — was collected from 
the lower Ordovician Garden~City formation in the Blacksmith Fork 
section. 

Nevada. — At Eureka we joined the Geological Survey party, headed 
by T. B. Nolan, engaged in remapping the old Eureka Mining Dis- 
trict. This area, located at the north end of the Fish Creek Range 
was formerly considered to have a relatively simple anticlinal struc- 
ture. Actually it is an extremely complex structural unit, the correct 

9 



10 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 9. — Antelope Range south-southwest of Eureka, Nev. 




Fig. 10. — T 



«..• : -^ ..,_. - •■■■ 

md Range northeast of Eureka after an early snowstorm. 




Fig. 11. — Foothills just west of Spotted Range and east of Frenchman Flat, 
northwest of Las Vegas, Nev. Ordovician collecting locality in foreground 
at base of mountains. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 939 



II 




ik**??* 







%®*££ 



K5 





g^^fiS** -1 ** *." • -X" 






Fig. 12. — Ikes Canyon, Toquima Range, southwest of Eureka, Nev., showing 
Lower Ordovician rocks at entrance to Canyon. 




Fig. 13. — Looking north down New York Canyon from Diamond Mine toward 
Diamond Peak, Eureka, Nev. 



12 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

interpretation of which requires most detailed mapping plus careful 
collecting of fossils from accurately determined strata in precisely 
placed localities. These collections are used to date the rocks contain- 
ing them and serve to determine the superposition of the strata when 
the sequence is obscure. In such a region as this the fossils have a 
great practical value, besides their biological significance. " 

The geologic column at Eureka includes rocks from all parts of 
the Paleozoic era. Our interests were chiefly in those of the lower 
half of the Paleozoic — Cambrian to Devonian. We also collected 
Lower Ordovician fossils in the adjacent Antelope and Toquima 
Ranges. The Antelope Range lies about 40 miles south-southwest of 
Eureka and, like most other Basin ranges, is a tilted block. From it 
we took many fine fossils from the middle part of the Lower Ordovi- 
cian. In the Toquima Range, located about 60 miles southwest of 
Eureka, we collected sponges, brachiopods, and trilobites from the 
upper part of the Lower Ordovician. 

Our last collecting ground in Nevada was in a small range just 
west of the Spotted Range about 60 miles northwest of Las Vegas. 
Here the sequence includes strata ranging from Lower Ordovician 
to Mississippian in age, all tilted to the southeast. At the west base 
of the range, opposite Frenchman Flat, silicified Lower Ordovician 
fossils are abundant. Blocks of this rock showing an abundance of 
well-preserved fossils were selected to be dissolved in the laboratory. 
This treatment frees the silicified fossils from their matrix and 
often yields specimens preserving man}- delicate features which are 
ordinarily lost. 

Texas. — In traveling from Las Vegas, Nev., to El Paso, Tex., 
we collected a lot of fine L'pper Devonian fossils from soft shales 
exposed not far northeast of Silver City, N. Mex. The fossils weather 
free and are well preserved, and many fine specimens were obtained. 

The Franklin Mountains, which terminate just north of El Paso, 
contain one of the type sections of Lower Ordovician rocks in the 
Southwest. In the arroyos and road cuts at, and just west of, the 
lookout on the Scenic Drive, which skirts the southern end of the 
range and overlooks the Rio Grande Valley and the cities of El Paso 
and Juarez, we collected Lower Ordovician fossils, many of them 
similar to some of those collected near Eureka and Blacksmith 
Fork. Among them were fragments of a second starfish of approxi- 
mately the same age, but much larger and totally different in most 
respects from the one found in Utah. In the Hueco Mountains 
about 30 miles east of El Paso we collected Permian fossils while 
on our way to Van Horn. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 939 



13 




Fig. 14.- 



-Great algal reef in nearly horizontal Upper Cambrian rocks on 
San Saba River near Mason, Tex. 




■'■< 



Fig. 15. — Northwest face of Beach Mountain showing Lower Ordovician 
strata in middle ground and the massive Upper Ordovician limestone capping 
the mountain. North of Van Horn, Tex. 



14 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Another fine, relatively undisturbed sequence of Lower Ordovician 
rocks similar to those at El Paso is exposed on the north end of 
Beach Mountain, about 10 miles north of Van Horn and just east 
of the escarpment of the Sierra Diablo Plateau. We collected at 
many horizons in this section. 

One of the finest Permian sequences in the world is located in 
the Glass Mountains north of Marathon, Tex. The thickness of the 
column is rather variable, but on the average it contains between 6,000 
and 7,000 feet of sediments, all dipping gently to the northwest. The 
limestones, at least those in the lower formations, abound in fossils 
many of which are well silicified and hence susceptible to etching in 
hydrochloric acid. We worked for 4 days in these mountains collect- 
ing from the Leonard and W r ord formations. We were fortunate in 
obtaining many fine specimens of two peculiar brachiopods : Pro- 
richthofenia, having the shape of a coral ; and Lcptodus, a very- 
aberrant brachiopod having the general shape of an oyster when seen 
from the ventral side. In Lcptodus the dorsal valve consists of a 
series of narrow parallel-sided lobes extending laterally from a cen- 
tral axis. These lobate extensions fit over transverse parallel grooves 
extending laterally along each side of the central line inside the 
opposite valve. 

After leaving Marathon we went to the Central Hill country of 
Texas to Mason and Llano. In the vicinity of these places we col- 
lected Cambrian fossils needed in the collections and also studied and 
collected from the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger limestone which 
is the partial equivalent of the El Paso limestone and of formations 
studied farther north and west. 

In Jacks and Palo Pinto Counties west of Fort Worth we col- 
lected Pennsylvanian fossils weathered from shales and limestones 
well exposed in these counties. Mrs. J. H. Ren fro and her daughter, 
collectors of Pennsylvanian fossils, took Cooper to two fine localities 
where many good specimens were obtained. 

Oklahoma. — -The Arbuckle Mountains and Criner Hills in south- 
central Oklahoma are low hills exposing a fine Paleozoic sequence. 
Here the Simpson group of the Middle Ordovician contains many 
fine fossils. We collected brachiopods and a few crinoids at several 
localities. 

White Mound, a famous locality for Lower Devonian fossils, is a 
small bare hillock of disintegrating argillaceous limestone. It lies 3 
miles west of Nebo, Okla., and about half a mile north of the county 
road. The fossils, which are extremely abundant, weather free from 
the enclosing limestone and can be picked up from the surface of the 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I939 






Fig. 16. — Ford over San Saba River just east of Camp San Saba, Tex. 
showing brachiopod beds of the Upper Cambrian. 








Fig. 17. — White Mound west-northwest of Nebo, Okla. 









f '<• 



m 









" V'', ' 1 & «A .-(*' 






Fig. 18. — Loose Ordovician fossils weathered from shale on roadside ih miles 
west of Nebo, Okla. 



l6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

ground. We collected from the mound and from the slopes of the 
low hills just southeast of it and obtained a large number of specimens. 

Missouri. — At Rolla we visited the offices of the Missouri Geo- 
logical Survey, and the Department of Geology at the Missouri School 
of Mines, and collected from the small Devonian outlier just west 
of the city. In the Ozarks fossils commonly occur in the chert, which 
replaces much of the limestone. In the country about Eminence good 
specimens were abundant. From Eminence we went east to Cape 
Girardeau to see Upper Ordovician and Silurian strata. With Perry- 
ville as our headquarters for several days we collected fossils in 
the Little Saline Yallev which contains a long complexly faulted Paleo- 
zoic sequence. Our chief interest here was the Bainbridge limestone 
of Aliddle Silurian age, containing many crinoids, blastoids, and 
brachiopods. As none of this material was represented in the Museum 
collections, we selected many blocks to be broken up in the laboratory. 
In addition to the Silurian fossils we collected specimens from the 
Middle Ordovician and Lower and Middle Devonian rocks. On our 
way to Indiana we stopped at Louisiana. Mo., to see F. R. Long, 
collector of Silurian fossils. 

Indiana. — Southwest of Logansport on the Wabash River and not 
far east of the little village of Georgetown occurs a large exposure 
of Silurian dolomite. From a small undolomitized portion of this out- 
crop we collected many brachiopods. From this place we went south 
to New Albany to collect Devonian and Mississippian fossils under 
the guidance of Guy Campbell. 

In summary it should be said that we covered about 8,000 miles on 
our trip, visited a number of localities that brought fossils to the 
Museum not previously represented in the collections and studied 
Lower Ordovician strata in five States, obtaining good collections 
and much data useful in correlation. 



COLLECTING ORDOVICIAN FOSSILS IN THE 
SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS 

By G. ARTHUR COOPER 

Assistant Curator, Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology 
U. S. National Museum 

The Southern Appalachians comprise a vast territory still imper- 
fectly understood by geologists. State geological maps have been 
prepared of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Virginia, and por- 
tions of these States have been studied in detail. The major geologic 
structures and the essentials of the stratigraphy are well known, 
but no comprehensive faunal studies have ever been undertaken in 
the Southern Appalachians. In order to facilitate studies of Ordo- 
vician brachiopods from this region now under way, the writer spent 
the month of May 1939 in this region with Charles Butts and Josiah 
Bridge. Mr. Butts, while a member of the United States Geological 
Survey, mapped the Appalachian structures and strata of Alabama 
and Virginia. Mr. Bridge, geologist of the United States Geological 
Survey, is now engaged in mapping parts of Tennessee. The writer 
was thus most fortunate in having expert guidance in the field. 

Although study of the fossils of most parts of the extensive Paleo- 
zoic column of the Southern Appalachians has been much neglected, 
the party centered its interest on the rocks and fossils of the lower 
Middle Ordovician. The Stones River group, or lowest part of this 
sequence, consists almost wholly of limestone. The overlying Blount 
group contains much shale with intercalated limestone and marble 
beds. Above the Blount group occurs thin-bedded limestone of the 
Black River group, which in places is red in color. In addition to 
these groups, the black Athens shale, which is generally believed to 
belong to the Blount group, overlies the Stones River limestone or 
some portion of the lower Blount. It is not yet clear whether this 
black shale is equivalent to all of the Blount group or only a part of it. 

The rocks of the Southern Appalachians occur in long northeast- 
wardly trending belts formed by the deformation of once nearly 
horizontal sediments. In late Pennsylvanian and Permian times the 
rocks of this region were shoved northwestward by forces not fully 
understood. This produced great wrinkles and shortened the earth's 
crust many miles. Erosion has etched the wrinkles into elongate 
ridges, of which Clinch Mountain is a conspicuous example. These 

17 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 19. — Clinch sandstone on south side of Clinch Mountain, south of 
Eidson, Tenn. This resistant sandstone forms the backbone of this long 
mountain. 



.****' 







*g 





Fig. 20. — Black River limestone at Chattanooga, Tenn. The man on the 
right is standing on a soft bed of volcanic ash or bentonite, which indicates 
presence of active volcanoes in Ordovician time. Photograph by J. Bridge. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



19 




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dm 



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fe 



20 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

riclges are developed along the outcrop of resistant formations and 
are separated from each other by parallel valleys etched on the lime- 
stones. In the process of folding, the rocks often cracked, and large 
plates were shoved long distances from the southeast. These thrusts, 
as the geologists call them, bring younger rocks over older ones and 
thus tend to complicate the true relationships of the strata and their 
contained fossils. In the Southern Appalachians these thrusts have 
brought into superposition rocks originally deposited in widely sepa- 
rated parts of the same sea. Full understanding of this region thus 
depends on the recognition and correct interpretation of the thrust- 
plates. 

Investigations and collecting were begun about 18 miles southwest 
of Montevallo, Ala., at Pratts Ferry, where the Paleozoic structures 
disappear under the flat-lying Cretaceous sediments of the Coastal 
Plain. From here the party proceeded northeastward to Pelham, Bir- 
mingham, Odenville, and Leeds, Ala. More specimens were collected 
in northeastern Georgia on Chickamauga Creek and at Rock Springs 
south of Chattanooga. 

From Chattanooga the party moved north to the long and narrow 
Sequatchie Valley, where a fine Ordovician sequence containing many 
Stones River fossils occurs near Pikesville. East of Athens, Tenn., 
a great belt of Ordovician rocks runs northeastwardly to Knoxville. 
The party followed this belt from Riceville through Friendsville, col- 
lecting fossils and noting the lateral passage of the shales at Rice- 
ville into limestone at Knoxville. After collecting trilobites at Bulls 
Gap northeast of Knoxville, the party moved northwestward to Cum- 
berland Gap for a few days to study the limestones of the upper 
Blount and Black River groups. 

In southern Virginia fossils were collected from the Blount shale 
belt running northeast from Gate City. Fast of Saltville, Va., a large 
quarry exposes a reef or bioherm at the base of the Blount, in which 
echinoderms and other fossils are especially abundant. Collections 
were also taken from the Stones River beds at Marion, near Salem 
and Lexington, where fossils occur loose in residual soil. Xear Har- 
risonburg fossils were collected east of the city and at places along 
United States Highway 1 1 as far north as Strasburg. The high Black 
River beds at Strasburg abound in good fossils. 

The writer was particularly interested in finding silicified fossils ; 
for these can be freed from their limestone matrix by dissolving the 
enclosing rock in acid. Many specimens thus preserved were obtained 
on this trip, and the Southern Appalachians proved to be a rich 
source of fine fossils. 



QUARRYING FOSSIL SEA URCHINS 

By JAMES H. BENN 
Scientific Aid, Department of Geology, U. S. National Museum 

In July 1939 Dr. William F. Foshag of the Museum staff, while 
upon vacation at Scientists Cliffs, Port Republic, Md., came upon 
some curious fragmentary calcareous plates lying at the foot of a 
bluff overlooking Chesapeake Bay. Investigating further, he found 
someone had been digging in the loose, unconsolidated sand and clay 
some 18 or 20 feet above the beach, from whence the fragments had 
been dislodged. Proceeding then to do some prospecting of his own 
in these abandoned diggings, he soon began to uncover what ap- 
peared to be a rich deposit of beautifully preserved fossil sea urchins 
(echinoids). Collecting a fine representative group of specimens, he 
returned to Washington and submitted them to the proper Museum 
authorities. Soon thereafter I received a detail to proceed to this 
locality and obtain a large group for the Museum exhibits. 

Arriving at the cliffs on July 17, I joined Drs. Foshag, Kellogg, 
Resser, and Cooper, all of the National Museum staff, who were 
studying the locality from various standpoints. 

Mr. Gravett, owner of Scientists Cliffs, assigned me a site for my 
camp, which was soon in order ; in company with Drs. Foshag and 
Kellogg, I then proceeded to investigate the deposit which lay less than 
a mile north along the beach from Scientists Cliffs and from 18 to 
20 feet up in the bluffs on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay. 

The sea urchins lay imbedded in a loose, uncemented sand in com- 
pany with a fair number of barnacles and an occasional sand dollar. 
The thickness of the layer of fossils was no greater than 8 inches 
and in places much less. The width was approximately 3^ feet. The 
axis of the deposit was at a northwest variance with north-south 
trend of the bluff, the fossil bed appearing at the southerly apex of 
the angle thus formed and disappearing northwesterly into the bluff. 
Dr. Foshag had cut away a space in the bluff large enough to make 
this trend very apparent. 

The next day, plotting of the slab to be taken out was begun. 
Because of the weight of the material, it was decided to take the piece 
out in three sections. Accordingly chalk lines were laid out and 
the work of quarrying started. This was carefully done, as the speci- 
mens lying in the path between the slabs were fragile, and a successful 
attempt was made to quarry these as well. 

21 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IQ39 



23 




X 



^ 



fe 



24 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

For the rest of the week this work continued, although spasmodi- 
cally, because rainy weather set in. Each time it rained, the sections 
would have to be covered to protect them ; otherwise they would have 
washed out. At times it was a matter of conjecture as to whether 
the Museum or the rain would get the specimens. However, by 
Saturday, the sections had been secured in wooden frames and a 
heartfelt sigh of relief went up. The following days were devoted 
to plastering a heavy protective coat over the faces and bottoms of 
the sections. When the plaster had set, wooden covers and bottoms 
were nailed to the frames for final reenforcement. 

On July 25. encasement of the sections being completed, the task 
of conveying them safely to the Museum was begun. The sections 
were first slid from their place in the bluff to rowboats waiting on 
the beach to take them to the landing at Scientists Cliffs. They were 
then carried up the stairs to the top of the bluff and loaded on a 
Museum truck for transportation to Washington. 

The sea urchin {Ecliinocardium orthonotum) found at this locality, 
until now has been rather rare. It was first described in 1843 by 
Conrad in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, volume 1, page 327. A figured specimen by Forbes is 
illustrated in the Maryland Geological Survey Miocene Text and was 
obtained by Lyell. Both specimens were found near Coggin's Point 
on the James River, Va., and came from the Choptank formation of 
the Miocene. Those at Scientists Cliffs likewise come from the Chop- 
tank formation and may well be the first Maryland record. It has 
been learned that the diggings which Dr. Foshag found, and which 
were subsequently worked by the Museum, were discovered and 
made by Miss Lois M. Schoonover of Bryn Mawr College. She found 
the first specimen during the summer of 1938 and returned in Novem- 
ber of the same year and obtained many perfect specimens. 

Sea urchins (echinoids), which belong to the great phylum Echino- 
derma, occur sparingly in all formations from the early Paleozoic 
deposits to the youngest. Many sea urchins from the Cretaceous for- 
mations were dug out by the ice during the Glacial Epoch and scat- 
tered over the countries of northern Europe, where they played a 
great part in the superstitions of ancient times. As they were sup- 
posed to have fallen from heaven with the thunder, they were be- 
lieved to provide protection against thunder and indeed prehistoric 
man used them as amulets. 

The preparation of the slab, now under way, is revealing many 
excellent entire specimens and will result without doubt in a very 
unusual and instructive museum exhibit. 



BRINGING LIVE ANIMALS FROM THE ARGENTINE 

By W. M. MANN 
Director, National Zoological Park 

Early in April 1939 the writer, accompanied by Mrs. Mann, Mr. 
and Mrs. William Shippen, of the Washington Evening Star, and 
Dr. John Gray, sailed from New York on the S. S. Uruguay, of the 
American Republics Line, for Argentina. Mr. Shippen was sent by 
his newspaper to write a series of travelogs on South America. 
Dr. Gray went to make observations on economics. Our work was 
to gather and bring back to the National Zoological Park in Wash- 
ington a collection of southern specimens. 

Before leaving, we had ascertained that certain North American 
species were desired by the zoos of the Argentine, and we took with 
us as an exchange 20 crates of live animals and birds, including bison, 
Texas red wolves, prairie dogs, and American bald eagles. 

There was ample time in Rio cle Janeiro for us to visit the zoo and 
make arrangements with Dr. Drummond, the director, to have a few 
things ready for us on our return voyage. At Sao Paulo we left some 
gila monsters for the famous snake farm and research institute at 
Butantan, and arranged for exchanges with the director. 

The care of 20 crates of animals is not a very heavy duty, but it 
kept us occupied some hours each day. One of the buffaloes in some 
unaccountable way got turned around in his cage at night and spent 
the rest of the voyage kicking and fighting. There did not seem a 
chance of his arriving alive, yet he was turned out of his crate into 
a comfortable paddock in the zoo at Buenos Aires looking only a 
little tired. One of the Texas red wolves had a litter of five cubs 
a couple of weeks after arriving, so there was an increase instead 
of a loss in our shipment. 

From the time we arrived in Buenos Aires until we sailed 6 weeks 
later, there was no lost time. The United States Consul General, 
Monnett B. Davis, and Dr. A. Holmberg, director of the municipal 
zoo at Buenos Aires, had things arranged for us. Almost immedi- 
ately the Minister of Agriculture lent us a comfortable and commodi- 
ous launch and sent us up the Delta of the Parana, through the rich 
agricultural lands, to the Parana River itself. Here we visited a 
large fur farm, where coypus, called nutrias in the Argentine, were 
being raised by the hundreds. 

25 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 25. — Shelters for snakes in the Instituto Butantan, near Sao Paulo, Brazil. 




Fig. 26. — In the Buenos Aires Zoo. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, K)2>9 



27 




Fig. 27. — Elephant house and yard in the Cordoba Zoo. 




Fig. 28. — Coypu pens in the model coypu farm at Laguna Colis. 



28 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The Governor of Cordoba sent us into the mountains of his 
province, where we found among other things the International Postal 
Convention, at that time making a tour of the country. The zoo at 
Cordoba, though small, is excellent, and we were presented with a 
number of specimens which we brought back to Buenos Aires on the 
train with us. 

Two residents of Buenos Aires, Senor Picardo and Senor Antelo, 
motored us to their nutria farm, Laguna Colis, south of Buenos Aires, 
where we saw great flocks of flamingos, black-necked swans, coscoroba 
geese, and other waterfowl as well as the nutrias kept for breeding 
there. Mr. Roosmalen, the manager of the estancia, presented us 
with breeding pairs of these interesting animals. They have had young 
since arriving in Washington. 

At La Plata our old friend Dr. C. A. Marelli greeted us, and we 
spent some time in the beautiful zoo there, incidentally obtaining 
some rare birds and a pair of hurones or grisons. 

Our last trip, as guests of the National Parks of the Argentine, 
took us to Nahuel Huapi, at the base of the Andes. Here in a beautiful 
lake is Victoria Island, where wild life is being introduced as well as 
preserved. Guanacos were running about, and there was a flock of 
black-necked swans on a little lake on the island. The huimil, the 
interesting deer of the Argentine, is becoming very scarce, but a 
serious attempt is being made to preserve it. European wild boar, 
introduced in the vicinity some years ago, have become a nuisance. 

The two oldest North American families in the Argentine, the 
Joneses and the Newberys, both have ranches in Patagonia. These 
families were really the pioneers of this part of Argentina. We visited 
both estancias and were received with the greatest hospitality and 
friendship. 

Through exchange, gifts, and a few purchases our collection soon 
was as great as we thought we could care for on the return trip. 
Specimens came in from all quarters. Tom Davis, son of the Consul 
General, made it his job to get for us a fine collection of turtles. A 
police inspector whom we met casually on the train going to Patagonia 
had rheas waiting for us on the railroad station platform at the little 
town of Patagonas when we passed through there coming back. 
Natalio Botana, of the newspaper La Critica, and his son presented 
us with a fine series of two species of tinamou, as well as some small 
mammals. The zoos of Buenos Aires, La Plata, and Cordoba all 
helped. The last evening before sailing Senor Jose Cinaghi, a local 
animal dealer, called to say good-bye. He mentioned the fact that 
I had not bought anything from him. I explained that I had 41 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



2 9 




Fig. 29. — Monkey island in La Plata Zoo. 




Fig. 30/ — Lake Moreno in Patagonia. Chile is an hour away by launch. 



30 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

crates of animals, and that was enough for us to take care of. He 
replied, "No, you have 43 crates, because I have already sent two 
crates of ducks and black-necked swans to the boat for you." Mrs. 
Shippen discovered three rare escuerzo frogs (Ceratophrys), that 
were particularly desired, in a pet store in the shopping district of 
Buenos Aires. Senor Ennio Arrigutti, of the Aquarium Kin Yu, 
gave us a number of small interesting creatures that we wanted. 

When we arrived in Rio de Janeiro, more specimens were awaiting 
us — snakes from the Instituto Butantan, tapirs and king vultures 
from the zoo. and numerous other things from friends. There were 
70 cages of animals in our collection when we arrived in New York, 
and all of them came to Washington in good condition. On board 
ship, the two ladies of our party devoted their mornings to caring for 
a line of specimens assigned to them. Mr. Shippen acted as chief 
water boy ; his first duty each morning was to remove water pans 
from 60 cages, wash them, and put them back filled. The ship's 
butcher and the second cook ground up meat and vegetables for us, 
and the bos'n's mate and another sailor came to the rescue with much 
hard labor during their hours off. 

We are under great obligation to the Moore McCormack Line for 
marvelous quarters given us for the animals and for their complete 
cooperation. The animals that required quarantine were taken care 
of in New York by L. Ruhe and Company; and Howard Fyfe, 
United States Despatch Agent, had already made the necessary 
arrangements with the Express Company for the immediate ship- 
ment to Washington of the other animals. 

All in all, the trip resulted in the addition of 316 specimens to the 
National Zoological Park, all of them needed by the Zoo and some 
of them never exhibited here before. 

Among the animals were guanacos and llamas, new blood for our 
herds ; capybaras, pampas cats, a pair of Brazilian tapirs ; a pair of 
Andean condors, upland geese, black-necked swans, coscoroba geese, 
21 Chilean flamingos; and numerous reptiles, some from the Instituto 
Butantan. 



AN ORNITHOLOGIST IN SOUTHERN MEXICO 

By ALEXANDER WETMORE 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

The connection between archeology, the ancient Maya, and modern 
birds may seem remote. But in Matthew Stirling's camp for the 
National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Archeological 
Expedition to Veracruz I found last spring pleasant quarters for 
ornithological studies in a fascinating region. In Mexico City, 
through Sehor Juan Zinser, then Jefe del Servicio de Caza of the De- 
partmento Forestal y de Caza y Pesca, I received the necessary per- 
mit to allow the collection of birds for scientific study, and in Vera- 
cruz City through the courtesy of Gen. Alejandro Manje, Comandante 
de la 26a Zona Militar en Veracruz, the proper papers authorizing 
the bearing of arms for hunting. 

One is always impatient to be afield in new territory, and my com- 
panion Richard Stewart, staff photographer of the National Geo- 
graphic Society, and I felt that our expedition had only really begun 
when on the morning of March 5 we left Veracruz on a combination 
freight and passenger train for Alvarado. Tantalizing glimpses of 
brown jays, cardinals more brilliantly red than the familiar friend 
we knew at home, and other more obscure birds that I could not 
identify from the car window aroused enthusiasm, as did the gulls, 
pelicans, ducks, and cormorants seen from the steamer launch 
Eustolita that carried us up the Rio Papaloapan to the fine old town 
of Tlacotalpan. The following morning we were really on our way 
when we embarked in the "canoa" La DclUniia with Pedro Baran, and 
traveled through winding channels, many of them narrow and choked 
with water hyacinth, until noon brought us to the landing at Boca 
San Miguel. Our field outfit was soon loaded into an oxcart, and 
after a 2-hour ride on muleback we reached the camp a mile beyond 
the village of Tres Zapotes. 

The location was ideal for the ornithologist. The three palm thatch 
houses of the camp were built on elevated ground above a small 
savanna, with dense jungle at the side. The land was slightly un- 
dulating, cut by small arroyos of clear water, and we looked out 
from the houses across open pastures to the Yolcan de Tuxtla, with 
the low slopes of Cerro Prieto and the distant peak of Volcan San 
Martin in the distance. Farmers living in the village had cleared 
considerable tracts which were planted in corn. Other sections where 

31 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 31. — The field outfit enroute to camp by oxcart, March 6, 1939. 




Fig. 32. — A ford on the Arroyo Tres Zapotes. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



33 




Fig. 33. — The palm-thatch laboratory and photographic dark room. 




Fig. 34. — Mules furnished transportation to Arroyo Corredor and other 

distant points. 



34 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

tough-rooted grass had invaded and taken over these cultivated milpas 
were returning again to the densest jungle. Large areas were covered 
with good sized trees. The general elevation was less than 200 feet 
above the sea, and the whole area lay in the humid section of the 
tropical zone. 

There followed interesting days in rapid procession. Stewart 
needed a dark room for his photography, and I, space to store my 
birds, so Juan Santos, local architect, built for us a house of poles 
and bamboo, bound together with tough vines and thatched skillfully 
with palm leaves, all cut in the nearby forest. The morning alarm 
clock, half an hour before dawn, was the complaining cry of the large 
brown jays, and at night I fell asleep to the insistent who are you' 
who are' you of goatsuckers {Nyctidromus albicollis) that came out 
of the forest at dusk to watch for insects in our clearing. 

Birds of many kinds abounded in the forest, and each day brought 
its new kinds of strange form and interesting color. With Ramon 
as assistant, to carry the game bag and to clear trail with his machete 
where necessary, I spent my mornings afield in search of specimens. 
Flycatchers, tanagers, wrens, thrushes, and woodpeckers abounded, 
with hawks, toucans, owls and many others of larger or smaller size. 
And with these were multitudes of familiar birds from the eastern 
United States here for the winter, their numbers increasing in early 
April as the northward migration began and a vast horde came pour- 
ing through this relatively narrow stretch of land at the northern 
end of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from winter quarters to the 
south of us. Among these, magnolia warblers were especially com- 
mon, and in early April I saw more orchard orioles than I had ob- 
served in all my previous years as a naturalist. Lincoln's sparrows 
fed in our clearing with all the familiarity of dooryard song sparrows, 
so that I gained an entirely new idea of this species that I had known 
previously in the north only as a shy migrant. Occasionally I had 
glimpses of the more timid yellow-breasted chats ; or summer tanagers 
or indigo buntings appeared. 

In the pleasant afternoons, as I worked on specimens or notes 
under the sheltering porch of our house, the clear, varied song of 
the spotted-breasted wren (Pheugopedius maculipecttis) came from 
the adjacent jungle, flocks of black vultures wheeled over the open 
pastures, yellow-breasted flycatchers of several kinds called from 
the trees, and there was a constant flitting of redstarts, gnatcatchers, 
and others of the smaller species through the bushes bordering the 
clearing. From the adjacent forest there came continually strange 
calls and songs, some of which after 6 weeks remained unidentified. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I939 



35 




Fig. 35. — The heavily wooded swamp at Laguna Grande. 




Fig. 36. — Embarking on the launch at Boca San Miguel, April 15, 1939. 



2)6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

For the first 2 weeks I was content to work in the vicinity of 
camp and of the village. Several small lagoons offered variety in the 
way of water birds, and the thickets seemed to have a never-ending 
supply of unusual species. Then with mules I began to travel farther 
afield along narrow trails, where the crossings of the arroyos often 
seemed bottomless in sticky mud. It was always pleasant in the cool 
air of early morning to ride out this way, watching from the elevation 
of the saddle the small birds in the trailside bushes, observing the 
spiraling flocks of great hawks in migration northward, and hearing 
on every hand the harsh calls of dozens of chachalacas. 

At the Arroyo Corredor we found a large tract of swampy wood- 
land, in some sections clear of undergrowth, where curious warblers 
and tanagers and other unusual species abounded. The Arroyo 
Teponaguasapan with its dense jungle without trails offered a decided 
contrast, while at Para Madera the low-lying land was more open, 
leading to marshy savannas beyond. 

At the end of March rains fell less frequently, the sticky mud 
disappeared from the trails, and the cold winds of the Norteros blew 
only occasionally. The midday sun became hot and oppressive. Various 
kinds of native birds that had been common lessened in number, and 
I had the impression that they had withdrawn from this lowland area 
toward the mountains, while others seemed to come to take their places. 

Our daily life was filled completely with absorbing tasks with 
little outside interruption. In this isolated region there was no tele- 
graph or telephone nearer than 8 hours' ride, and mail arrived at 
infrequent intervals when a launch from one of the stores in the 
village brought supplies from Tlacotalpan. In the evening we usually 
gathered at sundown to rest for an hour to talk and watch the fading 
light on the mountains, and to listen to the bird and animal voices 
about us. Mingled with these there was often the sound of the distant 
singing and music of dances in the village, and on occasion little 
orchestras passing on the trail to San Juan stopped to visit and to 
play for us. 

By the middle of April I had a fairly representative collection of 
this interesting region that will give definite information regarding 
its varied bird life. The data are especially important in giving de- 
tails of distribution of variable forms and information on the always 
fascinating subject of the movements of our northern migrants. 

Our work continued until the last possible moment, and we all 
felt regret when on April 15 the last of our luggage was placed on 
the pack mules, and we ourselves mounted to ride down to take the 
launch at La Boca. 



COLLECTING BIRDS AND MAMMALS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA 

By W. M. PERRYGO 
Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museum 

To continue the study of the geographic distribution of birds and 
mammals in our mountainous States in the Southeast, from which 
a representative collection has been lacking in the National Museum, 
the officials of the Museum decided to work this year in North 
Carolina. This State is most interesting for this type of work be- 
cause of its variety of terrain. On the broad coastal plain are vast 
areas covered by pine and cane, with great cypress swamps along the 
lower courses of the many streams. The central part of the State, 
the Piedmont area, with its broad farms and wooded hills leads 
gradually into the western mountains, and so to the high crest of 
the Appalachian Range. 

Throughout the season we had the cooperation of J. D. Chalk, 
Commissioner of Game and Fish, Department of Conservation, at 
Raleigh; also the help of officials connected with the National Forests 
and of the many land owners on whose land we collected. 

With Gregor Rohwer as my field assistant, I left in April 1939 
to begin work in the northeastern part of the State near Elizabeth 
City. Here we remained for 2 weeks working in the cypress swamps 
in pine woods, along river banks, and through the farm lands search- 
ing for the desired birds and mammals. As the spring migration began 
in full force, we moved inland to Sampson County in the vicinity of 
Clinton and worked along the streams and cypress swamps, obtaining 
many interesting specimens. 

The first week in May we continued down to Brunswick County 
in the lower austral zone of the extreme southeastern part of the 
State, establishing a base at Southport. Here we found beautiful 
painted buntings, with blue head, green back, and red breast ; brown- 
headed nuthatches ; red-cockaded woodpeckers ; towhees with white 
eyes ; and many other interesting denizens of the southern woods. 
While here, we crossed to Smith Island, where we made some very 
interesting collections. 

Moving to Richmond County for the latter part of May, we 
w r orked in the cotton- and corn-growing section along the Pee Dee 
River near Rockingham. The early part of June found us in Chero- 
kee County near Murphy, in the extreme southwest, investigating 

37 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 37. — Good collecting country near Elizabeth City. 




llil <W I yi— i —I II M I llJ 19 ^ ^ 1 urMT-^fr.aKB, 

Fig. 38. — Cypress swamp in early spring, near Elizabeth City. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 939 



39 




Fig. 39. — The wooded reaches of Town Creek between Wilmington and 

Southport. 



^Wa^j|£ 




Fig.- 40. — Perrygo and Wheeler with the field truck, taken near Engelhard. 



40 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

the mountains, the highest in this region being Pack Mountain. Com- 
pleting studies here, we went east to Franklin and worked in the 
Nantahala National Forest on Wayah Bald, Standing Indian, and 
adjoining mountains. These mountains are well over 5,000 feet, but 
being so far south, near the Georgia line, they lack the balsam and 
spruce trees found at similar altitudes a little farther north, and 
therefore northern forms of birds and mammals do not occur. 

We spent the first half of July in the beautiful and mountainous 
section in the northeast, collecting on Three Tops, Elk Knob, Snake 
Mountain, and other adjoining mountains, obtaining a fair number of 
specimens considering the heavy rains, which hamper work of this 
kind. On July 22, we returned to Washington. 

For work in the autumn I left Washington on September 14, 
with Charles Wheeler as field assistant. Our first area was in Rock- 
ingham County in the north-central part of the State, where we 
collected along the headwaters of the Dan and Haw Rivers. The 
latter part of September we moved southwest to Iredell and Catawba 
Counties, where most of our work was confined to the wooded bottom 
lands of the Catawba River. On October 10 we continued east to 
the low, flat, and swampy sections of Hyde and Dare Counties near 
Engelhard and Stumpy Point. This is hunting country, where deer 
and other game abound, and we obtained many birds and mammals 
typical of this low coastal region. While here we were joined for a 
few days by Dr. Alexander Wetmore and J. E. Graf, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Our camp was on the south shore of Lake Mattasmuskeet, and 
during a day or two of cold we saw the arrival of the first Canada 
geese from the north. Through the courtesy of the Biological Survey 
we had permission to trap for mice and shrews in the nearby Wild 
Life Refuge, and here we obtained excellent specimens. 

Leaving Engelhard on November 1 we moved west to Pitt County 
to the vicinity of Bethel. Along Conetoe Creek we found some 
excellent stands of hardwood trees, where collecting was good. North- 
west of Greenville in Pitt County were large tracts of pine woods, 
where we found white-eyed towhees, brown-headed nuthatches, and 
red-cockaded woodpeckers. 

Our last 2 weeks were spent in and near Beaufort in Carteret 
County, working in the salt marshes and low pine lands, and at the 
end of November we returned to Washington. 

The results of the season include an excellent representation of 
the birds of the State. Small mammals were scarce except along the 
coastal plain, and few were obtained in the Piedmont area. 



BIRD STUDY IN EUROPEAN MUSEUMS 

By H. G. DEIGNAN 
Scientific Aid, Division of Birds, U. S. National Museum 

With the aid of a grant from the American Association of Museums 
I was enabled to spend over 3 months in Europe studying type ma- 
terial and other relevant specimens in connection with my work on 
the birds of Siam. In all the museums visited, Mrs. Deignan assisted 
by searching the catalogs and records for pertinent entries and by 
transcribing these data, thereby greatly facilitating and speeding up 
the work and making it possible to cover as many collections as were 
actually examined. 

The month of June 1939 was spent chiefly in London, where work 
was carried out at the British Museum (Natural History) and, to 
a lesser extent, at the private museum of Dr. C. B. Ticehurst in Kent. 
By examination of many type specimens of Asiatic birds and, in other 
cases, of topotypical material, it was possible to identify with cer- 
tainty a large number of specimens brought over for study from the 
United States National Museum. Because of the danger of complete 
destruction of type specimens during the political upheaval (now 
war) in Europe, wherever possible the United States National 
Museum specimen most nearly identical with the type was so indi- 
cated for future reference. Also, certain descriptions originally 
published in books now very rare and not to be found in any Ameri- 
can library were copied verbatim, and these copies have been de- 
posited in the divisional library at the United States National 
Museum. Some of these were found in the British Museum and 
others at the library of the Zoological Society of London. 

The first week of July was spent working at the National Museum 
of Natural History in Paris, where many types of birds from French 
Indo-China were examined, and old and, in some cases, misidentified 
records from Siam were checked. Following this a week was passed 
in Vienna and the next week in Berlin. The Viennese collections 
contained relatively little pertinent material, but in Berlin the Miiller 
collection (with types) was studied and it was learned definitelv 
that the old Schomburgk collection, one of the pioneer sources of 
Siamese ornithology, is no longer in existence. 

The last week of July was spent at Hannover, where there is an 
extensive collection from Siam, most of it unidentified and unpub- 

41 



42 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Museum at Skansen, a park in Stockholm. 




Fig. 



42-- 



-Exterior of the Museum of Nordic Culture and Ethnology, in 
Stockholm. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I939 



43 




Fig. 43. — Part of the unique panoramic exhibit of the vertebrate fauna of 
Sweden in the Biological Museum, Stockholm. 




Fig. 44. — Another part of the same exhibit. 



44 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

lished. The birds were stored in the attic of a closed palace, in 
great disorder and without proper care. As for many years no 
ornithologist had visited the museum, the visit was welcomed by the 
director, who detailed a man to assist in labeling the specimens as 
they were identified. 

A brief stop was made in Bremen, where there is supposed to be 
a mysterious type specimen from Bangkok, but in the absence of 
the director of the museum, it was not possible to search for it. 

The month of August was spent in Sweden, chiefly in Stockholm 
where there is a major Siamese collection housed in the most up-to- 
date of European museums. Part of the collection was reported on 
in 1913 and 1916, but many hundreds of specimens of later date, 
never formally recorded, were also found, among them at least four 
species new to northern Siam. In addition, permission was kindly 
given to study a recently received small collection from rhat area 
which included one more species new to the country. 

With the work in the museum completed and 2 weeks still avail- 
able before the date of sailing to Xew York, a field trip to Swedish 
Lappland was undertaken, headquarters being made some 60 miles 
north of the Arctic Circle. Some hundreds of specimens of inverte- 
brates and lower vertebrates were collected there and brought back 
to Washington ; their number was augmented by further sporadic 
collecting in the vicinity of Stockholm. Such specimens have an 
added value in that Sweden and Lappland are type localities for a 
large proportion of the fauna of northern Europe. 

Upon the imminent outbreak of war, the date of sailing was ad- 
vanced a week and the port of departure changed from Hamburg to 
Southampton. This necessitated a hurried trip from Sweden to Eng- 
land, but the ship was reached in time and the work in hand was in 
no way affected by the change of plans. 



THE NAVY SURVEYING EXPEDITION TO THE 
PHOENIX AND SAMOAN ISLANDS, 1939 

By LEONARD P. SCHULTZ 

Curator, Division of Fishes, U. S. National Museum 

When the Smithsonian Institution informed me that I was to 
accompany the U.S.S. Bushnell as naturalist to collect material for 
the United States National Museum, I was delighted to have the 
opportunity to take specimens on seldom-visited islands of the South 
Pacific Ocean. 

Without the aid of two enlisted men, Charles W. Rackliffe and 
Arthur Petit, pharmacist's mates on the U.S.S. Bushnell, who were 
kindly given permission to help me by Dr. H. D. Hubbard (Comdr. 
U.S.N., M.C.) it would have been impossible for me to have 
obtained as much material as I did. 

I left San Diego April i on the U.S.S. Bushnell (fig. 45), and 
after a few days spent at Pearl Harbor, T. H., my field work began 
on Canton Island April 23. This coral atoll, about 9 miles long and 
3 or 4 miles wide, contains a large lagoon (fig. 46), rich in marine 
life. During the next 5 days I was able to collect many specimens of 
fishes and invertebrates and a few birds. The scanty vegetation on 
the rim of this island offers no shade, and if it were not for the brisk 
trade winds that blow continually, the heat of the tropical sun would 
be unbearable. 

Field work was continued from May 3 to 10 on Swains Island 
(figs. 47, 48, 49), a small atoll about a mile and a half in diameter 
containing a fresh-water lake, around the shore of which I found a 
small species of goby. The members of the astronomical party, with 
whom I camped, were treated royally by Mr. Jennings, owner of 
the island, and by the natives, who brought us cocoanuts and other 
foods. They entertained us one evening with the siva-siva (a native 
dance). 

My stay on Enderbury Island from May 14 to 20 was made most 
pleasant by the interest in natural history of James Kinney, a native 
Hawaiian employed at the radio station there. Through his aid I 
was able to catch several species of birds. Sooty terns were as abun- 
dant here as on Rose and Hull Islands. The shallow lagoon was not 
connected with the sea, and the absence of fish in it was sharply con- 
trasted with their great abundance on the reef. 

45 



4 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 45. — U.S.S. Bushnell off Canton Island. Length, 350 feet ; displacement, 

4.000 tons. 




46. — British radio station, right, and United States radic 
as seen from lagoon of Canton Island. 



tation, left, 




Fig. 47. — Swains Island, a tropical paradise, is about a mile and a half in 
diameter. The rim of this atoll, about 600 feet wide, keeps the sea out of 
Lake Namo, the latter occupying the center of the island. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



47 




^a 



Fig. 48. — To climb a cocoanut tree the feet 
are held together by a piece of rope and 
forced against the tree trunk by the weight 
of the climber. Swains Island. 




Fig. 49. — The Swains Island Polynesians bake in circular drums. Cocoanut 
shells are burned over coral stones until they are red hot. Iron plates are placed 
on top of them, and the drums are covered by other iron plates, on top of 
which are burned cocoanut shells giving heat from top and bottom. 



48 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

During further visits to Canton Island on May 12 and 13 and again 
from May 23 to 27 , I collected fishes and invertebrates in Canton 
Island lagoon, obtaining a rare trumpet fish and about 90 other 
kinds of fishes. 

While the ship was at Pago Pago, June 2 to 8, I collected fishes 
with the help of Frank Taiga, native Polynesian ; we took about a 
thousand specimens, representing over a hundred species, in one 
afternoon on a reef at Alofau, Tutuila Island. 

Eleven days on Rose Atoll. June 11 to 21, resulted in the capture 
of over a hundred kinds of fishes, besides the collecting of specimens 
of lava rock, corals, mollusks, invertebrates, and several birds. In the 
tops of the Pisonia trees that formed a large grove on Rose Island 
were nesting boobies and frigate birds, and underneath on the ground 
sooty terns were nesting. 

The fringing reef of Rose Atoll is dotted with big chunks of coral. 
That these boulders were once coral heads broken off the margin of 
the reef and rolled inward by big storms seems clear, as it was found 
upon examination that the corals making them up are nor now in 
their normal growing positions, but lie in almost any direction as 
determined by the position in which the boulders came to rest. 

My one day, June 27, on Tau Island was a great success, for in 
about 4 hours 1 was able to get about 800 fishes, which, when sorted, 
revealed over 90 species. Here I was amazed to see several little 
Polynesian boys dive in and catch a number of fish for me. 

On Hull Island from July 7 to 18, I was fortunate in obtaining 
many fishes as the result of blasting with TXT by the Navy, both on 
the reef and in a big channel among coral heads. On this island, as on 
several other islands of the Phoenix group, may be found old stone 
ruins, some of which were left by the early Polynesians who visited 
these islands before their discovery by white men. 

The coral atolls, such as Canton, Enderbury, Hull, Rose, and 
Swains, have fringing reefs from 200 to 500 feet wide, nearly flat 
and level, but with slightly elevated areas 1 or 2 feet higher near 
the outer margin where the waves break at low tide and cut parallel 
channels that extend inward as far as 150 feet, but averaging about 
50 feet. When the reef is just awash, the waves break over its slightly 
elevated margins and the water flows out through the channels, surg- 
ing up and down in them with great force, often making blow holes. 
The fringing coral reef is in some places overhanging, and at such 
places I could see down through the clear blue water of the channel 
for more than 50 feet underneath the margin of the reef. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I939 



49 




Fig. 50. — Landing through the surf of Enderbury Island was precarious even 
on the calmest days. 




Fig. 51. — The great force of the waves at certain places on the beaches of 
Hull Island piles the coral stones as high as 15 feet. 




Fig. 52. — Sooty terns were very abundant on Hull Island. When disturbed 
about two-thirds of those on the nesting grounds flew into the air. 



50 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Managing a boat through the surf over a reef and landing on the 
beach of a coral island, such as Enderbury is attended with consid- 
erable danger even on the calmest days (fig. 50). 

Storms break off portions of the outer edge of the reef and roll 
these chunks inward, some of them measuring 10 to 15 feet long, and 
5 to 8 feet in width and height, and around the bases of these boulders 
occasionally occur small depressions filled with water. Pools left at 
low tide are uncommon on the coral reefs because of their almost 
complete drainage by channels. 

The slope and height of the beach depends upon the force of the 
wave action (fig. 51). Gently sloping beaches, composed of coral 
gravel and sand, occur in protected areas, but those composed of 
large rubble are very steep because of the terrific wave action. Some 
islands have the conglomerate coral-shell rock (solidified beach coral- 
shell debris) exposed by wave action. 

Fish life is abundant on the reef and in those lagoons actively con- 
nected with the sea by large channels. Spiny lobsters, crabs, and 
shellfish, mostly Tridacna, occur in numbers on the reefs. Practi- 
cally all these marine animals are edible. 

Many species of birds nest on the ground or in the low trees. 
The sooty tern, the most abundant bird on the coral atolls, lays its 
eggs on the ground in great numbers. If a small portion of the 
nesting area is cleared of eggs at night, the terns lay more the next 
day, and fresh eggs are thus made available. Their rookeries are 
easily located by the thousands of sooty terns flying about and utter- 
ing their call night and day. When disturbed, they fly about in such 
numbers that the sky seems filled with sooty terns (fig. 52). The tern 
eggs, when boiled or scrambled, are palatable, as I can personally 
testify after eating them at Enderbury Island. 

On July 27 I was again at Pearl Harbor and spent the next few 
days examining fishes at the Bishop Museum, through the courtesy 
of the curator, E. H. Bryan. Leaving there August 4, I arrived in 
Washington August 18. 

The expedition, besides offering me much worthwhile experience, 
resulted in the capture and preservation of about 14,000 fishes and 
many hundreds of specimens of mollusks, crustaceans, insects, echino- 
derms, and corals, as well as several lizards, plants, and bird skins. 



HANCOCK EXPEDITION OF 1939 TO THE NORTH COAST 
OF SOUTH AMERICA 

By WALDO L. SCHMITT 

Curator, Division of Marine Invertebrates 

U. S. National Museum 

In the spring of 1939 Capt. G. Allan Hancock took his motor 
cruiser, the Vclero III, into Atlantic waters for the first time, travel- 
ing along the north coast of South America as far as Trinidad, and 
back by way of Tobago and the Dutch Island of Curagao. Through 
the kind invitation of Captain Hancock, I had the good fortune to 
accompany the expedition as representative of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Outward bound from Cristobal we first visited the San Bias Indian 
country, putting in at Caledonia Bay in the early morning of April 3. 
The bay seemed immense, fringed with sand and coral beaches, over- 
hung by graceful cocoanut palms, and studded with innumerable 
large and small islands. Some of the islands are green hills rising 
out of the bay ; others are mere sand bars a few feet above high- 
water mark. The latter are favored by the San Bias as their village 
sites. 

At some little distance from our anchorage, near the southern end 
of the bay and yet readily accessible by launch, were two sizable 
villages of the characteristic stave-and-thatch houses. During our visit 
to the farther of them not a woman or girl was to be seen, which is 
quite in keeping with the customs of tribes who have not had much 
intercourse with outsiders. Men and boys, the latter for the greater 
part with no clothing whatever, gathered closely around in order to 
gaze as curiously at us as we did at them. Near the center of the 
village was a large communal house with tiers of seats around a 
central square where were hung the hammocks of the leading men. 
The central area was open to the roof, but around it at second-story 
level was a balcony crowded with a great number of carved and 
painted wooden ceremonial figurines of various sizes from small dolls 
to images larger than the average man. 

In an open dugout drawn up on shore was a considerable store of 
light brown meaty kernels that I concluded were used as food, though 
I could not make much out of the few words of apparent Spanish 
that the Indian who was standing near tried to articulate. Those 

51 



52 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 53. — The Velero III at Caledonia Bay, Panama. Though still under 
the leadership and captaincy of Capt. G. Allan Hancock, the cruiser is now 
a part of the Hancock Foundation of the University of Southern California. 




Fig. 54. — A South American Robert E. Lee on the Magdalena River, 
Colombia. This stern-wheeler is pushing two heavily laden barges ahead of 
her. 




Fig. 55. — San Bias sailing canoe, Caledonia Bay. The San Bias Indians 
are great boatmen and splendid sailors. They seem more at home afloat than 
ashore. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



53 







Fig. 56. — San Bias village, Caledonia Bay, Panama. 




Fig. 57. — Robinson Crnsoe Land, Buccoo Bay, Tobago. Tropic clime, 
thatched shelter, cocoanut palms, beach of coral sand, and private yacht — 
what more could a man want? 




Fig. 58. — One of the world's largest oil refineries, Lago Oil and Transport 
Company, Aruba, Netherlands West Indies. 



54 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

that I brought back with me were determined by Paul Russell, of the 
Department of Agriculture, as a species of Pachira. The large seeds 
of one tree of this genus, Pachira aquatica, common in swamps along 
the Atlantic coast of Central America, are said to be roasted and 
eaten like chestnuts, but I do not know that such use of them has 
been ascribed to the San Bias Indians. Nevertheless, I feel certain 
that they do use them for food in some manner. 

At Baranquilla, Colombia, our next major stop, an early morning 
visit was paid to the market, where specimens of the fish and crus- 
taceans on sale were obtained for subsequent study. Between the 
ship's side and the dock a number of small fish and a host of tiny 
shrimp were dipped up with a hand net. Baranquilla is on the Mag- 
dalena River, one of the great rivers of the world, navigable for 
nearly a thousand miles from its mouth. Like the Amazon, its turbu- 
lent, muddy waters discolor the ocean for miles off the coast. It 
carries a tremendous water-borne traffic to and from the interior of 
the country. The steamers plying its waters are large stern-wheelers, 
usually pushing several heavily laden barges or scows ahead of them. 
They are strongly reminiscent of the days of showboats and steam- 
boat races on the Mississippi. 

Captain Hancock has installed some remarkably efficient dredging 
equipment on the J'elero III. and so at all favorable opportunities 
large-scale dredging operations were undertaken. One of the better 
dredging grounds was found off Cape La Vela, Colombia. 

During the 20-odd hours spent at St. Nicolas Bay, Aruba, we had 
very worth-while collecting at Punta Basora, well to the windward 
or east end of the island. To the leeward, along the south shore of 
Aruba, there has accumulated a great belt of tarry matter, either re- 
finery residues or else the result of the pumping out of the numerous 
huge tankers that visit this tiny port day in and day out throughout 
the year. This has utterly ruined the fine collecting grounds that 
formerly existed on this side of the island. Here the Lago Oil and 
Transport Company maintains one of the world's largest refineries. 
Aruba is also known as the home of an endemic rattlesnake. These 
rattlers are of considerable concern to the oil company because of 
their habit of lying on the warm oil pipe lines at night. The native 
watchmen are so afraid of the snakes that it is with difficulty that 
the company succeeds in keeping its lines properly patrolled. 

La Guaira, Venezuela, was our next port of call, and almost every 
one aboard took the opportunity of visiting Caracas, which lies back 
up in the mountains. 4,000 feet above sea level, and is reached by one 
of the most scenic, yet most tortuous, of well-paved highways. The 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



55 




Fig. 59. — The dredge is up with a rich haul of Caribbean bottom life from 
off the coast of Venezuela. Captain Hancock, in officer's cap, stands in 
center foreground. 




Fig. 60. — San Bias Indian with edible Pachira seeds set out to dry. To the 
right is a livestock pen. 




Fig. 61. — Main street, Caledonia Bay. The native is entering the village's 
large communal house. 



56 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

city is beautifully situated and contains many fine homes and parks. 
One of the show places is the Caracas Country Club, where we met, 
among other most hospitable people, Dr. Alfredo Jahn and Rudolf 
Dolge, President and Vice President of the Venezuelan Natural 
Science Society. 

Between La Guaira and Port of Spain, Trinidad, a number of 
dredgings and shore collections were made at Tortuga, Cubagua, 
and Coche Islands. Boat dredging, shore collecting, and botanizing 
were undertaken at Port of Spain, and additional collections were 
made also on the windward side of the island at Manzanillo. 

The famous pitch lake of Trinidad was an interesting sight. The 
level of the lake is definitely receding, which is no wonder, for the 
excavating seems never to stop. There is an almost constant stream 
of loaded cars clattering up the cable way to the asphalt refinery and 
empties coining back to be filled up again. The viscous mass of 
asphalt is still soft enough to receive good, deep impressions of your 
feet if you stand in one place any length of time. 

One of the high lights of the cruise was our visit to Tobago. This 
is the Atlantic Robinson Crusoe Island. It is true that the exploits 
of Crusoe were largely those of Alexander Selkirk, who lived on 
Juan Fernandez, off the coast of Chile, but the locale of that world- 
famous story is the island of Tobago. It is a most beautiful place, 
and Buccoo Bay is claimed by some to have furnished Defoe with 
the material for his scenic descriptions. To reach Buccoo and its 
reef we first had to take an auto bus across the island from Scar- 
borough, where the Velero III was anchored, and then make arrange- 
ments with a native fisherman to take us out in his boat, but both 
trip and collecting were well worth the effort. 

Buccoo, at Tobago, was our last major collecting stop in the Atlan- 
tic, although some work was done during our 2-day stop at Willem- 
stad, Curacao, off Galera Point, Colombia, and again in Caledonia 
Bay, Panama. We arrived at Cristobal in the early evening of 
April 28, after 26 days on the Atlantic. The strong easterly trades 
blew almost without cessation throughout the trip. The monotonous 
regularity of it had us all on edge, but the Captain did not let the 
wind stand in the way of our scientific investigations. We had the 
great pleasure of Mrs. Hancock's company on this cruise. Not only 
did she wholeheartedly encourage our several endeavors, but she and 
the Captain also took an active part in our collecting forays. 

Again the Institution is indebted to Captain Hancock for this 
opportunity to participate in another of his successful scientific 
expeditions. 



GREENLAND EXPEDITION OF 1939 

By CAPT. ROBERT A. BARTLETT 

Nczv York City 

In the last week of April 1939 we began fitting out the Morrissey 
for her annual summer trip to the Arctic, in order to be ready to set 
sail before the end of June. Again Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, Curator 
of Marine Invertebrates, United States National Museum, gave us 
a willing hand in supplying the necessary equipment to collect all 
kinds of plant and animal life. David C. Nutt, making his fourth 
voyage on the Morrissey, was in charge of the scientific collections 
and biological investigations. 

Besides the wide range of material collected for the Smithsonian 
Institution, four musk ox calves were captured alive for the New 
York Zoological Garden. Extensive series of birds were collected 
for both the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and the New 
England Museum of Natural History in Boston. The collections ob- 
tained for the Boston museum are largely the result of the interest 
and enthusiasm displayed by John K. Howard, Jr., who made his 
first visit to the Arctic this year. Rupert Bartlett got together a 
splendid collection of flowering plants, his best of several seasons. 
Our surgeon, Dr. Walter Kemp, was of great assistance to the field 
collectors and in the troublesome matter of preserving our varied 
hauls of marine life. 

For permission to collect all these things in Greenland we are in- 
deed indebted to the Danish Government, and we are very grateful, 
too, for the permits given us by the Department of Natural Re- 
sources of Newfoundland to collect specimens of Newfoundland bird 
life. 

Capt. J. F. Hellweg, U.S.N., Superintendent of the U. S. Naval 
Observatory, and the Hydrographic Office of the Navy kindly sup- 
plied us with necessary instruments, books, and charts. In return, 
we furnished them with detailed records of ice conditions and berg 
movements, surface temperatures, and meteorological data. These 
were forwarded direct to Washington by radio. Drift bottles were 
put overboard on many occasions. 

Our complement on the Morrissey this summer included David 
Nutt, Dartmouth College, a veteran of three of my previous expedi- 
tions ; John K. Howard, Jr., Groton School ; Doron Warren, Lafayette 

57 



58 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 62. — The Morrissey bowling along under a good 10-knot breeze 




Fig. 63. — Dr. Kemp emptying out the contents of the plankton net for 
preservation and study. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IQ39 



59 








Fig. 64. — A huge tabular iceberg. Bergs of this type are more common in 
the Antarctic than in Arctic waters. 




Fig. 65. — Close-up of a very large and picturesquely sculptured berg. 



60 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

College ; Eugene Munvies, Vanderbilt College ; Holmes McClure, 
Hill School ; Bob Schuette, Dartmouth College ; Leo Silverstein, 
Dartmouth College ; Rupert Bartlett, Memorial College, St. John's, 
Newfoundland ; Sammy Bartlett, Methodist Academy, Brigus, New- 
foundland ; Reginald Wilcox, Hartford, Conn. ; Donald Clark, New 
York ; Arthur Manice, Trinity College ; and Dr. Walter Kemp, Har- 
vard University. Besides these able lads, I had my usual crew of 
Newfoundland fishermen and sealers, who thoroughly understand 
ice. weather, and the ways of the sea. Much of this valuable knowl- 
edge was soon imparted to the boys, and I know they have learned a 
number of things of use and profit to themselves. 

Leaving City Island on June 26, we had a fine run to Brigus. New- 
foundland. July 14 found us off Cape Farewell, Greenland, and 
working north toward Denmark Strait. During the afternoon of 
July i". in latitude 63 ° 42' N., longitude i5°4o' W., we saw the most 
remarkable mirage I had ever witnessed in more than 40 years of 
Arctic service. It was a mirage of the coast of Iceland, with which 
I am well acquainted, raised in the sky and bearing 67 ° true. It 
appeared to be no more than 25 or 30 miles distant, though actually, 
from where we were plowing along through a smooth sea, it was 
more than 250 miles away. There can be no doubt of our position, 
as we had a good check on our instruments and chronometers. If 
I had been bound for Rejkjavik, Iceland, and had not been sure of 
my position, 1 would have expected to arrive within a few hours. 
The contours of the land and the snow-covered summit of the Snae- 
fells Jokull of Iceland showed up with almost unbelievable clearness. 1 

In a moderate gale we made the ice ; luckily, it was loose, and we 
were able to lie to in its welcome shelter until the next day, when the 
wind dropped and the sun came out, giving us our first glimpse of 
the Blosseville coast in all its cold majesty. We found the northern 
part of this coast free of ice. We steamed in back of Manby Penin- 
sula on July 23 to spend our first day ashore in Greenland filling our 
tanks with the fine, clear water of the little streams tumbling down 
from the mountain tops. Here we collected our first specimens of 
Greenland plants and animals for this cruise. Rupert Bartlett, who 
went ashore, reported on his return that he had found a hot spring. 

July 24, a gorgeous day. was spent cruising along the Liverpool 
coast. All hands stood in awe of the scenic splendor of the mountain 
spires emblazoned by the bright summer sun. Many little auks 
burgomaster gulls, and a few murre were seen along this shore. 

1 Dr. William H. Hobbs, of the University of Michigan, to whom I related 
my experience, was so impressed that he published a note about it in Science, 
Dec. 1, 1939. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



6l 




66. — The native reception committee comes out in full force to welcome 
the Morrissey and escort her into the harbor of Angmagssalik. 




67. — Three of the Angmagssalik queens of beauty. 



62 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Farther north the ice conditions became worse. The entire fiord 
region was closed. We were stopped 15 miles south of Shannon 
Island by solid ice to the north and west. A little later, however, we 
went around this, following north in the hope of being able to reach 
the Belgica Bank and use our otter trawl, but bad weather turned 
us back at latitude jj° 15' N. 

About 10 days were spent exploring the Clavering Fiord region in 
search of the musk ox calves and other specimens. Whaleboat jour- 
neys to the bottom of Loch Fine and Grant's Fiord were made. Nu- 
merous bottom dredgings and plankton hauls produced valuable speci- 
mens of marine life. Many species of birds were encountered ; espe- 
cially abundant were the pink-footed geese, the Arctic terns, and the 
ringed plovers. We got a fine lot of photographs and motion pictures 
in this region. 

Cruising south, we stopped for 2 days at Angmagssalik to visit the 
Eskimos and the Danish Settlement, good friends of our former trips 
to the east coast. 

The unusually fine weather of August 25 permitted us to work in 
toward Cape Farewell and use our otter trawl in a region heretofore 
untouched. The day was a memorable one, with the sun so bright 
on the mountains looking down on us ; outside lurked billowing banks 
of fog which slowly closed in as the net dragged along the bottom at 
a hundred fathoms. It was a grand haul, for among the wealth of 
marine life it contained there were five specimens of a very rare 
10-armed starfish, Crossaster squamatus. Austin H. Clark, of the 
National Museum, tells me that heretofore only five specimens of this 
species have been known in the world and that they are all in European 
museums. The specimens which I collected, now in the National 
Museum at Washington, are the first in any American collection. 

A party that went ashore on one of the small islands found it to 
be typically Labrador in appearance, with its many small ponds and 
blueberry and crowberry bushes. Four Brant geese, many northern 
phalaropes, and purple sandpipers were encountered. 

On the voyage from Cape Farewell to Newfoundland plankton 
hauls were made every 4 hours, rain or shine, snow or blow. 

We made the Newfoundland coast on September 1, stopping at 
Brigus for 2 days before following on to New York and Staten Island, 
where the little Morrissey is tied up for the winter. All hands re- 
turned in good health, our specimen boxes were brimful, and the 
musk ox calves in fine fettle. Already we have started laying our plans 
for next summer's voyage ; one good trip begets another. 



BUTTERFLIES OF VIRGINIA 

By AUSTIN H. CLARK 
Curator, Division of Echinoderms, U. S. National Museum 

Very few butterflies are really rare, though many are seldom cap- 
tured. If in any district you meet with a particular kind of butterfly 
only at long intervals, it usually means that the individuals you find 
are not really at home but have come from somewhere else not very 
far away. 

Along the western border of Frederick County we had from time 
to time noted individuals of the silky blue (Glaucopsyche lygdamus) , 
the Virginia white {Pieris virginiensis) , and the Olympian marble 
(Euchloe olympia) . The first two were so very scarce that we knew 
they were more or less strangers to the region, and the last was not 
very numerous. 

In the spring, when these butterflies are flying, it is often windy, 
the wind coming from the west, so we figured that not far to the 
westward, in Hampshire County, W. Va., we ought to find all three 
of them in numbers. Visiting this region early in May, in company 
with Mr. and Mrs. Ernest L. Bell and Dr. Walter S. Hough, we 
found them all, as we had expected. 

The little silky blue flies very fast and keeps very near the ground 
so that it is not easy to capture on the wing — and besides, you do not 
often see it. But we found that its food plant in this region is the 
Carolina vetch {Vicia caroliniana). If you simply stay near a patch 
of this plant one of these butterflies will come to it every few minutes. 
By this method you can in a short time gather all you wish. This is 
generally regarded as a rather scarce little butterfly, but we found it 
common enough. 

The Virginia white we found in damp low woods near a stream. 
It has a languid flight and is by no means as energetic as the Euro- 
pean cabbage white {Pieris rapae). It keeps always in the woods, 
whereas the cabbage white keeps to the open country. We did not 
find it very common ; as all the individuals captured were worn and 
broken we judged that its season was almost over. Probably a week 
or two earlier it would have been more numerous. 

The Olympian marble was very common on the higher portions of 
the hills and ridges. In fact, one or more were almost always in 
sight. On looking over the series of nearly 40 that we captured on 

63 



6 4 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 68. — The diana fritillary (Argynnis diana), male, upper side. Spring 
Grove, Surry County, Va., June 15, 1938. 




Fig. 69. — Same specimen as above, under side. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, J.939 



65 








Fig. 70. — The silky blue (Glaucopsyche ly g daunts) . Left, male, upper side; 
center, male, under side ; right, female, under side. Ice Mountain, W. Va., 
May 7, 1939. X i.i 



/" 





Fig. 71. — Left, Couper's blue (Glaucopsyche lygdavuts couficri), male, under 
side; Charles Town, W. Va., April 25, 1900. Right, Erora lacta, under side; 
Mountain Lake, Va., June 23, 1938. X ii- 





Fig. 72. — Left, the Olympian marble (Euchloe olympia) ; Frederick County, 
Va., April 24, 1938. Right, western marble (E. 0. rosa) ; Forks of Cacapon, 
W. Va., May 8, 1939. 





Fig. 72>- — Left, Incisalia polios, under side ; Dig-by, N. S. X ii- Right, the 
Palatka skipper (Atrytone pilatka), male; Miami, Fla. 



66 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

the first day we found that most of them agreed with the western 
race, rosa, instead of with the typical eastern race we had expected 
to find, and which we had taken earlier in spring in the same region. 

On examining the matter we found that early in spring when it 
is still cold the typical form, olympia, is on the wing. After it be- 
comes hot the butterfly changes over to the western type of colora- 
tion. So in northwestern Virginia and in adjacent West Virginia you 
find first the usual eastern form and toward the end of the season 
the form characteristic of the region from Nebraska southward to 
Texas and Xew Mexico. 

In June we visited the Dismal Swamp region in company with 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson H. Boyd and John and Alexander Boyd of 
Southern Pines, X. C. On the return trip we found Argynnis diana 
in James City and Charles City Counties, from which it has not pre- 
viously been reported. Early in July we revisited this region with 
Mr. and Mrs. Bell and obtained our first July record for the Virginia 
metalmark (Xymphidia pumila). 

Toward the end of July we spent 10 days in Highland County, 
where we found the northern coral hairstreak (Strymoii titus til us) ; 
elsewbere in Virginia we have found only the southern form ( S. t. 
mopsus). We also found the diana fritillary (Argynnis diana) gen- 
erally distributed throughout the county, though nowhere common. 

In the middle of September we spent 2 days on Tangier Island in 
Chesapeake Bay. Here butterflies were not common. The little salt- 
marsh skipper ( Panoquina panoquin), however, more than made up 
for the scarcity of other species, for it was abundant everywhere on 
the marshes. 

Although we ourselves succeeded in capturing only a single but- 
terfly new to the Virginia fauna, the northern coral hairstreak (Stry- 
mon titns titus), three others were added to the Virginia list by our 
friends. Prof. Lorus J. Milne and Mrs. Milne, of Randolph-Macon 
Woman's College, Lynchburg, gave us for the National Museum a 
fine specimen of Erora laeta which they obtained at Mountain Lake, 
Giles County. Carroll E. Wood. Jr.. of Salem, presented the Museum 
with an excellent specimen of Incisalia polios from near Salem. 
Otto Buchholz, of Westfield, X. J., has been so kind as to inform us 
of his capture of the Palatka skipper (Atrytone pilatka) near Munden 
in Princess Anne County. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN COLOMBIA 

By ELLSWORTH P. KILLIP 

Associate Curator, Division of Plants, U. S. National Museum 

For a period of more than 20 years special study of the flora of 
Colombia has been carried on at the Smithsonian Institution, in the 
course of which four expeditions have been sent to that country. 
Three of these were made between 191 7 and 1927 and were organ- 
ized in collaboration with other institutions of the United States. The 
most recent field trip was made in 1939 and was sponsored jointly by 
the Institute Botanico, of Bogota, and the Smithsonian Institution. 

The little-explored Pacific littoral, including the western slope of 
the Western Cordillera, was the principal objective of this trip. How- 
ever, our plans called for spending a short time at the Institute 
Botanico and for revisiting the Quindio region, in the Central Cordil- 
lera, where grow the celebrated wax palms. 

Arriving at the Pacific port of Buenaventura February 1, I was 
soon joined by Dr. Hernando Garcia y Barriga, of the Institute By 
a stroke of good fortune it was possible almost at once to visit Gor- 
gona Island, a night's travel to the southwest of Buenaventura. The 
rich vegetation of this island was described as early as 1850, and 
very recently Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy, of the American Museum 
of Natural History, has given a fascinating account of its dense 
forests. Through the courtesy of Sefior Marciel Lemos, Administra- 
tor of the Customs, we were invited to be passengers on the Andagoya, 
a government vessel which makes trips to the island at 8-month inter- 
vals to replace the acetylene cylinders at the lighthouse on nearby 
Gorgonilla Island. Here we anchored for 3 days while the crew labori- 
ously lifted, by means of a pulley, the numerous cylinders up a nearly 
vertical cliff 300 feet high, carrying them along the crest to the light- 
house about a mile distant. Collecting along the shore and in the 
dense forest on the crest was exceptionally rich. Equally so was the 
interior of Gorgona itself, which we visited later while at anchor off 
the east coast. 

Returning to Buenaventura, we next visited Bahia Solano, up the 
coast more than halfway to the Panamanian boundary. At the south 
shore of this bay an agricultural colony, Ciudad Mutis, has recently 
been established, which it is hoped will eventually develop into an 
important seaport. Though our time here unfortunately was limited 

6 67 



68 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 74. — Mutis Patio in the Institute Botanico. 




Fig. 75. — Southern end of Gorgona Island from Gorgonilla. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



6 9 




Fie;. 76. — Chontadura palms along the San Juan River. 




Fig. 77. — Choco Indians on the San Juan River. 



/O SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

to 2 days, we were able to collect about 200 "numbers" in the dense 
forest which surrounds the colony to the south and east. 

Our trip to the Pacific littoral being for the time terminated, we 
proceeded from Buenaventura to Cali, the principal city of the thriving 
Cauca Valley. Here arrangements had been made by officials of the 
Department of El Valle for us to use as headquarters the thoroughly 
up-to-date School of Tropical Agriculture, one of several agricul- 
tural schools established in Colombia in recent years. Excursions 
were made to two points in the Western Cordillera during this stay, 
one to San Antonio, at the crest of the Divide, the other to Yanaconas. 
It was a pleasure to have as a guide to San Antonio Mrs. Edith 
Dryander, whose specimens, obtained mainly from the Cali region 
and sent to the Botanisches Museum at Berlin, have been the types 
of many new species. 

Dr. Garcia and I made the trip from Cali to Bogota by plane in 
an hour and a half, crossing the Central Cordillera, with its magnifi- 
cent snow-topped peaks of Tolima and Ruiz, and the Magdalena 
Valley. Bogota, situated on a plateau in the Eastern Cordillera at 
an altitude of about 9,600 feet, was my general headquarters for the 
greater part of March, and I had ample opportunity of becoming ac- 
quainted with the interesting suburb, University City, to which the 
National University is being gradually transferred. The dominant 
building is the Botanical Institute, in which are housed the National 
Herbarium and, for the present, the zoological and entomological col- 
lections of the nation. The establishment of this important scientific 
institution has been due largely to the energy and enthusiasm of 
Dr. Enrique Perez Arbelaez, chief botanist of Colombia, who has been 
amply supported by the three recent National Administrations. Not 
only is the botanical equipment here most adequate, but the director 
has assembled on his staff many of the leading young botanists of 
the country. 

On reaching Bogota on March 7, I found that A. H. G. Alston, 
of the British Museum (Natural History), had just arrived from 
Caracas, having driven over the remarkable trans-Andean Highway. 
We decided to join forces for the next few weeks, making use of his 
truck to visit regions made easily accessible by the construction of 
good roads in recent years. Our main joint excursion was to Villa- 
vicencio, the gateway to the vast lowlands of eastern Colombia, about 
a 6-hour drive from Bogota. Daily side-trips from this base gave an 
opportunity of collecting on the grassy llanos, in the palm jungles, and 
along the banks of the Guatiquia and Ocoa Rivers. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, K)Z9 



71 






J2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

On the return trip from Bogota to Cali a 2-day stop was made at 
Cajamarca, on the Quindio Highway, east of the Divide, in order 
to make a special study of the wax palms and to collect their fruit. 
This highway is situated a few miles south of the historic Quindio 
Trail, along which traveled Humboldt and Bonpland, Karsten, Andre, 
and other botanical explorers who have given detailed accounts of 
this magnificent palm. 

Accompanied by two members of the faculty of the Cali Agricul- 
tural School, Drs. Dussan and Gomez, Mr. Alston and I spent the 
first few days of April in the Digua Valley, on the Pacific side of 
the Western Cordillera, through which a highway is being constructed 
to connect the Cauca Valley with Buenaventura. Like most of the 
Pacific slope, this valley is densely forested, and several hundred 
specimens were collected in the course of 4 days. 

The final 3 weeks of my trip was spent in the interior of the Choco, 
that vast, forested region extending from the Dagua Valley to the 
Panama border. A cordial invitation to visit the scene of operations 
of the Compahia Minera Choco Pacifico along the upper San Juan 
River was extended to me by the officers of the company at New 
York. Transportation up the San Juan was arranged by the com- 
pany's representative at Buenaventura, G. W. Bylander, who through- 
out my stay at this port had given me highly appreciated assistance. 
I had planned to explore the Choco at the beginning of my trip, but 
abnormally low water had made boat travel difficult. Even in April 
the progress of the river steamer was slow, and we were obliged to 
wait 2 days at a native village before sufficient rainfall permitted our 
reaching Bebedo, the terminal of the Buenaventura boats. From 
here to Andagoya, the company's headquarters at the junction of the 
Condoto and San Juan Rivers, transportation was by launch. 

Andagoya proved an ideal base from which to make botanical col- 
lections, and fur the many courtesies received there I am deeply in- 
debted to the manager, F. M. Estes, and the assistant manager, F. D. 
Bradbury. The company, which is engaged in dredging for platinum 
and gold, maintains smaller camps at various points along the upper 
San Juan and its tributaries, and to these I made frequent visits. 

During the course of the present exploration nearly 2,700 "num- 
bers" were collected, represented by about 11,000 specimens. A com- 
plete set has been deposited in the United States National Flerbarium, 
and a nearly complete one at the Instituto Botanico. In this collection 
there are more than 300 numbers of ferns and more than 100 numbers 
each of orchids, aroids, grasses, and peppers. The work of identifying 
the material has been begun. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ENGLAND, RUSSIA, 
SIBERIA, AND FRANCE, 1939 

By ALES HRDLICKA 

Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, U. S. National Museum 

On April 15, 1939, the writer left New York on an anthropological 
trip to Europe, with particular emphasis on studies in Russia and 
Siberia. The main objects of the trip were : In London to see the 
remains of early man from Palestine, and also whatever Siberian 
skeletal material there might be in the museums of that city. In 
France the main purpose was to see the newly established Museum 
of Man in Paris. In Russia and Siberia the chief objective was to 
examine such skeletal and cultural materials from Siberia as might 
have a bearing on the problem of Asiatic-American connections. 

Throughout the writer's stay in England and in the U.S.S.R. he 
received the most cordial and effective cooperation from the scientists 
and authorities of those countries, as well as from our own official 
representatives there. It would be impracticable to mention here the 
names of all those who were of assistance ; but in England special 
thanks are due Sir Arthur Keith and Franklin C. Gowen, the Second 
Secretary of our Embassy, and in Russia the VOKS (Association 
for Cultural Relations), the Intourist, and the academicians, direc- 
tors, and staffs of the Anthropological Institute in Leningrad and 
of the Anthropological Institute in Moscow ; and the heads and mem- 
bers of the staff of the University and Museum at Irkutsk, Siberia. 

The main part of the trip was in the U.S.S.R., where the stay was 
divided between Leningrad, Moscow, and Irkutsk. In the anthropo- 
logical institutes and museums of these cities the writer found ex- 
ceedingly rich and valuable materials from Siberia, all of which he 
was allowed to utilize freely. 

The examinations in Leningrad were carried on in the new 
Anthropological Institute and Museum, which is housed in one of 
the most historic buildings in Russia — the Kunst-Kamera, founded 
by Peter the Great and still preserving many of the specimens that 
he brought from Holland. The Museum has a very large and valu- 
able collection of human crania and skeletons, including important 
series of skulls of the Chukchi and other Siberian peoples. In the 
Anthropological Institute of the Moscow University there is another 
huge cranial and skeletal collection, including other important series 
of Siberian materials. Finally, at the Irkutsk Museum there was 

73 



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SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IO,39 



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/8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

found a large and very important collection of neolithic skeletal re- 
mains from the Angara River and Baikal Lake regions. Here also 
the writer was enabled to make three highly instructive trips along 
the Angara to paleolithic and neolithic sites, some of which were 
then being excavated by Russian scientists. 

The total number of Siberian crania examined and measured by 
the writer on this trip was 606. This includes large and particularly 
interesting series of the Chukchi, Ostiaks, Tungus. and the neolithics 
of the Irkutsk region. It will, of course, take time to elaborate the 
data, but it may be said at once that the examinations showed un- 
mistakable relations between the Chukchi and the American Eskimo, 
between the Siberian and the American brachycranic strains, and be- 
tween the Siberian neolithics and the Shoshonean-Californian- 
Algonquin cranial types of America. In addition to this, the neolithic 
archeological materials of Siberia were found to show many close 
similarities to the archeological remains of the Aleutian Islands, 
Alaska, and other parts of the New World. 

The writer also was given, for the United States National Museum, 
at both the Leningrad and the Moscow Anthropological Institutes 
and at the Institute of the Peoples of the Far North (Leningrad), 
series of portraits of individuals from different Siberian tribes whose 
physiognomies closely resemble those of American Indians. 

The writer had the further privilege, partly at Leningrad and 
partly at Moscow, of seeing the skull, remains of bones, and asso- 
ciated cultural materials of a Neanderthal child from Uzbekistan, in 
Central Asia. These were shown him by Dr. A. Okladnikov, the dis- 
coverer, and by Professor Plissetzky, under whose direction the 
specimens were restored. This is a find of outstanding anthropologi- 
cal importance, and the skull, lower jaw and teeth are in excellent 
condition. The first cast of the skull was kindly promised by Pro- 
fessor Plissetzky, the director of the Moscow Anthropological Insti- 
tute, to the United States National Museum. 

Still another favor was obtained by the writer at the anatomical 
department at the Irkutsk University. This consisted of the exchange 
of one of the Indian-like neolithic crania from the Angara region for 
some American specimens. 

A very gratifying observation in the Soviet Union was that arche- 
ological, ethnographical, and other anthropological research, both in 
the field and in the institutions, shows everywhere a vigorous revival. 

The new Museum of Man at Paris, was found to be a huge and 
beautifully furnished establishment, occupying a prominent place on 
the site of the former Trocadero. 



FURTHER EXCAVATIONS AT THE INDIAN VILLAGE 
SITE OF PATAWOMEKE (POTOMAC) 

By T. D. STEWART 

Associate Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology 

U. S. National Museum 

The systematic excavations carried on last year at the site of the 
Indian village visited by Capt. John Smith in the summer of 1608 
and described by him under the name of Patawomeke, indicated that 
it had been a stockaded village. Among the details of the town plan 
that remained undiscovered at the close of the 1938 season were the 
main entrances, the location of the dwellings, and the manner of their 
construction. The cultural objects obtained during this work, as well 
as previously by Judge Graham, showed considerable uniformity, and 
thereby suggested a relatively short occupancy of the site ; nothing 
thus far gave indication of the presence here of cultural elements 
differing from those apparent on the surface. Nevertheless, a further 
development of the town plan in itself was deemed of sufficient im- 
portance for continuing the investigation in 1939. For permission to 
excavate further on the site I am indebted to J. L. Pratt, of Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., and James Ashby, of Stafford, Va. 

In order that the work might be carried on more intensively, the 
arrangement whereby we commuted from Washington was discon- 
tinued, and a camp was set up at the site. Additional funds permitted 
me to employ as assistants Robert Ladd and James Gillis, Jr., both 
of Washington, and to reemploy two local laborers. On June 15 two 
tents were pitched on the bluff overlooking the broad expanse of 
water where Potomac Creek enters the Potomac River. Shade, and 
unfortunately also fruit — which in turn attracted flies — was supplied 
by mulberry trees ; water was obtained from the fine spring that pre- 
sumably supplied the Indian village in its clay ; and supplies were 
transported with generous local help from Brooke, 7 miles away. 
One of the more appreciated assets of the location was the good 
swimming afforded by the river. Under these pleasant living condi- 
tions, the work was carried on until July 24, 1939. 

The camp site also proved to be attractive to a Carolina wren, 
which insisted in trying to build a nest in a retracted tent flap and in 
the author's bed. In the latter place, however, the mosquito netting 
eventually served as a trap that discouraged her further efforts in 
this location. 

79 



8o 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 85. — Extending a trench eastward. Two laborers remove the topsoil 
while Mr. Gillis cleans the surface of the hardpan with a trowel. The camp 
is seen in the distance on the bluff overlooking Potomac Creek. 




Fig. 86. — A cleared area showing two concentric rows of post holes and 
several shallow trenches. This feature was encountered at the northern 
periphery of the village site. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IO,39 




Fig. 87. — The two sherds at the top are typical of the cord-marked, grit- 
tempered variety prevailing at Patawomeke. The others, showing basketry 
impressions and incised line decoration (shell-tempered), came from a deep 
pit on the western side of the site. 




Fig. 88. — Careful excavation of the ossuary revealed individual bodies 
arranged at right angles to one another in two layers. Note the completely 
articulated hand on the far side. In the case of this skeleton also the lower 
leg has been flexed forward unnaturally at the knee. 



82 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Constant presence at the site enabled us to employ a somewhat 
different technique from that used last year. Trenches 10 feet broad 
were extended across undisturbed parts of the site. This increased 
exposure, in contrast to the previous short 5-foot trenches, clarified 
the picture considerably. The initial trenches were run in the field 
to the east that had been under cultivation last season. Here we had 
hoped to find an entrance to the stockade, but were disappointed. As 
elsewhere about the site, the post holes are so numerous, presumably 
as a result of replacements and relocations of the original wooden 
structures, that the details are obscured. Some time was devoted also 
to trenching the accumulated refuse along the bluff overlooking the 
creek. In places these deposits reach 4 feet in depth but give evidence 
of having received accretions from the plow. 

Attention was distracted from these features toward the close of 
the season by two important finds of a different nature : A deep pit 
containing a type of pottery unlike that prevailing on the surface, and 
an ossuary. The finding of the ossuary offered us the opportunity 
to expose the bones from above in order to show their arrangement. 
Circumstances usually do not allow time for this procedure. In the 
present case we succeeded in making a good record of about one-third 
of the burial pit before heavy and prolonged rains interrupted. 

As the accompanying photograph (fig. 88) shows, individual bodies, 
still somewhat articulated, can be distinguished in this ossuary. A 
typical method of contracting the body appears to have been that 
in which the lower legs were flexed forward unnaturally at the knees 
so that the feet came to touch the abdomen. Two other features of 
the ossuary are of interest: 1, at one place there was a mass of 
charred bones, the remain perhaps of a deliberate cremation or sacri- 
fice ; 2, in connection with some of the skeletons there were great 
numbers of shell beads, and in one of these cases the largest beads 
had been placed within the skull, obviously at the time of burial. 

As regards the strange type of pottery (see fig. 87), it is charac- 
terized by shell tempering, basketry impression, and line decoration 
in contrast to the grit tempering and cord marking of the prevail- 
ing type. The full significance of this find, aside from probable cul- 
tural succession, is not yet apparent. Pottery of this general type 
occurs along the Rappahannock River and in nearby Maryland. 

It was necessary to discontinue the work on the above-mentioned 
date in order that the writer might reach Mexico City in time to 
attend the International Congress of Americanists, meeting there 
August 5 to 15, to which he had been appointed a delegate represent- 
ing: the United States Government. 



ARCHEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN WESTERN 

KANSAS 

By WALDO R. WEDEL 

Assistant Curator, Division of Archeology, U. S. National Museum 

During the closing decades of the seventeenth century, when the 
Spanish were reconquering the New Mexico region after the Pueblo 
revolt of 1680, discontented Indian groups on various occasions fled 
east and northeast into the buffalo plains seeking refuge among the 
Apaches. Though such flights were never of sufficient duration and 
magnitude to leave a marked impression on the alien peoples thus 
contacted, the fact that they did take place is of considerable interest 
to students of Plains prehistory. It raises the hope that datable 
antiquities of Southwestern type may eventually be found in direct 
association with remains of recognized Plains cultures. Through 
such association a clearer perspective might be imparted to the 
sequence of culture types postulated for the central Great Plains. 

To determine, first, the extent of Puebloan influences in western 
Kansas, and second, the prospects for injecting time perspective into 
the earlier archeological history of the region, the writer extended 
into the High Plains an archeological survey begun in 1937. A month 
was spent in and near Scott County State Park, lying in the picturesque 
bluff-lined Beaver Creek valley, which contrasts most strikingly 
with the flat wind-swept and drought-ridden surrounding uplands 
(fig. 89). Traces of a seven-room pueblo ruin opened by Williston 
and Martin in 1898 were relocated. Middens yielded potsherds and 
artifacts of stone, bone, and horn, as well as rare objects of copper, 
iron, and glass. Charred maize, and squash or gourd rinds indicate 
horticulture, but quantities of animal bones suggest that subsistence 
was primarily by hunting. Contrary to expectations, Puebloan influ- 
ences were almost negligible. Aside from the stone-walled ruin and 
nearby pre-white irrigation ditches there was a bare handful of 
sherds, some painted, and a few incised clay pipe fragments pre- 
sumably attributable to late Southwestern stimulus. Numerous bell- 
shaped roasting pits and large irregular trash pits, as also the great 
bulk of artifacts recovered, show close relationship to sites of the 
protohistoric Dismal River culture of southwestern Nebraska. No 
houses of indigenous type were found. Whatever the relationship 
between these remains and the Pueblo structure, it is an interesting 

7 83 



8 4 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 89. — Looking south up the Beaver Valley in Scott County State Park, 
Kans. Arrow points to El Quartelejo Monument and site of excavations. 




Fig. 90. — Excavating a prehistoric burial ground near Scott Countv State 

Park. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IQ39 



85 





.«■ »*-i 



Fig. 91. — Looking southeast across stratified village site on Salt Creek, 
Lane County, Kans. Expedition camp and a large spring concealed by trees 
at right of view. 






m 



V*. 



Fig. 92. — Two prehistoric Upper Republican pit houses on Salt Creek, 
was circular in outline and originally had four central posts. 



:ach 



86 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

historical fact that in early contact times the western Plains were in- 
habited by Apache and Comanche bands, some of whom appear to 
have followed a semihorticultural mode of life. 

Just outside the north entrance to the park a small burial ground, 
probably much older than the above remains, yielded two long- 
headed skeletons and several secondary (or disturbed ?) interments 
(fig. 90). With the skeletons were broken tortoise shells, tubular 
bone beads, and chipped flints, including one heavy-stemmed arrow- 
point of Woodland type. Persistent search failed to disclose any evi- 
dence of an associated village or camp site. 

About 20 miles east, on Salt Creek in Lane County, remains of 
different type were found. On and just below the surface of one 
site (fig. 91) were materials attributable to the Upper Republican 
culture of southern Nebraska. Two small pit houses, each with four 
center posts, were worked out (fig. 92). Along with shallow middens 
nearby, they yielded typical pottery, arrowpoints, a bone fishhook, 
etc., but no direct proof of horticulture. Separated from this deposit 
by a barren stratum up to a foot thick was a second cultural layer. 
From this came thick cord-roughened sherds and large-stemmed 
arrowpoints markedly unlike the top layer materials. This second 
horizon, evidently linked with some Plains Woodland manifestation, 
had been intruded by both pit houses. Beneath one of the latter, in- 
clusive in the Woodland horizon, was a rocker-marked sherd similar 
to those found in 1937 at Hopewellian village sites near Kansas City. 
Lack of time precluded investigation of what may be a third cultural 
horizon underlying both of the above. Local collectors report the 
finding of Pawnee as well as of shell-tempered sherds, together with 
copper, glass beads, and catlinite on the wind-eroded surface. Two 
other sites tested in Lane County evidenced a similar stratification of 
Upper Republican over Woodland remains. Because of the limited 
occurrence of permanent springs in the High Plains and the resultant 
repeated use of desirable locations by successive peoples, I suspect 
still others could be found. 

Tentatively summarized, these researches seem to show that in 
Lane and Scott Counties there were at least two groups of prehistoric 
pottery-making peoples. On stratigraphic grounds those bearing a 
Woodland culture preceded others with Upper Republican affilia- 
tions ; neither appears to have been in contact with Southwestern 
peoples. Still later, in protohistoric times, a third complex assignable 
to the Dismal River culture, occupied the area. This sequence parallels 
that in western Nebraska and adds materially to the geographic range 
of the cultures involved. 



EXCAVATIONS AT THE LINDENMEIER SITE 

CONTRIBUTE NEW INFORMATION ON 

THE FOLSOM COMPLEX 

By FRANK H. H. ROBERTS, JR. 

Archeologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Continuance of excavations at the Linclenmeier site in northern 
Colorado and careful exploration of the deeply gullied terrain for 
many miles in all directions in an effort to obtain additional informa- 
tion and further traces of Folsom man, the nomadic hunter who 
tarried in that district during the closing days of the last ice age, 
constituted the activities of one Bureau of American Ethnology- 
Smithsonian Institution field party in the summer of 1939. The 
digging produced new and augmenting data, but the reconnaissance 
failed to locate more than sporadic traces of former occupancy, none 
comparing either in extent or quality of evidence with the main site. 

Previous investigations established the fact that the Lindenmeier 
site was a former camping place occupied when glaciers still lingered 
in the mountains ; when the climate was cooler and more moist ; 
when species of bison, camel, and mammoth, animals now extinct, 
roamed the western plains ; and when the topography differed from 
that of today. The earlier digging revealed that what now appears 
as a terrace was originally part of a valley, the bottom dotted with 
meadows, marshes, and bogs furnishing food, water, and wallowing 
places for the animals, and the gently inclined lower slopes provid- 
ing a suitable resting spot for the aboriginal hunters. In addition to 
the game that served to satisfy the requirements for food and prob- 
ably for the materials needed for tents and such clothing as was worn, 
the region also supplied stone in the form of nodules, weathering 
from surrounding deposits, from which to fashion tools. That full 
advantage was taken of these resources is shown by the numerous 
scattered assemblages with implements in association with cut, split, 
and burned bones, and concentrations of chipper's debris, the minute 
stone splinters and larger unused flakes resulting from the manufac- 
ture of various kinds of articles. These materials are found along 
the old level of occupation several feet below the present surface. 

The 1939 excavations consisted of the removal of the overburden, 
ranging from 3^ to 5i feet in thickness, from some 1,540 square 
feet of the camp area, the sinking of 10 test pits in unsampled por- 
tions of the site, and making examinations of outcroppings of the 

87 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 93. — General view of Lindenmeier site. Arrow points to main exca- 
vations. Light spots on ground to right above upper ravine bank indicate 
digging of previous seasons. 




Fig. 94. — Portion of the main excavations of the 1939 season. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



89 




Fig. 95. — Trench extending from main pit shows upward slant of occupation 
level and demonstrates former existence of bordering ridge. 





Fig. 96. — Pc 



)f main pit showing bone scraps and section of bison jaw 
in position below dark soil zone. 



90 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

archeological stratum in the banks of a deep ravine that traverses 
part of the old valley bottom (fig. 93). Exposure of the former sur- 
face of occupation started from the side of a test trench dug in 1938 
and continued up, down, and along the slope (fig. 94). The layers 
of earth in the overlying deposits at this part of the site hold so con- 
sistent a level in relation to the course of the old valley and have 
such a gradual slant in the other direction that a narrow trench was 
cut through from the main excavation to the edge of the terrace to 
ascertain the nature of their termination. They end on the surface 
a few feet from the escarpment and clearly show that they formerly 
continued on the same gradient (fig. 95), for an undeterminable 
distance. The feature is significant because it augments and em- 
phasizes previous indications that the valley once was bordered by 
a ridge long since eroded away. Some of the material was swept 
down across the site, forming the layers above the archeological 
horizon, but the bulk of it has been carried away in the opposite 
direction, thus producing the terracelike character of the formation. 

The thick, dark-colored stratum apparent in the photographs just 
above the floor of the excavation is a soil zone produced by lush vege- 
tation during a period of heavy precipitation when growing condi- 
tions were more favorable than those of recent times. The layer is 
important because it was the means of correlating the site with geo- 
logic phenomena attributable to the waning of the Glacial period. 
The artifacts and bones occur along the upper surface and in the 
lighter-colored stratum below, some projecting into the zone above 
(fig. 96). The light layer consists of a mixture of wind-blown sand 
and decomposed material from the top of the tufaceous clay deposit 
underlying the whole area. The stratum is evidence for a dry and 
windy era associated with a minor oscillation in the last ice sheet 
and establishes a slightly earlier occupation than previously supposed. 
The positions of the artifacts and bones show inhabitation before the 
onset of the wet cycle and that tenancy persisted for a time after its 
inception but did not continue throughout its duration. The climate 
may have become too damp, possibly somewhat cooler as well, and 
as a consequence the animals and people moved on, probably farther 
south along the edge of the Plains, where traces of their former 
presence appear in several places. 

The excavated area yielded more specimens than any of comparable 
size yet dug. The artifacts comprise typically fluted Folsom points, 
fluted knives, knives made from channel flakes removed from the 
faces of the points, other kinds of flake knives, a large variety of 
scrapers including several forms of the spokeshave type, flakes with 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IO,39 



91 




Fig. 97. — Workman pointing to bone bead in situ 
tially uncovered. Inset shows two forms of beads, 
with incised lines. 



ONE INCH 



pieces of bison bones par- 
Upper specimen decorated 




Test excavations in ravine bank. Standing figure in central 
ground is on old surface of occupation. 



92 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

graver's points, large choppers and hand hammers, pigments in the 
form of hematite and red and yellow ochers, bone punches and awls, 
pieces of decorated bone of unknown function, and tubular bone 
beads. An interesting feature in the material from this portion of 
the site is the large number of channel flakes and the quantity of chip- 
per's debris. These suggest proximity to the place where points were 
made, probably to the actual habitation area of some of the group. 
There are several new types of knives and scrapers in the collection 
and the beads (fig. 97) are the first to be found in the Folsom com- 
plex. They were made from shafts from long bones. Unfortunately, 
the process of manufacture removed the criteria for identification, 
but they seem to be rabbit and bird. One of the specimens is 
decorated with a series of short, parallel lines cut into its surface. 

Because most of the bone material of the 1939 season is the residue 
from meals, it is too scrappy to permit recognition of all of the ani- 
mals represented. There is no question, however, of the presence of 
bison, antelope, deer, and rabbit. The basal portion of one bison skull 
was found with the horn cores still intact. The distance between the 
tips of the cores is 36 inches (914.4 mm.). This measurement, as 
well as the size and contour of the cores, shows the animal was one 
of the extinct species. Modern buffalo skulls from this general area 
range from 2$ to 24 inches (584.2 to 609.6 mm.) between the tips 
of the cores. The older form was aho much larger in all other respects. 

The digging in the ravine bank, across from the main excavations, 
demonstrated that the horizon was the same although more deeply 
buried (fig. 98). The 20 feet of overburden is due to the fact that 
here the surface of occupation was farther down the slope toward 
the valley bottom and the deposition of eroded debris was greater 
than that at higher levels. The material was still on the south slope 
of the old valley, however, as has been the case in all previous finds. 
As the dark soil zone approaches the old bottom it becomes thicker 
and takes on the appearance of silt, such as occurs in bogs and 
meadows. Bone fragments found there are better preserved than 
those from higher up the slope. This condition is attributable to their 
having fallen into muck where they were sealed from the air and 
other agents contributing to rapid disintegration. The various test 
pits indicated the location of other concentrations of archeological 
material and helped to delimit the area of occupation. 

The 1939 season, like its predecessors, failed to produce any human 
bones, and the physical nature of Folsom man is still unknown. There 
is no satisfactory explanation for the lack of skeletal material. It 
probably is present and simply has not been found in the digging. 



A FURTHER QUEST FOR IROQUOIS MEDICINES 

By WILLIAM N. FENTON 
Associate Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

During several seasons of ethnological field work among the Seneca 
Indians of the western part of New York State for Yale University, 
and while teaching at the Allegany School of Natural History in 
1938, I collected plants which the Senecas employ in their medicines. 
This information will fit into a comprehensive work on Iroquois 
medicines for which the late F. W. Waugh, of the National Museum 
of Canada, began assembling materials in 1912. This year it seemed 
advisable to widen our horizon to include other Iroquois reserva- 
tions in New York and Canada. Waugh had worked some of them, 
and we hoped that an informant would be alive here and there to 
review his notes. Before setting out for the field we had completed 
a paper on suicide, and since we had found cases of lovelorn Iroquois 
women poisoning themselves with waterhemlock when their husbands 
deserted them, we were naturally on the alert for new cases. The 
plant had been mentioned as early as 1632 by Father Sagard among 
the Hurons, and we wondered whether the modern Mohawks and 
Hurons could tell us more about the "fatal root" which the Jesuits 
spelled Andachienrra (fig. 99). 

With these rather melancholy objectives in mind we commenced 
field work on the Allegany Reservation at Salamanca, N. Y., in 
early July. Mrs. Fenton and the writer's sister, Miss Frances E. 
Fenton, a botanist, accompanied the expedition. Finding that 
Josephine Jimmerson, a herbalist at Shongo, had devoted most of 
her 77 years to midwifery so that childbirth interested her more than 
suicide, we commenced recording experiences in another activity 
borderlining medicinal practice. Childbirth proved a fertile line of 
inquiry during the summer. 

We next moved down river to Cornplanter Reservation below the 
Pennsylvania State line. At "Burnt-house," the site of Cornplanter's 
village about 1800, we worked with two of his descendants, Charles 
Gordon and Harvey Jacobs, who still occupy the small grant on the 
west bank of the Alleghany River above Kinzua, "fish-on-spear." 
Jacobs learned his medicines from his grandmothers, who showed him 
the plants while going through the bushes berrying. Although his 
approach to therapeutics is fundamentally Seneca, years of trading 
herbs and peddling remedies among the whites of surrounding towns 
has earned him the title of "Indian doctor," which he has endeavored 

93 



94 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 





SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1939 



95 




Fig. i oi. — Kate Debeau, Mohawk herbalist and midwife of Caughnawaga. 




Fig. 102. — Jemima Gibson, Cayuga of Grand River, offering tobacco beside 
the first plant of lobelia and taking the second home as a love medicine. 



g6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

to justify by reading the "doctor books" ; consequently, he speaks 
the professional jargon of two cultures. By agreeing to concentrate 
on the older household medicines, we felt surer that we were dealing 
with Indian culture. 

We visited two Mohawk reservations on the St. Lawrence, St. 
Regis on the United States-Canadian border, and Caughnawaga ( "at- 
the-rapids"') above Montreal. Three hundred years of Jesuit teach- 
ing has left little but the language. The family of Noah La France, 
representative St. Regis dairy farmers, gave us the run of Racquette 
Point ; but cattle had eaten away the flora and, except for a few 
household remedies, we had to be content with Mohawk paradigms. 

The Christianized Mohawks were persuaded to settle at La Prairie 
in 1668, and here opposite Montreal, Kateri Tekakwitha ("moving- 
in-two-directions"), Lily of the Mohawks, lived out her saintly life 
(fig. 100) ; but the "Praying Indians of Quebec" soon removed to 
Caughnawaga, now an old stone village of ironworkers, where I 
located Katie Debeau, who had worked for Waugh in 1912 (fig. 101). 
With the aid of an illustrated flora and the careful interpreting 
of Frank Jacobs, we reviewed Waugh's earlier notes ; Katie related 
cases of Mohawk women taking Cicuta for the same reasons as the 
Senecas, and the Mohawk name for the plant is near enough the name 
given by the Jesuits to clinch its identity. 

The balance of the season was spent with Simeon Gibson, J. N. B. 
Hewitt's old interpreter at Six Nations Reservations near Brantford, 
Ontario. He also had worked for Waugh, and his sister Jemima 
(fig. 102 J knew the techniques of preparing medicines. We returned 
to Allegany for the Green Corn Festival at Coldspring longhouse, 
the season when the herbalists prepare to dig their roots. 

All the Iroquois herbalists place tobacco at the first plant encoun- 
tered and take the second, and individual collectors have particular 
routes which they habitually traverse when hunting plants. Their 
range of knowledge is not extraordinary, but a few will know upward 
of 100 plants ; the more common plants like boneset, Eupatorium 
perfoliatum L., and hemlock, which cured Cartier's crew of scurvy 
m L535- are known by the same names over wide areas by tribes 
speaking distinct dialects. Although overdoses occur, the Senecas 
have learned to bake the poison out of mayapple roots, but water- 
hemlock the}- universally fear. Xearly every family has its blood 
nostrum composed of nearly 20 plants, including bloodroot, sarsa- 
parilla, partridgeberry, pipsissewa. and various barks that are taken 
by scraping them upward when the prescription calls for an emetic 
and downward for a cathartic. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1940 






(Publication 3631 ) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

APRIL 3, 1941 



ZS>t .Sorb (§<x(timoxt (pteee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

In several of the sciences of chief concern to the Smithsonian 
Institution, namely, geology, hiology, and anthropology, field work 
plays an important part. To collect specimens in little-known regions, 
to fill gaps in the National Museum collections, and to record data 
that can be obtained only on the ground, a number of expeditions go 
out each year from the Institution, some to nearby States, others to 
remote corners of the earth. A few of these expeditions are financed 
wholly from Smithsonian funds, but for most of them support comes 
from private sources or through cooperation with other agencies or 
individuals. 

This pamphlet, which is printed annually by the Institution, serves 
as a preliminary announcement of the purposes and results of the 
year's expeditions and field work. Later, after the material has 
been studied by the specialists at the Institution and its branches, the 
scientific results are embodied in one of the various Smithsonian 
series of publications. 

The photographs were made for the most part by the field workers 
themselves. 

W. P. True 
Chief, Editorial Division. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Bartlett, Robert A. Greenland expedition of 1940 47 

Bartsch, Paul. The Nimbus collecting expedition to the Gulf of California. . 53 

Brown, W. L. Collecting habitat group material in the Canadian Rockies. . 31 

Bushnell, David I., Jr. Trailing early man in Virginia 75 

Chase, Agnes. Studying the grasses of Venezuela 61 

Clark, Austin H. Butterflies of Virginia 57 

Cooper, G. Arthur. Geologizing in Texas and Tennessee 9 

Fenton, William N. Museum and field studies of Iroquois masks and 

ritualism 95 

Gazin, C. Lewis. Trailing extinct animals in central Utah and the Bridger 

Basin of Wyoming 5 

Harrington, John P. A field comparison of northwestern with south- 
western Indians 91 

Mann, William M. and Lucile Q. Collecting live animals in Liberia 13 

Perrygo, W. M. Collecting birds and mammals in South Carolina 27 

Resser, Charles E. Investigations of ancient Cambrian rocks in the 

United States I 

Roberts, Frank H. H., Jr. Latest excavations at Lindenmeier site add to 

information on the Folsom complex 79 

Schmitt, Waldo L. Alaska king crab investigations, 1940 39 

Smith, Dr. and Mrs. Hobart M. Collecting Mexican reptiles and 

amphibians 35 

Steward, Julian H. Recording culture changes among the Carrier Indians 

of British Columbia 83 

Stewart, T. D. An ossuary at the Indian village site of Patawomeke 

( Potomac ) 67 

Wedel, Waldo R. In search of Coronado's "Province of Quivira" 71 

Wetmore, Alexander. An ornithologist in Guanacaste, Costa Rica 21 



INVESTIGATIONS OF ANCIENT CAMBRIAN ROCKS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

By CHARLES E. RESSER 

Curator, Division of Invertebrate Paleontology 

U. S. National Museum 

With the objective of studying Cambrian strata across the country, 
we set out from Washington late in June in a light truck equipped 
with beds and stocked with food, so that we might sleep and eat 
wherever it suited the exigencies of the work. Charles H. Frey, 3rd, 
a student at Franklin and Marshall College, served as field assistant. 

Our first problem was to relocate two faunas on Copper Ridge, 
northwest of Knoxville, Tenn., for several questions had arisen con- 
cerning their geographic and stratigraphic position. During our brief 
investigations we were able to find excellent material representing 
one of these faunas. 

For many years I had hoped to become acquainted with the im- 
portant Cambrian section in the Ozark Mountains. Accordingly, we 
chose a route through Missouri and spent the better part of a week 
in looking over the outcrops along the streams and roadsides in the 
vicinity of Farmington and Van Buren. Here life was made miserable 
by the superabundance of chiggers, something evidently out of the 
ordinary because local newspapers were printing many stories of like 
experiences. 

Our next objective was to examine the Cambrian rocks of Colorado. 
They are mainly quartzitic and therefore have few fossils, which 
makes their study difficult. A sequence of Cambrian beds occurs in 
the Front Range near Manitou and in some of the natural parks char- 
acteristic of the eastern Colorado Rockies. This thin series of beds 
was studied near Manitou and in Manitou Park, 70 miles to the north. 
Another sequence, found in the Mosquito, Sawatch, and other ranges, 
was viewed briefly west of Xennessee Pass and in Glenwood Springs 
Canyon but we were unable to attempt the higher altitudes around 
Aspen because our truck did not have sufficient power to climb 
the very steep grades. 

The next stop was at the Grand Canyon where the Park naturalist, 
Edwin McKee, by persistent effort has obtained many good fossils 
and much new information. Arrangements were made for joint pub- 
lication of the results during the coming year. Outcrops were ex- 
amined in Meriwitica and Peach Springs Canyons, about 150 miles 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. i.- 



-Green River, showing moraine in the mid-distance which forms the 
lower lake, Green River Lakes, Wyo. 




Creek, above Green River Lake; 




Fig. 3. — \ iew across Clark Fork River from Beartooth Mountains. Canyon 
shows as a line, and is cut in sedimentary rocks. The Absaroka Mountains 
to the south are composed of lava flows. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, IQ40 





Fig. 4. — Beartooth Butte across Beartooth Lake, Wyo. View of Cambrian 
and Devonian beds resting' on the granite. 







Fig. 5. — Glenwood Springs canyon, Colorado. Cambrian strata resting on 
the old crystalline rocks. 



4 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

west of the Grand Canyon village. Extremely high temperatures and 
the driest season in 50 years rendered this phase of the work some- 
what difficult, but the beauty of the night sky made us forget the 
heat of the day. 

The major objective for the season's work lay in the Wasatch 
Mountains and the ranges of western Wyoming and southern 
Montana. For the first time I saw the beautiful Green River Lakes 
region in western Wyoming. Green River, the major branch of the 
Colorado, flows out of beautiful glacial lakes, and the branches 
feeding the lakes flow through lofty mountains in gigantic glacier-cut 
valleys. Granite spires and cliffs of sedimentary rocks rise 3,000 feet 
above the lake level. Here we found that both the Middle and Upper 
Cambrian were represented by only about a thousand feet of strata. 

When the Wasatch Mountains were reached, it was gratifying to 
find that Dr. J. S. Williams, of the Utah Agricultural College at 
Logan, Utah, had already solved the problems that I had in mind. 
Accordingly, after a few days in the heat, dust, and smoke it was 
possible to continue to the Teton and southern Montana ranges. 
After studies near Logan and in the Beartooth Mountains of Mon- 
tana, nearly a week was spent studying the Cambrian strata of the 
Black Hills. 

From early July until Labor Day forest fires were burning on 
every side and interfered somewhat with the work. With the driest 
season on record, rivers and streams were reduced to about one- 
fourth their normal volume, and the wind constantly raised great 
dust clouds. Temperatures were high, even at night. 

Since my last visit to the Rockies 10 years ago, great changes have 
taken place. Old camp sites are gone, their places being taken by 
picnic grounds and cabins, and where formerly one rarely encountered 
another person, there are now hundreds. More than 60 miles from 
the highway one finds paths worn in the grass along the stream 
banks by hopeful anglers, so that even the trout are now few. 

Cambrian rocks are seldom highly fossiliferons. Enormous masses 
of sediments were deposited in those ancient seas, which we are sure 
were full of living organisms. For, aside from the evidence furnished 
by the nature of the sediments themselves, broken fragments of ani- 
mal remains, scattered everywhere, show that life existed but that 
conditions were not favorable for its preservation. Occasionally, 
however, local conditions were such that waves did not break all the 
shells into fine bits and entombment was rapid enough to prevent 
decay. There we find beautifully preserved fossils, and it was our 
good fortune to locate several such spots this summer. 



TRAILING EXTINCT ANIMALS IN CENTRAL UTAH AND 
THE BRIDGER BASIN OF WYOMING 

By C. LEWIS GAZIN 

Assistant Curator, Division of Vertebrate Paleontology 

U. S. National Museum 

Continuing investigations carried on during the field seasons of 
1937 to 1939, the 1940 Smithsonian Institution expedition in search 
of fossil vertebrates spent the early part of the summer collecting 
in the Paleocene and Cretaceous beds of central Utah. The latter and 
greater part of the season was devoted to middle Eocene beds ex- 
posed in the Bridger Basin, southwestern Wyoming. 

The party, consisting of George F. Sternberg, Franklin Pearce, 
and the writer, met in Price, Utah, on June 8. Equipment and sup- 
plies were assembled and on the following day camp was made in the 
Manti National Forest about 50 miles southwest of Price, at the 
same place from which operations were carried on during the previous 
summer. The fossil localities in the Manti Forest area visited this 
season are nearly all in Dragon Canyon, and our efforts were directed 
almost entirely to reexamination of the Paleocene exposures and in 
quarrying for additional lizard material in the contiguous Cretaceous 
beds. 

Success was attained in the finding of additional remains of 
Paleocene mammals, representing a variety of forms. The lizard 
remains, including several good skeletal portions, were obtained en- 
tirely from a small patch of Cretaceous rocks in the lower part of 
the canyon, and represent at least two distinct types, differing 
considerably in size. 

Having about exhausted for the season the possibilities of further 
collecting in Dragon Canyon, on July 4 we moved camp to the Bridger 
Basin in southwestern Wyoming. It was decided to investigate first 
the badland exposures around Twin Buttes in the eastern part of the 
basin. It was hoped that camp might be made near a spring, but 
considerable search and inquiry revealed that the only immediate 
source of water was located high on the north end of the mountain 
at a point very difficult to reach with a car. A dry camp was made 
on the west slope of the northerly butte, and water was hauled 
from the town of Green River. Fossil materials in general proved to 
be scattered and somewhat scarce on the west side, except for a 
concentration of relatively small forms in a white layer about half- 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 6. — Camp 



Levitt Creek in the Grizzly Buttes, Bridger Basin, W 
Photograph by Franklin Pearce. 




Fig. 7. — Investigation of a prospect to the north of Twin Buttes in the 
Bridger Basin. This small quarry, the general location of which is shown in 
figure 9. produced a remarkably good carnivore skeleton. Photograph by 
Franklin Pearce. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 








:: : ■ 



Fig. 8. — Searching for jaws and teeth of primitive mammals in the 
deposits exposed in Dragon Canyon, central Utah. 




Fig. 9. — Good collecting ground in 'the Bridger Eocene beds to the north of 
Twin Buttes in southwestern Wyoming. 




JBt' 



Fig. 10. — A general view of camp and the Bridger badlands in the basin of 
Sage Creek to the north of Lone Tree, Wyo. The Uinta Mountains may be 
seen in the right background. 



8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

way up the mountain. The layer is best exposed in the saddle between 
the buttes, and while working at this point we were surprised to find 
an old Indian camp site of considerable extent, as indicated by 
numerous large circles of rocks. The pattern of the rocks was not 
conspicuous at close range, but from points higher on the buttes a 
large number of the teepee circles could be made out. 

Further investigation of Twin Buttes showed rather profitable 
collecting to the northeast, and a second camp was made near the 
Green River-Manila road. The search was most successful in the 
lower exposures radiating from the buttes, not far above the under- 
lying Green River formation. A few good skeletons were found and 
notably a nearly perfect, uncrushed skull of a small, ancient carnivore 
known as Thinocyon. 

After nearly a month of working around Twin Buttes, curiosity 
prompted us to have a try at Bridger exposures on the east side of 
the basin, so our next camp was made near Grizzly Buttes, at a site 
occupied by Gilmore's party in 1930. A fair amount of material was 
discovered, in particular the remains of a primitive titanothere, 
Palaeosyops, and a good number of jaw portions of various small 
mammals. 

Extending operations farther away from Grizzly Buttes, we soon 
discovered that collecting was particularly good in the extensive bad- 
lands not far from Lone Tree, especially near the divide between 
Henry's Fork and the easterly branch of Sage Creek. As a conse- 
quence, toward the middle of August our last camp was made at a 
place in the upper part of Sage Creek. We were unusually fortunate 
in finding, practically on the divide, the greater part of a skeleton of 
the gigantic amblypod known as an uintathere, a mammal with six 
horns, saberlike tusks, and nearly equaling in size a modern elephant. 
The only parts of the skeleton of this beast conspicuously absent were 
the neck, a shoulder blade, the right hind limb, and the lower jaws, 
although pieces of the latter together with portions of one of the 
fore limbs were found scattered on the surface. It is anticipated that 
this individual will prove worthy of being mounted for exhibition in 
the National Museum. 

We were particularly favored this season in having weather that 
permitted so many working days ; however, the last week of August 
began with a series of heavy rains and cold weather, letting up only 
toward the end of the week, so that it became possible for us to 
complete the taking up and removal of specimens upon which work 
had begun the previous week. On August 30 we moved our equip- 
ment and the specimens on hand to the town of Green River, where 
the accumulated collection was packed and shipped. 



GEOLOGIZING IN TEXAS AND TENNESSEE 

By G. ARTHUR COOPER 

Assistant Curator, Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology 

U. S. National Museum 

It has been the writer's practice for some years to visit sections 
of the United States from which few fossils are represented in the 
National Museum collections. Accordingly, a visit to north-central 
Texas and the Glass Mountains of west Texas was planned. Penn- 
sylvanian fossils abound in the former locality, and the latter is noted 
for its Permian fossils. In addition to these two areas the itinerary 
also included west Tennessee, where Silurian fossils may be found. 
The fact that important localities on the Tennessee River will soon 
be lost under the ponded waters of the Gilbertsville, Ky., dam made it 
desirable to obtain collections before these localities are lost. A brief 
study of the Stones River limestone of central Tennessee was also 
on the schedule. 

In early August the writer left Washington for Fort Worth, Tex., 
where he joined Airs. J. H. Renfro and her daughter, enthusiastic 
collectors and students of Pennsylvania!! fossils. With the Renfros 
as guides to the better localities, the writer collected more than 10,000 
specimens of beautifully preserved Pennsylvania!! fossils. Most of 
the collecting was confined to Jack, Young, and Palo Pinto Counties, 
where the Pennsylvania!! rocks consist of thin limestones interbedded 
in thick sequences of shale and fine-grained sandstone. The rocks 
lie nearly flat and are well exposed over most of the area. The shales 
often disintegrate into clay, leaving beautifully preserved fossils lying 
about on the slopes. Each rain helps to replenish the supply by wash- 
ing away more clay. 

From Fort Worth the writer went west to Marathon, Tex., lo- 
cated 60 miles south-southwest of Fort Stockton. Just north of 
Marathon, in the Glass Mountains, is exposed one of the finest 
sections of Permian limestone in the world, aggregating 6,000 to 7,000 
feet in thickness and abounding in fossils, particularly in the lower 
half. Most of these Permian fossils are silicified and can be removed 
from the rock by dissolving away the limestone with acid. Shells of 
unbelievable beauty and delicacy can be obtained by this method. 
Besides the Permian specimens, good Pennsylvania!! fossils were 
collected along the base of the hills about 23 miles northeast of 



10 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



I I 







12 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Marathon. Two weeks were spent in the Glass Mountains searching 
for blocks suitable for etching. Many were obtained, and a fine col- 
lection of hitherto rare species is confidently anticipated when the 
limestone lumps are finally decalcified. 

Along the Tennessee River in Decatur, Perry, Wayne, and Hardin 
Counties Silurian rocks are exposed in bluffs and glades. The same 
rocks are also exposed in Perry County along the Buffalo River a 
short distance east of the Tennessee. Although the high river bluffs 
afford excellent opportunity for the study of the rock sequence, the 
best collecting is obtained in the glades. These are generally open, 
bare rock slopes supporting at best only a few cedars, and hence 
are commonly known as "cedar glades." Occasionally these glades 
are somewhat conical and are then known as "mound glades." When 
a new glade, never before collected, is discovered, the geologist is 
often rewarded by a fine harvest of specimens. 

Altogether 3 weeks were spent in west Tennessee collecting 
Silurian fossils. First the exposures on the west side of the Tennessee 
River in Decatur County were visited, then working from Linden, 
the writer visited collecting places in Perry County. The work on 
the Silurian was brought to a close with a few days of collecting in 
Hardin and Wayne Counties. Many fine and some rare specimens 
were obtained in these regions. 

At Murfreesboro in central Tennessee, the writer was joined by 
Dr. Josiah Bridge of the United States Geological Survey. A joint 
study of the Ordovician (Stones River) limestone was the object 
of the meeting. These limestones form the lowest exposed part of 
the Paleozoic column lying inside the "Central Basin of Tennessee" 
and are surrounded by a rim of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian 
rocks. Bridge and the writer were chiefly interested in collecting the 
fossils and studying the sequence of layers of four formations — the 
Murfreesboro, Pierce, Ridley, and Lebanon limestones that make up 
the Stones River group. A fine collection of Murfreesboro fossils was 
obtained at the excavation for a new armory on the bank of Stones 
River just west of town. Good fossils were obtained from the other 
f ormations, but the best collection taken came from the Lebanon lime- 
stone exposed in a new cut on U. S. Highway 41 about 9 miles south- 
east of Murfreesboro. 

The 2 months' collecting resulted in an abundance of much-needed 
Pennsylvanian and Permian fossils from Texas and many good speci- 
mens of Silurian and Stones River fossils from Tennessee. 



COLLECTING LIVE ANIMALS IN LIBERIA 

By WILLIAM M. MANN 
Director, National Zoological Park 

AND 

LUCILE Q. MANN 

The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, of Akron, Ohio, financed 
the Smithsonian-Firestone Expedition to Liberia, its purpose being 
to collect and bring back live animals for the National Zoological 
Park, as well as other specimens for the United States National 
Museum. The party, consisting of the writers and Ralph Norris and 
Roy Jennier, employees of the National Zoological Park, sailed in 
February 1940 for Monrovia. We were greeted there by George 
Seybold, in charge of the Firestone Plantations. He took us to his 
home at Harbel, some 50 miles from the port, and there we made our 
headquarters throughout our stay in the Republic. 

On such a trip as ours much depends on native assistance. Natives, 
after all, are the best hunters and trappers. To get acquainted with 
them, and to get them interested in the work we were doing and 
the specimens that we wanted to obtain, we spent considerable time 
in the interior on five different trips, walking from village to village, 
where we camped. The Secretary of the Interior gave us a letter of 
introduction to his Government officials, Paramount chiefs and others, 
explaining what we were there for and asking them to help us. 

With the aid of the Firestone Plantations personnel we made a 
number of drives for antelope. The Company is clearing vast areas of 
land in order to plant rubber, and there were some isolated forests left. 
We would surround one of these on one side with a line of rope nets, 
and then the white managers, leading their troops of employees, 
would form a ring and drive such animals as still remained in the 
forest. The natives in a long line would advance shouting, and the 
frightened animals running ahead of them would sometimes get 
entangled in the net. In this way we obtained a number of antelopes, 
among them three kinds of duikers seldom seen in captivity and at 
present the only representatives of their species in captivity in the 
United States or elsewhere. 

At Belleyella, 5 days' walk into the interior and near the French 
Guinea frontier, we were shown much courtesy by Lieut. W. S. Wiles 
and Sgt. Joseph Gibson of the Frontier Force, and W. M. Dennis, 
of the Revenue Department. Realizing from the Explorers' Club 

13 



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Fir,. 13. — Left to right: The Mullah; Dr. Mann, leader of the expedition: 
the Paramount Chief (and child) ; Mrs. Mann, secretary of the expedition: 
and the Chief's head wife, at Bendaja. 




Fig. 14. — Our first pigmy hippopotamus. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



15 




Fig. 15. — The end of the road, and the beginning of the first bush trip. 
Boys and supplies were brought this far by truck ; from here on all travel was 
done on foot. 




Fig. 16. — We took a 7-mile short cut over recently felled timber and wished 
we had stayed on the shady jungle trail. 



l6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

flag and the Woman Geographers' flag and the senior writer's 
Masonic ring, that we were "joiners," they arranged for us to 
join the Snake Society. This Society exists throughout Africa. 
Each tribe has its own lodge. Our best native companion was Bobo — ■ 
Bobo Johnson of the Gisi tribe — a devout member of the Society, 
and he went with us and joined all over again, we think to find out if 
the ritual were the same as in his own tribe. According to him, it was. 

In a dimly lighted hut we were kept at night for 4 hours. After 
taking the oath of secrecy we were taught high-signs, passwords, 
the procedure of entering a home, the manner of giving a present 
to a Snake Society brother or receiving one from him, and the 
symbolism of a large number of fetiches. Next day, inducted into 
the sacred bush, we were taught again more signs and landmarks, and 
the secrets of 36 different species of plants were explained to us. 
Some were medicinal, some used in sorcery. And then our fellow 
members of the lodge presented to us the ceremonial snake, a 
rhinoceros viper which we afterward sent to Washington. Because 
she was the first white woman who had ever lived in the village, 
and the second white woman who had ever joined the lodge, the 
junior author was made an officer, given a title and certain powers. 
As Yangwah, she has the authority to "cut a palaver," that is, to end 
an argument, which is a valuable power in West Africa! The native 
Yangwah surrendered to her the symbol of office, a harnessed 
antelope horn containing within it the "medicine" of the Society. 

Other trips made into the interior in various directions were for the 
purpose of collecting specimens and getting the natives interested 
in collecting and bringing to headquarters other animals. This re- 
sulted after a time in a constant though rather thin stream of animals 
being brought in to base camp. 

Near Dobli's Island in the St. Paul River a young adult female 
pigmy hippopotamus was caught by natives in a pit. A cage had to 
be built for it, using heavy planks for the floor, and stout bamboo 
for the framework, lashed together with rattan and padded with 
rice bags. The cage alone weighed 300 pounds, and the hippo weighed 
400, making 700 pounds that had to be carried by manpower, up 
hill and down, over sandy roads and narrow twisting trails, through 
streams and over fallen tree trunks, for 40 miles — a 2^-days' walk. 

The hippo became tame surprisingly quickly. After 2 days in 
camp she was practically a pet. Later she had to be taken by truck 
50 miles down to the coast, loaded into a surf boat, rowed out across 
the bar and 2 miles out to sea, lifted on board ship by derricks, let 
down into the hold, kept alive for 21 days on a diet of nothing but 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



17 




Fig. 17. — Snake Society lodge of instruction. The Gli at left holds a 
rhinoceros viper ; the leaves in the center have medicinal or magic properties. 




Fig. 18. — Orchestra and a solo dancer celebrating the return from the 

Grigri bush. 



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Fig. 19. — Bobo, Flomo, and Pepe, respective heads of caravan, camp, and 

camera departments. 




Fig. 20. — Part of the expedition personnel being ferried across the 
St. Paul River. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



19 




,:■ ■■' ._ ■ . .-.". 









Fig. 21. — Dock at Dakar, Senegal. Barrels of oil and gasoline imported from 
the United States, and bags of peanuts ready for export. 




Fig. 22. — The S. S. West Kebar, bound for Monrovia, with wartime 
decorations. 



20 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

potatoes when all our greens spoiled, unloaded in Norfolk, and 
brought to Washington by railway express. In spite of all she went 
through to reach the Zoo, she is still thriving. 

One camp in the interior was much like another, even though each 
tribe is very different. We were usually given the official rest house 
in which to camp. Water was boiled and filtered. Sometimes tins 
were opened, at other times we ate the classic dish of West Africa, 
palm oil chop. To make this the cook takes a cluster of palm nuts, 
scalds them, crushes them, and pours hot water over them. Two 
products result, one a rich palm oil, one a palm butter about the con- 
sistency of applesauce. Chicken, or preferably game, is cooked in 
palm oil. Hot native peppers are cooked in the palm butter, and both 
are served, with the chicken, poured over rice. Our supplies were 
carried on the heads of native porters, usually 40 to 50 pounds for a 
load, and the caravan traveled about 20 miles a day. One gets the 
impression that Liberia is teeming with animal life, smaller in size 
but perhaps as abundant as that on the great plains of East Africa, 
but seldom seen because of the dense forests which cover practically 
all the territory of the Republic. 

Our last trip into the interior was to an abandoned plantation near 
Reputa. This had been established by Polish citizens and had been 
planted largely in cocoa. They abandoned it early in the war, and it 
remained much as they left it. The neat little house contained strips 
of flypaper still dangling from the ceiling, and portraits of 
Paderewski and Pilsudski hanging on the wall. We were accompanied 
on this trip by Mr. and Mrs. Louis Chancellor of the Plantation, 
and devoted most of our time to collecting specimens of fishes in 
the small streams nearby. 

Some of our live specimens were sent back in May in the care of 
Mr. Jennier, spent the summer at the Firestone Exhibit at the New 
York World's Fair, and afterward came to the Zoo. The others were 
brought back by Mr. Norris and ourselves on the West Inno, arriving 
in Norfolk August 7, and afterward were placed on exhibition in 
Washington. Practically everything obtained was new to the National 
collection. 

Besides the antelopes already mentioned, pigmy hippopotami, 
chimpanzees, pottos, a West African ratel, monkeys, civet cats, horn- 
bills, monkey-eating eagles, cobras, vipers, and pythons were col- 
lected. In addition to the live animals and birds, some 3,000 pre- 
served fish, reptiles, and batrachians, quantities of insects not yet 
assorted, a number of dried animal skins, and a few ethnological 
specimens were brought back for the National Museum. 



AN ORNITHOLOGIST IN GUANACASTE, COSTA RICA 

By ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

With the first rays of the sun on the morning of Columbus Day, 
1940, I was awakened by a soft flow of Spanish to see from my 
stateroom window the bay and shore of Puerto Limon, Costa Rica. 
One of the most interesting countries of Central America was now 
before me. Officials charged with landing formalities received me 
courteously as the guest of their government and presently, in com- 
pany with Dr. Juvenal Valerio Rodriguez, Director of the Museo 
Nacional, who had come to meet me, I was on the train traveling up 
the beautiful valley of the Rio Reventazon. San Jose, the capital 
city, located near the western edge of the central plateau, holds many 
attractions so that a week here passed rapidly and pleasantly, occupied 
fully with meeting scientist-colleagues, with visits to officials of the 
government, and with examination of the important collections in the 
Museo Nacional. There was time also for an excursion to an interest- 
ing fossil deposit at San Ramon. 

Early on the morning of October 19, in company with Dr. Valerio 
and Carlos Aguilar (the latter in charge of the zoological collections 
in the museum), I was on the Taca plane en route for the region in 
northwestern Costa Rica where my work with birds in the field was 
to begin. From the airplane I saw most of the Nicoya Peninsula in 
passing as we landed at several towns — Nicoya, Santa Cruz, and Paso 
Tempisque — before coming down finally at Liberia, capital town of 
the Province of Guanacaste, where my headquarters were to be. 

Guanacaste is a land completely apart from the elevated, thickly 
populated tableland of central Costa Rica. Roads are primitive so that 
travel for a good part of the year is by oxcart and horse. Only during 
the dry season are the rough trails passable for trucks, and then only 
through skillful driving. The land is divided in great haciendas with 
cattle raising as the principal industry, and settlement is restricted to 
scattered, small towns. Along the valley of the Rio Tempisque and in 
limited sections elsewhere there are small farms of corn, beans, and 
rice, but over vast sections there is only scrub forest and pasture 
land traversed by cattle trails where houses have been built only at 
wide intervals. 

To this region the airplane service from San Jose is truly a god- 
send. As our trimotored plane dropped down into the little landing 



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Fig. 23. — The Finca Piedades, near San Ramon. 




Fig. 24. — A Taca plane at Nicoya. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



23 




Fig. 25. — A street in Liberia, Costa Rica. 




-The oxcart is an ordinary means of transportation in 
Guanacaste Province. 



24 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

fields, sometimes swooping first in a low circle to drive away a band 
of horses, passengers got on and off and much freight was loaded 
and unloaded. The mail sack, boxes, bundles, and sacks of every de- 
scription, a crated pig, a little dog in another box, my own field out- 
fit — all these appeared at the different airports. 

In Liberia, called the "White City" because of its streets of white 
sand, Dr. Valerio left us, and immediately I took up my investigation 
of the birds of this region. The land here was fairly level, cut by 
the Rio Liberia, a small, shallow stream of clear water, with rapid 
current, and by sandy-bottomed quebradas that drain into this stream. 
The end of the season of rains was near and many days were con- 
tinuously clear. Storms came mainly in the afternoon and at night. 
The air was cool and delightful as the sun rose in early morning but 
by 10 or n o'clock the tropical heat drove birds to cover, so that 
Aguilar and I found it best to return then to town. 

Parrots and parrakeets were here in abundance, crossing the sky 
morning and evening in pairs or flocks, with strident screeching and 
chattering. During the day I found them feeding in wild fruit 
trees, sometimes in company with large-billed toucans. The woods 
and old fields bordering the river were a fertile collecting ground, 
and here I obtained a steadily mounting number of species of birds. 
The white-headed laughing falcon called here in early morning, while 
the petulant screams of smaller hawks came from nearer at hand. 
Handsome racquet-tailed motmots sat near the cut-banks along the 
stream, and eight or nine species of hummingbirds ranged in the 
heavy shade, or about flowers in the open, according to their needs. 
Howler monkeys roared their disapproval of my shooting, and almost 
daily we saw deer within a mile of town. 

Through the more open areas were the great spreading trees called 
Guanacastes, of the mimosa family {Pithecolobium sa/man), often 8 
or io feet through, that grew with especial symmetry in the open 
pastures. In these I found small woodpeckers, tanagers, the kiskadee 
flycatcher, and its large-billed cousin, the boat-billed flycatcher. The 
tiny beardless flycatcher (Caniptostoma) no larger than a kinglet 
also ranged in the delicate foliage, with bright-colored euphonias. 
chattering woodpeckers (Centurus), and occasional migrant warblers 
from the north. 

Barn swallows circled over the open fields often in considerable 
flocks, and at sunset flocks of Baltimore orioles and scissor-tailed fly- 
catchers came into town to roost in groves of trees behind the 
houses. These were all migrant friends from the United States. 

Trips by truck to the Rio Colorado 5 miles to the northwest were 
always fruitful, as tanagers, cuckoos, sparrows, and other strange 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94.O 



25 




Fig. 27. — A great Guanacaste tree by the roadside, a species that has 
given its name to the Province. 







H' 




Fig. 28. — Leaving the Hacienda Santa Maria for the lowlands. 



26 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

birds were there in variety. One of the most interesting species of 
the region was a brown cuckoo (Morococcyx erthropygus) that fed 
on the ground in high grass and weeds, coming up into view only 
when startled. The blue and orange color of the. bare skin about the 
eye was striking. 

On clear days mountains to the east of us were constantly in 
view, and with field glasses I could see the forests that covered their 
slopes. By invitation of Bert De Langton we rode nearly 5 hours 
to the Hacienda Santa Maria, on the southern slopes of the Volcan 
Rincon de la Vieja, a ranch comprising approximately 22,000 acres 
of land. Carrying our outfit on pack animals we crossed a sandy, 
arid stretch where the oak trees were scattered, small, and stunted, to 
come to the foothill region where the soil was rich and the tree growth 
heavy. Above a small coffee grove behind the hacienda house there 
began a great rain forest that extended practically uninhabited over 
the mountain toward the distant frontier of Nicaragua. In the dense 
forest I traveled with gun in one hand and machete in the other to 
cut a passage, and open slopes were often waist high in grass. Only 
a few trails were clear for horses. 

Our meat was game — the flesh of deer and peccary, and of the 
great guans (Penelope purpurascens) , birds as large as small turkeys 
that ranged in bands in the tall forest trees. Daily I saw fresh signs 
of jaguar and tapir, and howler and white-faced monkeys were more 
abundant than I had ever seen them before. 

Among the birds the most striking were the great red-blue-and- 
yellow macaws that were found in flocks constantly about the house. 
In the forest I collected specimens of a great variety of strange and 
unusual species. To observe them at their best "fP was only necessary 
to locate moving ant armies, as about these the forest birds congre- 
gated in abundance. Curious ant-birds chattered and called, stiff- 
tailed woodhewers climbed up the tree trunks like woodpeckers, 
and tanagers, vireos, and occasional migrant warblers passed along 
the branches overhead. Sometimes birds that I shot fell among the 
ants and were retrieved only at the expense of burning bites and stings. 

Mist and rain kept the undergrowth perpetually wet so that it 
was seldom that I returned dry from a morning afield. 

This interesting field work had finally to come to an end, so that 
one morning found me seated again in the plane with collections and 
equipment loaded in the baggage compartments in the great, extended 
wings. In less than 3 hours I was once more in the cool uplands of 
San Jose, and 4 days later, on November 23, I bade goodbye to 
Dr. Valerio and to Aguilar on the pier at Puerto Limon, with regret 
that time did not permit further work in this fascinating region. 



COLLECTING BIRDS AND MAMMALS IN 
SOUTH CAROLINA 

By W. M. PERRYGO 

Scientific Aid, Department of Biology 

U. S. National Museum 

Last year (1939) our intensive work in the collection of birds and 
mammals for the National Museum was carried on in North Carolina. 
In 1940 it was arranged to follow up that work with investigations 
in South Carolina, making a special study of the southern end of the 
Appalachian Range and the southern forms along the coastal plain. 
Through the courtesy of A. A. Richardson, Commissioner of Game 
and Fishes, Columbia, S. C, officials of the National Forests, and 
land owners we were able to make the necessary arrangements. 

Leaving Washington April 8, with J. S. Y. Hoyt as assistant, we 
began work near Conway, in Horry County, collecting in the flat pine 
woods, in cypress swamps, and in the salt marshes near the coast. 
Our 10-day stay here netted many interesting and desirable speci- 
mens. Then moving south westward farther toward the interior of 
the coastal plain we settled in Dorchester County near St. George, 
working along the drainage of the Edisto River. Most of our collect- 
ing was done in the cypress swamps, in open pine woods, and near 
the edges of cotton fields. 

Next we moved to Hardeeville to investigate the Lower Austrori- 
parian life zone as it occurs in the extreme southern portion of the 
State. Most of our work was done in Beaufort County in the cypress 
and deciduous swamps, and through abandoned farms, salt marshes, 
and islands — the latter including Hilton Head. Painted buntings and 
chuck-wills-widows were very common, and bird life in general was 
much more abundant than in previous areas. 

We then moved northwestward into the Piedmont region in the 
vicinity of Union, working Union and Newberry Counties in Sumter 
National Forest. In old broom-sedge fields we found Bachman's 
sparrows, and along the streams were the usual types of birds oc- 
curring in such localities. Journeying southwestward along the Sa- 
vannah River, we settled at McCormick, where again the Sumter 
National Forest offered us ample collecting grounds over the pine- 
covered rolling hills in McCormick, Edgefield, and Abbeville Coun- 
ties. One of the most interesting finds here was the nesting of the 
mountain vireos which we had known elsewhere only in more 
elevated regions in the mountains. While here J. C. Calhoun joined 
us to assist primarily in mammal collecting. 



28 



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Fig. 29. — A typical coastal plain region of open pine woods where brown- 
headed nuthatches and red-cockaded woodpeckers are found, near Allen- 
dale, S. C. 




Fig. 30. — W. M. Perrygo and R. B. Vance in a cypress swamp near 
Allendale, S. C. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



29 




Fig. 31. — White sand and scrub oak — a typical association in South Carolina. 




Fig. 32. — Fall plowing near Olanta, S. C. 



30 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Moving northwestward to Walhalla, we collected along the Chat- 
tooga Ridge in Oconee County. Here we found golden-winged and 
worm-eating warblers and mountain vireos in abundance. 

The final area for the summer was in the vicinity of Caesar's 
Head in Greenville County, where we collected along Standing Stone, 
Caesar's Head, Bradford, and Sassafras Mountains — the latter being 
about 3,500 feet in elevation, and the entire area the most elevated in 
the State. The slopes are steep and deciduously wooded and housed 
more of the mountain forms than the previous section despite the 
absence of typical Canadian flora. A few pairs of song sparrows were 
nesting here, in addition to chestnut-sided warblers. This completed 
the spring and summer investigation for the season, and we returned 
to Washington July 23. 

Accompanied by John Webb, of the Division of Birds, I left for 
the fall collecting trip September 14. Our first stop was at Rock Hill 
above the fall line in northern South Carolina. Most of our work 
was along the rolling hills bordering the Catawba River and in the 
wooded bottom lands so typical of the Piedmont region. In spite of 
the unusually warm weather we found representatives of the birds 
that we needed to tie in with those collected in North Carolina 
just to the north along the same river during the previous year. On 
October 2 we moved eastward to Cheraw to work along the Pee Dee 
River. The swamps along the river yielded valuable specimens. 

On October 16 we continued southward to Allendale to complete 
the work along the Savannah River. Through the courtesy of R. B. 
Vance, of Allendale, who gave us permission to collect on his farm, 
we found an excellent concentration of bird life in the cypress swamps 
and open pine woods, and along the edges of the fields — all within a 
short radius, which is most unusual for the coastal plain. Brown- 
headed nuthatches, red-cockaded woodpeckers, Bachman sparrows, 
and other birds typical of these habitats were rather numerous. 

The next 2 weeks were spent in Olanta working along the Lynches 
River, one of the slow-moving tributaries of the Pee Dee River. 
The final area centered around McClellanville, in Charleston County, 
where we had an excellent stay, collecting in the salt marshes near 
Cape Romain Wildlife Sanctuary. Sharp-tailed and seaside spar- 
rows, rails, and boat-tailed grackles were seen in great numbers. In 
the interior we worked in the Francis Marion National Forest. The 
red-cockaded woodpecker was more abundant here than in any area 
investigated. Equally abundant were wild turkeys which are said to 
be descendants of the original wild strain native to this area. De- 
cember 1 brought the survey to a close. 



COLLECTING HABITAT GROUP MATERIAL IN THE 
CANADIAN ROCKIES 

By W. L. BROWN 
Chief Taxidermist, U. S. National Museum 

In October 1940 the first habitat groups with painted backgrounds — 
moose and caribou — were completed in the United States National 
Museum. While they were being constructed, two other such groups 
were being planned, namely, a Rocky Mountain goat and a Rocky 
Mountain sheep group. In order to select settings and obtain ma- 
terial for these, it was necessary to visit British Columbia and 
Alberta in Canada, regions from which the mammals to be used 
were collected some years ago by Dr. Charles D. Walcott. 

On July 11 I left for Field, British Columbia. Field, a most 
picturesque spot located in the Kicking Horse River valley, is sur- 
rounded by Mount Burgess, Mount Field, Mount Stephens, and 
Mount Dennis, all four of which are over 8,000 feet in altitude. I was 
told by several people living at the Y.M.C.A., where I made my head- 
quarters, that at certain times of the year goats could be seen on 
the ledges of Mount Burgess, just opposite the Y. Mr. Holman, 
Acting Superintendent of Yoho National Park, offered me his full 
cooperation in making the trip a success. 

My first field trip was to Yoho Valley chalet camp to obtain data 
on the formations there. This valley is said by many to be one of 
the most beautiful of the entire Rockies. The camp is situated in 
a meadow within sight and sound of the Takakkaw Falls. 

Arrangements were made for a trip up Mount Burgess from the 
Emerald Lake side. A guide was employed, and horses were ob- 
tained to bring back the material to be collected. At a point 7,020 feet 
up as indicated by the altimeter, we reached an angular shale cliff 
which I decided would make an especially fine setting for the goat 
group, having seen four goats, many tracks, and much goat hair 
lodged in larch trees here. Rock rabbits running in and out of the 
ledges of shale and the whistling of the marmots added to the in- 
terest of this spot. The President Range, rising high into the clouds, 
made a perfect background picture. 

Wildflowers bloomed profusely here, and it was interesting to 
note how the flora changed as we ascended the mountain. Photo- 
graphs were taken, measurements of the rock formation were made, 
and a complete collection of the flora was obtained, along with soil 
and shale. Among some of the plants collected were the heather, 

31 



32 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



33 




f^^K ^y^Si 



Fig. 36. — President Range. Background scene for goat group. 




Fig. 3J. — Scene selected for the sheep group. 



34 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

windflower, mountain sorrel, Indian paintbrush, moss plant, flower- 
ing wintergreen, and sedge. Several alpine larch trees and juniper 
bushes were also taken to complete the natural setting for the group. 
The abundance of fireweed and Indian paintbrush added much color 
to the hills. 

With all the necessary specimens for the goat group packed and 
shipped, I turned my thoughts to the sheep group. Banff had been 
suggested as the proper locality for the sheep work, and on July 22 I 
left Field for that place. Located in the heart of the Rockies, sur- 
rounded with snow-topped mountains covered with evergreen forest, 
Banff is indeed a spot of exquisite beauty. Major Jennings, Superin- 
tendent of the National Park, advised me to make my collections at 
the Gap. 23 miles east of Banff on the road to Calgary. He informed 
me that on one occasion he had seen 50 sheep at that very spot. Most 
generously he allowed Mr. Ashley, one of his wardens, to take me to 
Mount Grotto at the Gap. We had not been there more than 5 minutes 
before I caught sight of my first sheep. After a little exploring, I 
too was convinced that this place would make a perfect setting for 
our sheep group. The mountains in the background, being without 
glaciers, would form a decided contrast with the mountain back- 
grounds of some of our other habitat groups. These mountains were 
Mount Pigeon (7,855 feet). Mount Lougheed (10,190 feet), and the 
Three Sisters (8,850 feet). 

On the way back to Banff it was my great pleasure to see 30 elk in 
a herd and a coyote, two mammals I had never before seen in the wild 
state. I also saw black bear, mule deer, ground squirrels, and gophers. 
Arrangements were made with a man owning a truck to take me back 
to Mount Grotto and to help collect material for the group. 

Among the plants obtained from this mountain were snowberry, 
bearberry, wild rose, buffaloberry, serviceberry, yarrow, chickweed, 
catchfly, bellflower, and the nodding onion. Wild currant and wild 
raspberry bushes also grew in abundance here. Photographs were 
made of this section, and color notes were taken in order to assist the 
artist in reproducing a natural and effective background. 

While at Banff, I visited the National Museum, seeing a fine repre- 
sentative collection of mounted birds and mammals of that region, 
along with well-arranged exhibits of the flora and geologic collections. 

On July 30 I left for home, greatly pleased with the results obtained. 
Much credit for the success of the trip is due to the splendid co- 
operation of the Superintendents of the Yoho and Banff National 
Parks, together with that of the guides and employees of the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad. 



COLLECTING MEXICAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 
By Dr. and Mrs. HOBART M. SMITH 

Having been awarded the Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholarship in 
1938 for the purpose of continuing studies on the reptiles and 
amphibians of Mexico, we spent the first year collecting in parts of 
Mexico that could be reached by car. With our truck we camped 
through the state of Chihuahua from Cuidad Juarez to Torreon, 
Coahuila. Here the road became a highway, and during the remainder 
of the year we followed the highways of Mexico which took us 
through Mexico City south to Acapulco, west to Guadalajara, east to 
Potrero Viejo in the state of Veracruz, and north to Laredo, Texas. 
Various side trips were made when road conditions permitted. 

In May 1939 we left our truck at the home of Dyfrig Forbes in 
Potrero Viejo, Veracruz, and by train, freighter, riverboat, and mule 
reached Piedras Negras, Guatemala, located on the Usumacinta River 
near Tenosique, Tabasco. After a very profitable month, during which 
we were guests of Linton Satterthwaite, Jr., who was studying the 
ruins at Piedras Negras, we returned to Emiliano Zapata, Tabasco. 

From Emiliano Zapata we went by horse to Palenque, Chiapas. 
Palenque is a tiny village consisting of palm-thatch houses with abso- 
lutely no accommodations for travelers. San Juanito, the ranch of 
Don Ernesto Rateike, about 1 kilometer from Palenque, is very com- 
fortable, and here we remained almost a month. Collecting here was 
fair. It should be wonderful in the rainy season ; we were there during 
the rainy season, but it failed to rain. 

At the end of July we made our way by boat to Veracruz, picked 
up our car in Potrero Viejo, and during the month of August and the 
early part of September made various collecting trips on the high- 
ways accompanied by Dr. E. H. Taylor. Our previous stops in these 
localities had been made during the dry season. Various faunal 
changes are apparent through the seasons. For example at Agua del 
Obispo in Guerrero, a species of lizard (Uta bicarinata) with a blue 
spot under its chin was collected during the dry season. During the 
rainy season none were found, but Anolis megaphoUdotits, which has 
a bright red dewlap, were plentiful. They had not been found in the 
dry season. The natives insisted, "It is the same lizard ; it just 
changes the color of the spot in the time of the rains." 

After these trips by car we returned to Potrero Viejo. The high- 
way between Mexico City and Potrero exemplifies the great variety 
of types of country covered in a few hours on any of the Mexican 

35 



36 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 38. — My wife is thinking" this Ctenosaur 
would be better for the frying pan than for the 
alcohol can. 




Fig. 39. — Seining pools at 9,000 feet for axolotl salamanders is chilly work 
even in summer. Smith managing to keep up with Dr. Taylor for a while. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94.O 



37 




\F*\W\& 



W^^i 






fit v 




\ vli- A 7 

Fig. 40. — Lizard collecting in this ravine near Tehuantepec makes 
good gymnastics. 









'.'-■■■• ■ - 






Fig. 41. — The north woods in Mexico. El Chico Park, near Pachuca, Hidalgo. 



38 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

highways. Starting from Mexico City, we leave almost immediately 
the desert plateau and climb into crisp, sweet-smelling pine forests 
near the snow-capped volcanoes. A little over an hour brings us to 
another desert region, which becomes increasingly drier as we ap- 
proach Tehuacan. A half hour from Tehuacan the highway makes a 
sudden drop of 2,000 feet. Warm air rising from the valley condenses 
at these mountain tops and every afternoon a heavy fog covers the 
hills for a very short distance. Here we very suddenly leave desert 
hills and find before leaving the mountains a few g - reen hills, grassy 
and scattered with trees which are filled with many bromelias. After 
the steep drop in the highway the countryside gradually becomes more 
verdant for about 20 miles to the town of Orizaba. Again a drop in 
altitude, this time gradual, takes us into a region of dense tropical 
vegetation. Here are sugar plantations, bananas, and coffee. Below 
Potrero the coastal plain is reached, which at Veracruz is dry grass- 
land with scattered low trees and, along rivers, very heavy brush. 

We arrived on New Year's Eve by train in Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. 
We had hardly established ourselves there in the boarding house of 
Doha Carmen when we were serenaded by a group of little boys sing- 
ing a plaintive little tune, "Charity, charity for this poor old one — " 
The old year, a dummy made of old clothing and straw, happily smil- 
ing a silly painted grin under an old sombrero, was enthroned upon 
an old chair which they carried. Later they spent the alms received for 
sodas. The next day we found the old year in a back yard, his smile a 
little hollow, for the pigs had eaten one of his arms. 

An interesting side trip from Tehuantepec was to Salina Cruz. 
Here we hoped especially to collect a sea snake. The people there knew 
them well, "Yes," they would say, "black above and yellow below. 
Now just the other day a fisherman came in with one. . . . ." What- 
ever joy we might have had in our specimens from Salina Cruz was 
dulled by the fact that among them was no sea snake. Later one 
of the boys brought one in. At the present time it doesn't matter so 
much that we did not collect it ourselves, but at that time it did. 

After Tehuantepec, two of the most profitable months of the trip 
were spent in southern Chiapas at La Esperanza, the home of 
E. Matuda. During July and August, through the assistance of 
Dr. Alfonse Dampf, the Duges collection from the Alfredo Duges 
Museum of the state college in Guanajuato was brought to the Poly- 
technic Institute in Mexico City, where it was possible to study the 
collection. 

Our field work ended in August 1940, and we found that our 
collections totaled a little over 20,000 reptiles and amphibians belong- 
ing to about 500 species, many of them new to science. 



ALASKA KING CRAB INVESTIGATIONS, 1940 

By WALDO L. SCHMITT 

Curator, Division of Marine Invertebrates, U. S. National Museum 

Many of us have relished the "fancy deep-sea crab meat" packed by 
the Japanese, but few of us are aware that much of it is said to come 
from water adjacent to our own Alaskan Bering Sea coast. The 
crustacean from which this delectable crab meat is derived is the king 
crab (Paralithodes camtschaticiis) . It represents a potentially valuable 
resource of the sea as yet unexploited by American fishing interests. 
For this reason the United States Fish and Wildlife Service sent out 
an expedition to Alaska to investigate the biology of the king crab 
and its commercial fishing prospects. 

A small floating cannery, the M. S. Tondcleyo, and a trawl boat, the 
Dorothy, were chartered and provided with necessary equipment, 
crew, and scientific staff, including Joseph Puncochar, technologist 
and canning expert in charge of canning methods and allied experi- 
mental work ; Roy Christey, economist, to study costs of operations 
in all their phases; Carl Carlson, fishery expert, in charge of com- 
mercial gear and studies regarding the relative efficiency of the vari- 
ous types of gear employed in catching crabs ; C. J. Pertuit, graduate 
student of the University of Washington, assistant biologist ; and the 
writer, representing the United States National Museum, biologist 
and leader of the field party; master of the Dorothy, Capt. Ellsworth 
F. Trafton ; and master of the Tondeleyo, Capt. A. V. Nelsen, who 
also acted as superintendent of cannery and commercial fishing 
operations. 

The area designated for investigation this year lay south of the 
Alaska Peninsula and extended from Ikatan Bay on the west to 
Shelikof Strait between Kodiak Island and the mainland in the east, 
from the shallower waters inshore out to the effective range of the 
gear with which we were furnished — about 90 fathoms of water. 

We left Seattle on August 28, and the cruise up the Inside Passage 
was warm and sunny. Several brief stops formed enjoyable breaks in 
the trip. 

At Ketchikan we consulted with the Assistant Director of the Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Charles E. Jackson, and R. W. Harrison of 
the Service's technological laboratory in Seattle, who has direct charge 
of the king crab investigation in its entirety. Petersburg, which I 

39 



40 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 42. — Rain clouds drifting across the wooded valley in which is located 
Ketchikan, the busy metropolis of southeastern Alaska. There is no lack 
of rain here ; rather, there is a dearth of sunshine. Nevertheless, it is a 
picturesque place. 




MW 



Fig. 43. — Two of our good friends at Petersburg, Alaska : Earl Ohmer, 
best known as the shrimp king, to the right, and, beside him, Fred Porter, 
who in years past has given the National Museum a number of interesting 
specimens. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I940 



41 




Fig. 44. — Looking toward Pavlof Volcano from Tolstoi Point as we enter 
the bay named for the volcano. The volcano is an active one, and every little 
while it emits a sizable puff of smoke. The companion peak to the right is 
inactive. We called the pair "old Pavlof and his wife." 




Fig. 45. — A boatload of king crabs taken with a tangle net. The fisherman 
is holding up a large male about 8 inches in width of carapace or shell. 



42 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

had long wanted to visit because of my interest in shrimps and crabs 
and all that pertains to them, claims to produce more shrimps than any 
port in the world. Here I made the acquaintance of Earl Ohmer, 
shrimp king of Alaska, and his packing plant foreman, Fred Porter. 
Ohmer befriended the Hancocks, with whom I have made several 
trips to the Galapagos Islands, when they were shipwrecked in 
Wrangell Narrows in 1928. Fred Porter was an old friend of the 
Museum who 5 years earlier, in 1923, had presented the Institution 
with a large treelike alcyonarian or fleshy coral, the largest in the 
National Museum's collections, where it is now on exhibit. 

Off Perryville, the village established by our Government for the 
survivors of the destructive eruptions of Mount Katmai in 191 2 — 
Katmai of the "Valley of 10,000 Smokes" — we anchored in order to 
make a few needed repairs to our main engine. With a sizable party 
of natives, Leslie Melvin, the local Indian-school teacher, put out 
through the surf to welcome us ashore. On the way in the native 
boatmen apparently were so much interested in us strangers, or in 
what we had to say, that they paid no heed to the surf. Just as we 
were about to land we were overtaken by a huge breaker. Boots were 
filled with water and we were thoroughly soaked waist high. Too late 
to escape, we saw the comber breaking over the stern and rose to 
our feet to meet the rush of water. This alone saved our cameras ; 
otherwise our pictorial record of the cruise would have ended at 
Perryville before the first crab had been caught. I asked Leslie later, 
"Was that an accident, or did the natives want to see if we newcomers 
on the Alaskan scene could take it?" He hastened to assure me that 
it was not intentional ; but those natives certainly had the laugh of 
their lives. 

The evening of September 12 saw us safely anchored at our head- 
quarters for the next 5 weeks — Canoe Bay, off the northwest corner 
at Pavlof Bay. Our first task was the installation of the "water- 
works." In a suitable steep stream, preferably under a small water- 
fall, a barrel was installed high enough on the mountainside to pro- 
vide sufficient pressure to carry the water through a series of pipes or 
a hose. This pipe line was carried out some little distance into the 
water, where it was secured to a line and marker buoy so that the 
end of the hose might be lifted into the large lifeboat which was used 
to ferry the fresh water back to the ship. 

The Dorothy, on her arrival some days after the Tondeleyo, went 
actively to work with her omniverous otter trawl. This had an 
effective fishing opening approximately 85 feet wide by some 10 or 
12 feet high. As many as 500 king crabs were caught in a single day 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94.O 



43 




Fig. 46. — A hundred or more Canoe Bay king crabs, taken with the 
Dorothy's otter trawl. The bucket in the background gives one some idea of 
the size of these large crustaceans. 




Fig. 47. — A few of the shells and starfish taken with otter trawl in Canoe 
Bay. Most of them are brilliant red sun stars. At upper right is a baby king- 
crab about 2 inches in width of body. 



44 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

in Canoe Bay, but not every day was so successful. In the course of 
the season's operations we caught several thousand crabs. 

From Canoe Bay we moved over to Dolgoi Harbor, in the Pavlof 
Island group, and a week later over to Mist Harbor, Nagai Island in 
the Shumagins, for a similar length of time. From these bases fishing 
trials were made in all directions out to sea, among the islands, and 
up into all promising bays on various types of bottom and in varying 
depths, but no king crabs were discovered in these areas at this time 
of the year except for a few isolated individuals in Cold Bay and 
adjacent Lenard Harbor. Therefore on November 28 operations were 
transferred to Alitak, west end of Kodiak, where several hundred 
cases of king crabs had been canned by an earlier though unsuccessful 
venture during the first half of 1933. Except for Olga Bay, which is 
tributary to Alitak Bay. our luck was no better than that encountered 
elsewhere since leaving Canoe Bay. In Olga Bay we not only 
got several hundred king crabs of the familiar reddish species 
{P. camtschaticus) taken so far, but also between three and four dozen 
deep blue ones representing a second species of Paralitlwdes, P. 
platypus. The meat of the latter when canned is indistinguishable 
from that of the former, in either appearance or taste. 

So that we might discover something regarding the movements of 
the crabs, or at least the date of the arrival of a considerable body 
of them here at Alitak. while the expedition as a whole worked 
farther to the eastward, Pat Pertuit, and Jim Scrivner of the 
Tondcleyo's crew were left behind. Quarters were made available at 
Alitak and at Olga Bay by the Pacific American Fisheries and the 
Alaska Packers Association, respectively. 

Our last fishing trials of the current season, which was to terminate 
on December 1, were made over on the north side of Shelikof Strait, 
east of Kukak Bay, our last base, between November 15 and 20. They 
returned about 70 crabs, including in the very last haul the largest 
and heaviest crab taken, a 16-pounder, just about 10 inches in width 
of shell, or carapace, and approximately 56 inches wide over the 
laterally extended legs. 

The wealth of bottom life picked up by a commercial otter trawl 
is a revelation to those who have never seen one in operation. On 
more than one occasion, Canoe Bay, Pavlof Bay, and elsewhere, we 
picked up close to a ton or more of marketable sole and flounder ; at 
other times, in Olga Bay, all of a thousand pounds or more of good- 
sized shrimp, chiefly species of Pandalns. Now and then we would get 
a solid haul of purple starfish, and once in Shelikof Strait over 300 
7-inch ocean scallops (Pectcu caurinus), which furnished us a memor- 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



45 




Fig. 48. — A windy day in lowei 
almost obscurin 



Pavlof Bay ; spray blowim 
■ the Dorothy's pilot house. 



3ver the deck, 




Fig. 49. — Taking the temperature and sampling the water at Stepovak Bay. 
This snow-rimmed body of water was not as cold as one might think. At 
7 o'clock in the morning, October 25, the surface registered 5?4i C. (4i?74 F.). 
Near the bottom, 22 fathoms down, the water was warmer, o?go C. (49?64 F.). 



46 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

able sea-food treat. The host of marine animals of all kinds that 
came to hand is almost indescribable. It was not long before we were 
pressed for suitable containers and preservatives, so many were the 
kinds of fish and shells and other invertebrates that were of interest 
to the Museum. The king crabs were difficult to preserve because 
of their large size and spidery habitus. 

On the whole we had remarkably good weather the greater part 
of our 3 months in the field, with very little freezing weather. One 
night in Olga Bay it went down to 29 ° F. ; in Kukak Bay, toward the 
middle of November, the thermometer registered 26 F. at 7 in the 
morning. We had a windy session both times that we passed the 
Barren Islands, on our way into Alitak on the Dorothy on October 30, 
and again on one of our crossings of Shelikof Strait; but the blow 
I shall remember longest was a fierce sou'easter we rode out at 
anchor aboard the Dorothy in Lenard Harbor on October 11. 

That afternoon the increasing force of the wind warned us that 
we had better give up our fishing trials in Cold Bay and make for 
the nearest shelter, Lenard Harbor. The gale must have reached its 
peak about 5 p.m., for the Dorotliy started dragging her anchors. 
Both were out with all the chain and cable we had for them. Had 
not the wind fallen off more rapidly in the next 30 minutes than it 
made up during the several hours preceding, we might not have 
been here to tell the tale. 

Homeward bound from Kukak Bay we lost little time. Two days 
after the Dorothy, the Tondclcyo tied up at the Fish and Wildlife 
Service dock in Seattle at 4 p.m., December 11, officially marking the 
end of the 1940 field work of the Alaska king crab investigation. 



GREENLAND EXPEDITION OF 1940 

By Capt. ROBERT A. BARTLETT 

New York City 

Last spring, because of the international situation, the prospects 
of my making a trip north again in 1940 aboard the Morrissey 
seemed very dark. After due formalities, however, I received per- 
mission from our own State Department to enter Newfoundland and 
Labrador ports, and from the Danish authorities to land in Greenland. 
Accordingly, I went ahead with preparations to put the Morrissey in 
commission. 

Again Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, Curator of Marine Invertebrates, 
United States National Museum, supplied us with collecting equip- 
ment. David C. Nutt, who made his fourth trip north with me this 
year, helped me most efficiently to get everything in readiness for 
the trip. Capt. J. F. Hellweg, U.S.N., Superintendent of the LI. S. 
Naval Observatory, and also Capt. G. S. Bryan, U.S.N., Hydrog- 
rapher, supplied us with instruments, books, and charts. In return, 
we sent the Hydrographic Office detailed observations of ice condi- 
tions, berg movements, and surface-water temperatures taken every 
3 hours, anchored or steaming, in ice or out of it. Also, meteorological 
data were sent to the Navy Department by our own radio. Hundreds 
of bottle papers were thrown overboard. This we have done both 
in the eastern and western Arctic. We get a thrill when the papers 
are returned after having gone 2,000 to 3,000 miles, and having 
been picked up on the Norwegian, English, or French coasts. 

Besides the small crew of Newfoundland fishermen and sealers who 
go with me year after year, I had this year 13 boys, mostly from 
preparatory schools and colleges. They take their turns along with 
the regular crew at all the work necessary. They are all grand lads, 
standing watch in all kinds of weather, and helping willingly to haul 
the nets, seine, and big otter trawls. 

The group of boys who accompanied me this year included 
David C. Nutt, Dartmouth College, now making his fifth trip 
aboard the Morrissey; Arthur Manice, Trinity College, making his 
third trip ; Albert L. Barnes, Choate School ; Albert L. Hoffman, East 
Norwich, Long Island, making his second trip ; James Pond, Jersey 
City, N. J. ; Warren Ripley, Dublin School ; Austin Colgate, Deer- 
field Academy; Albert Park, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. ; Fred Littleton, 

47 



4 8 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 50. — The Morrissey in the ice pack in Kane Basin, August 4-5, 1940. 




Fig. 51. — A group from the Morrissey with a few Eskimo descending the 
Cape York glacier, after visiting the Peary Monument. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O Af) 




Fig. 52. — "Carmichael," captured from the ice pack in Smith Sound, 
reluctantly comes aboard. 



Fig. 53. — A calm evening as we worked through the myriad bergs in 
Melville Bay. 



50 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Haverf ord Academy ; George Hodge, Norwalk, Conn. ; Rupert and 
Sam Bartlett, Methodist College, Newfoundland ; and Reginald Wil- 
cox, Hartford, Conn., making his fourth trip. Dr. Wilbur Manter, of 
Presbyterian Hospital, New York City, was also with us. 

We cast ofi" from the McWilliams Dry Dock at Staten Island 
June 20, passing through Long Island Sound and the Vineyard, fol- 
lowing the Canadian coast, and thence to Cape Race, Newfoundland. 
We stopped at Brigus a day, where I visited my mother. From there 
we went on to Turnavik, Labrador. We intended to follow the coast, 
but at Port Man vers found the Arctic drift ice too heavy. I came 
back to the Iron Bound Islands, where we made our exit from the 
coast and followed the eastern edge of the ice to about 30 miles off the 
Baffin Island coast. From here we continued our way north, entering 
Greenland waters July 17 off Svarten Huk Peninsula. From the Duck 
Islands we worked over toward the Devil's Thumb, seeing no drift 
ice and few bergs. On our way through Melville Bay we spent sev- 
eral hours at a small group of islands known as the "Thorn Is- 
lands." Very little vegetation is found there, the whole islands being- 
covered with the nests of eider ducks and Arctic terns. The islands 
teemed with life, and on them we collected birds, marine life, flowers, 
and mosses. 

From here we went to Cape York, where we built the Peary Monu- 
ment in 1932. All the lads and some of the crew climbed to the 
summit, 1,600 feet, where they found the monument in as good condi- 
tion as it was the day we finished it. There is no life on the summit, 
and the winds must blow violently — perhaps up to 130 miles an hour. 

Our next stop was Sukat, Crimson Cliffs. The sun that afternoon 
warmed up the snowy slopes and small glacier, making the waterfall 
very effective. Millions of little auks nest upon the slopes. The 
Eskimo spend the summer months in their skin tupiks upon the apron 
of the talus, where the women and children gather with nets a winter 
supply of little auks. 

From here we visited the Dalrymple Rock, observing and photo- 
graphing birds. The burgomaster gulls that hang around feed on 
the eggs and young of the eider. Four times during the short stay there 
we saw the gulls snatch the young ducks from the mother duck's 
protection. The ravens also swoop down, driving the old mothers off 
and destroying the unprotected nests. David, who was ashore, said 
the "black bombers" attacked nest after nest, and in 5 minutes of in- 
tensive air raid 50 or more nests must have been destroyed, after 
which the black marauders shoved on to more plunder elsewhere 
and life resumed its normal course in the duck colony until the next 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



51 




52 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

attack. While some of the boys were ashore we made collections 
with the plankton nets, dredge, and otter trawl. 

From here we visited Thule, where we paid our respects to the 
Governor and his wife, with whom we spent a few hours. The Gov- 
ernor wanted to visit Robertson Bay and I offered him passage on 
the Morrissey. Arriving at Robertson Bay, we found some old 
friends, among them Jim Van Hauen, who wanted some walrus meat 
for the Eskimo. I suggested, therefore, that he come along with me 
and bring the Eskimo. He did so, and in Smith Sound we got 10 or 
12 walrus. I brought Jim and his Eskimo and the walrus back to 
Robertson Bay. 

We then returned north again, into Kane Basin. We visited 
Dr. Kane's winter quarters at Rensselaer Harbor, also Marshall Bay, 
Inglefield Land, and as far east as the Great Humboldt Glacier, mak- 
ing observations of bird and marine life, flowers, and mosses in that 
vicinity. Continuing on our way north, we came to within 3 miles 
of Cape Lawrence, Ellesmere Land. This was the. farthest north that 
I had ever been in the Morrissey. We were now 578 miles from the 
North Pole. 

From here we worked our way south, passing through Smith 
Sound around the middle of August. We made the Labrador coast 
on the 26th and continued south to Brigus, arriving in New York 
September 15. All of us returned in good health and spirits, all 
feeling that it was a grand trip. 

Besides the wide range of marine material collected for the Smith- 
sonian Institution, we brought back four walrus pups for the New 
York Zoo and a polar bear, which we named Carmichael, for the 
Philadelphia Zoo. Collections of fauna were also made for the Cleve- 
land Museum of Natural History and the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences, as well as a collection of mosses for Vassar College. 

We are now laying our plans for another trip. I think that the real 
fountain of youth is to be found going north every summer with 
such a fine group of lads as we had this year. 



THE NIMBUS COLLECTING EXPEDITION TO THE 
GULF OF CALIFORNIA 

By PAUL BARTSCH 

Curator, Divisions of Mollusks and Ccnozoic Invertebrates 

U. S. National Museum 

The Nimbus, a 36^-foot cutter owned by Russell Hawkins, Jr., 
manned by Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins, left San Diego Bay in De- 
cember 1939 for a mollusk-collecting cruise along the west coast of 
Mexico and the Gulf of California. The boat was supplied by the 
United States National Museum with the necessary collecting equip- 
ment for such an undertaking. Of this cruise we extract certain 
notes from Mr. Hawkins' journal : 

"Mrs. Hawkins and I stowed ourselves among the heterogeneous 
cargo of quinine, canned soup, and spare parts, consoled with the 
knowledge that any forgotten necessity could never have been 
squeezed aboard, for the Nimbus was laden 3 inches below her normal 
water line. 

"The equipment for collecting mollusks supplied by the Museum 
was remarkably well adapted for such a small craft. Two 16-gallon 
alcohol tanks, twelve 1 -gallon jars, and twenty-four pint bottles were 
securely packed in six wooden chests, which we fastened in the space 
ordinarily used as a double bunk, and unfortunately the most com- 
fortable seat in the main cabin. Another chest, lashed to the 
floor under the table in the main cabin, contained two Lewis 
dredges, a larger dredge, spare netting, canvas, cheesecloth, and 
other material for preserving and identifying our specimens. 

"Short-handed as we were, we nosed into every possible anchor- 
age, and some which normally would have been impossible. So from 
San Diego to Cape San Lucas we had only six or seven nights at sea. 
One night at sea was not too bad, but two consecutive nights were, 
to put it mildly, very tiring. Frequent anchorages made it possible 
for us to dredge and explore many of the coves and bays which 
might otherwise have slipped by unknown. Mrs. Hawkins and I 
together made a heavy load for our dinghy, so usually I put her 
ashore, and while she searched the beach, pools, and rocks, I towed 
the Lewis dredge over the stern of the dinghy. The larger dredge 
worked well astern of the Nimbus, but we had to conserve gasoline 
and it was pretty heavy for us to handle alone, so we were able to use 
it only occasionally on the west side of the Peninsula of Baja 
California." 

53 



54 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 56. — Nimbus under sail in the Gulf of California. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



55 




Fig. 57. — Mrs. Hawkins sorting the catch while under way. 




Fig. 58. — Material on deck of Nimbus from large dredge, before sorting. 
Collected near Puerto Escondida, Gulf of California. 



56 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Collections were made on the west coast of Lower California at 
Santo Tomas anchorage, December 22 ; San Martin Island, De- 
cember 26-30 ; San Bartolome Bay or Turtle Bay, January 2-4 ; 
San Hipolita Bay, January 7 ; Point Abreojos, January 8, and Santa 
Maria Bay, January n. 

Turning into the Gulf, the expedition made collections at San 
Lucas Bay, January 19-21 ; Fraile Bay, January 24; Ensenada de Los 
Muertos, January 26; La Paz Bay, February 5-13; Pichilinque Har- 
bor, February 14; St. Gabriel's Bay, Espiritu Santo Island, February 
15; Isla Partida, February 16-18; San Francisco Island, February 
21 ; San Jose Island, February 22, 23; Evaristo Point, February 24; 
San Carlos Bay, February 25 ; Carmen Island, February 26-28 ; 
Puerto Escondido, February 28, 29; Coronado Island, March 2; 
Pulpito Point, March 3; Conception Bay, March 6-10; Guayamas 
Bay (many stations), March 16-26; Puerto San Carlos, March 27, 
28; St. Inez Bay, March 29, 30; La Paz, April 5, and Mazatlan, 
April 11-16. 

The amount of work accomplished on this expedition can be 
partly visualized by the fact that in addition to the large amount of 
dried and alcoholic material, of which there are 298 lots, si f tings from 
the various dredge hauls, filling containers ranging from 8-ounce 
bottles to 2-quart jars, were represented by 182 lots. One of these, 
taken at random, yielded no less than 78 species of minute mollusks. 

To close this brief account I will give a few more extracts from 
the journal : 

"Running along the coast of the Gulf of California, we found 
many rocks and islands and few lights or aids to navigation. We 
usually left our anchorage at dawn and tried to make our next ob- 
jective before the norther regained momentum. Frequently we never 
started; occasionally the wind came up with the sun, so we would 
have to run back to our former anchorage or hope for the best in 
a make-shift lee behind a small island or projection from the main- 
land. The wind built up a short choppy sea into which it was most 
difficult to drive a small boat. 

"When at first we went ashore I carried sidearms, expecting to 
be held up by the 'wild aborigines.' After meeting several of the 
'wild aborigines' in their native haunts, I decided that they should 
have been carrying the sidearms. More particularly on the Peninsula 
we found the Mexicans friendly and kindly and we thoroughly en- 
joyed our grotesque conversation with them, part Mexican, part 
English, sometimes mostly signs and smiles. We found warm wel- 
come wherever we went. We will long treasure many fond memories 
of our friends in the Bav of California." 



BUTTERFLIES OF VIRGINIA 

By AUSTIN H. CLARK 
Curator, Division of Echinoderms, U. S. National Museum 

Life is always changing, never static. So in considering the butter- 
flies of Virginia it is necessary to note the changes that take place 
from year to year — changes in abundance, in range, and in form. 
Some butterflies are disappearing from regions where once they 
were common. Others are increasing in numbers. Still others from 
time to time have entered the State from more or less distant regions 
and have made themselves thoroughly at home. 

Two such recent immigrants are now perhaps the commonest and 
most generally distributed species in Virginia. It is possible that they 
are exceeded in actual numbers by two small and inconspicuous 
ones, the pearl-crescent (Phyciodes their os) and the tailed blue 
(Everes coiiiyiitas) ; but if not the most numerous of Virginia butter- 
flies they are certainly the most conspicuous. One of these is the 
cabbage white (Pier is rctpae) of Europe which was first noticed about 
1870 in Surry County, and the other is the orange clover butterfly 
(Colias philodice cnrythenie) that entered the State from the west 
and south about 20 years ago (figs. 60, b; 61, a, b) . 

The orange clover butterfly was wholly unknown in Virginia prior 
to 1920, when Dr. Frank Morton Jones captured one on the Dela- 
ware-Maryland-Virginia peninsula. By 1923 it was common as far 
north as Wachapreague on the Eastern Shore, where it had replaced 
the native yellow clover butterfly (Colias philodice philodice) (fig. 
60, a) and to the north it occurred as far as Berlin, Md. In 1925 it 
was found in the Dismal Swamp, though there were still no records 
farther west. However, by 1929 it was abundant in the west as far 
north as Lexington, occurring in lesser numbers farther north, and 
it was also common in the Kanawha and other valleys in West 
Virginia where previously it had been unknown. Since then it has 
swept over the entire State (fig. 59), where it is now thoroughly 
established everywhere except only in the highest mountain pastures 
where its yellow eastern relative still is common. 

With the increase in numbers of this intruder the numbers of its 
native yellow relative diminished. Now this yellow butterfly, which 
20 years ago was the commonest and most conspicuous butterfly of 
Virginia's fields and pastures, has in most regions almost disappeared. 



58 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1^40 



59 




A 



1 

> 



Fig. 6o. — a, yellow clover butterfly (Colias philodice philodice) , large male, 
Silver Spring, Md., Aug. 3, 1927; b, orange clover butterfly (C. p. eurytheme) , 
a yellow female slightly tinged with orange, Cabin John, Md., Sept. 14, 1928. 



r 





Fig. 61. — Orange clover butterfly (Colias philodice eurytheme) : a, small 
pale male, Silver Spring, Md., July 23, 1927; b, large deep orange female. 
Cabin John, Md., Sept. 14, 1928. 




Fig. 62. — a, Hesberia attains, male, under side, St. Petersburg, Fla., Apr. 
24, 1914; b, Atrytone conspicua, male, Beltsville, Md., July 15, 1928; c, same 
species, under side. 



60 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Just why the numbers of these two closely related butterflies should 
vary reciprocally is not known. 

The disappearance of the yellow clover butterfly was only one of 
the curious adjustments that took place as a result of the immigra- 
tion of the orange form into this region. In the early years of its 
occurrence in Virginia the intruder appeared first in the latter part 
of April, and the earliest individuals were orange, like those seen in 
summer but somewhat smaller. In 1931 it appeared earlier than 
it had in previous years and in a different color. The early individuals 
(fig. 61, a) were small and clear yellow with a slight flush of orange 
on the inner and lower portion of the fore wings instead of orange. 
Since then this small light form has appeared regularly in early 
spring, usually early in April, in some years even in late March. 

In the West, spring individuals are small and yellow with a slight 
flush of orange, the next brood is larger and wholly orange, and the 
summer broods are still deeper orange (fig. 61, b). In Virginia 
a few orange individuals fly in spring with the small yellow ones, and 
in summer and autumn all three forms fly together. So if we regard 
the conditions in the West as representing the standard pattern, 
this butterfly has not as yet become fully adjusted to its surroundings 
in Virginia. 

In 1937 bright clear yellow individuals of this butterfly some- 
what suddenly increased in numbers, and they have been common 
ever since. In that year also this insect first adopted the habit, so 
characteristic of its eastern yellow representative, of sitting in sociable 
companies on mud and sucking up the moisture. 

What further changes may take place in the habits or forms of this 
interesting butterfly we cannot guess. But its curious history in 
the past indicates that it will be worth watching in the future — 
always with the hope that in Virginia it will not develop into the 
destructive pest that it is in the irrigated lands of California and 
Arizona. 

Of the disappearing butterflies the most conspicuous is the diana 
fritillary (Argynnis diana), the range of which is becoming more and 
more restricted. During the past season we obtained records of this 
species from Buchanan. Tazewell, Wise, and Botetourt Counties, 
from which it was previously unknown. 

Two new butterflies were added this year to the Virginia list. 
Carroll E. Wood, Jr., and Lloyd G. Carr took Atrytone conspicua 
(fig. 62, b, c) near Mountain Lake in Giles County, and Frank W. 
Trainer captured Hesperia attains (fig. 62, a) at Farmville ; I caught 
another of the latter species at Clarks Gap in Loudoun County. 



STUDYING THE GRASSES OF VENEZUELA 

By AGNES CHASE 

Custodian, Section of Grasses, U. S. National Museum 

Last January I received an invitation from the Venezuelan Min- 
istry of Agriculture to visit Venezuela to study the grasses and to 
suggest methods to further the study of the Gramineae. The Min- 
istry had, from time to time, extended similar invitations to other 
botanists and to zoologists. The boat I was on stopped at Curacao for 
about 4 hours, giving opportunity for a brief collecting trip. Land- 
ing at La Guaira, Venezuela, February 28, I proceeded directly to 
Dr. Pittier's laboratory in Caracas. 

La Guaira, the port of Caracas, lies at the foot of the seaward face 
of the Cordillera de la Costa (fig. 63). Caracas is only 8 miles dis- 
tant, but the steep winding road is 23 miles long, in many places 
cut out of the face of the cliffs (fig. 64). Dr. Henri Pittier, director 
of the Servicio Botanico of the Ministry of Agriculture, has been 
the outstanding botanist of Venezuela for 23 years (fig. 65). For 
17 years before that he was in the United States Department of 
Agriculture. He has been instrumental in assuring the preservation 
of an extensive area of cloud forest in the state of Aragua, the 
Parque National, and in bringing about the enactment of laws for- 
bidding the burning of the wooded slopes and the grassy plains. 

After a day's botanizing in the foothills of the coast range I had 
opportunity to make a trip by motor car to Merida in the high valley 
between the two ranges of the Andes, the Sierra del Norte and 
Sierra Nevada de Merida, studying and collecting grasses en route. 
The roads, where completed, winding up the steep mountain sides, 
are marvels of engineering. It was near the end of the dry season 
and the whole country was suffering from drought, but this is the 
flowering time of some of the trees, and the slopes were aglow with 
the golden flowers of Tecoma chrysantha, the orange-red flowers of 
species of Eryihrina, and the flowers of many other trees and shrubs 
only slightly less gorgeous. The Andes are not wooded, open stony 
grassland extending to the paramo, where the truly alpine flora occurs. 
Below the paramo the steep stony slopes were beset with frailejones, 
species of Espeletia, a tall composite with a mass of woolly foliage at 
the base, thick leafy stems, and masses of old flower heads at the 
summit, the whole a woolly brown. "Frailejones" means big brothers 
or monks, these great plants marching up the slopes having sug- 

61 



62 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

gested a company of monks to some early giver of common names, 
for the same name is used in Ecuador and Peru. 

Some few kilometers before we reached the pass, frailejones dis- 
appeared and patches of Aciachne pulvinata began. About Alto del 
Aquila (so named for the great bronze condor surmounting the 
monument to Bolivar), the highest part of the road, Aciachne is the 
dominant plant, with patches 10 to 20 feet in diameter forming the 
densest cover. This grass, occupying windswept heights, is marked 
by extreme reduction. The stems are an inch or two high, the stiff 
rolled blades are about a quarter of an inch long, and the inflorescence 
is reduced to a single spikelet (rarely two or three). The flowers 
are close-fertilized, the horny lemma tightly enclosing the pistil and 
the minute stamens and never opening. In the wind-swept paramo 
ordinary wind-pollinated grasses must waste an enormous amount of 
pollen; Aciachne avoids this. The tip of the lemma, though short, is 
as sharp as a needle and attaches the seed to any passing animal. 

The monument to Bolivar bears an inscription (freely translated) 
"Here, under the breath of war, crossing forests and climbing moun- 
tains, passed liberty." 

On the descent the country was much the same but less sparsely 
inhabited. Wheat was being harvested, cut by hand with small 
sickles. The stone-walled fields are so full of boulders it would seem 
impossible to grow anything in them, but we saw wheat being threshed 
in round stone-walled enclosures by horses driven round and round. 
The grain was winnowed by being tossed in the air in flat baskets. 
The straw was piled in larger square stone-walled enclosures. We saw 
a steep slope being plowed, an ox pulling a narrow-bladed plow 
(wood, edged with iron) — not a plowshare that turns soil, but a blade 
only scratching the surface — with two men guiding or helping. Pico 
Bolivar ( 10,256 feet), in Sierra del Norte, and Corona (16,000 feet), 
in Sierra de Merida, both snow-crowned, were in sight until we neared 
the city of Merida. This, the principal city of the Andes, lies at 
5,300 feet elevation. The population of the state is about 17,900. 
There was a surprising amount of gardening and farming in this 
little mountain valley. The city, founded in 1558, has a university 
that dates from before the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. We 
spent one night at Merida and started back before dawn the next 
morning. Clouds obscure the pass except in the early morning, 
and motorists aim to cross the pass by 9 o'clock. The whole trip took 
6 days, and I found interesting grasses in spite of the drought. 

I had several days' botanizing in the Federal District and in the 
hills and cloud forests of the Cordillera de la Costa. In the vicinity 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



63 





64 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

of Caracas and eastward "caria brava," Gynerium sagittatum, a grass 
20 to 30 feet tall, is conspicuous along the streams and in moist 
ground. It is an unsurpassed soil-binder and is extensively used for 
roofing. The walls of native huts are commonly built of the canes 
(fig. 66), sometimes overlaid with sun-baked brick. 

On March 20 Dr. Pittier, his assistant, Miss Luces, and I left 
La Guaira for the Oriente, as the eastern part of Venezuela is called. 
The next day we reached Guanta, a little west of Cumana, where 
Humboldt and Bonpland collected. After passing the low coral hills 
of the coast, we rode for some 5 hours across the flat plains, which, 
broken by a few low mesas, extend to the Orinoco. We made our 
headquarters at San Tome, Estado Anzoatigui, the headquarters of 
the Mene Grande Oil Company (a subsidiary of the Gulf Oil Com- 
pany), near Rio Tig-re. The region is a flat, wind-swept savanna with 
scattered low trees mostly bent toward the west. Much of the grass- 
land has been burned year after year, and the soil is terribly eroded, 
the fine topsoil entirely gone, exposing the coarse gravel in many 
places. Tiny hummocks of Oncostylis paradoxa, a sedge with short, 
curled foliage, clung to the earth with 2 or 3 inches of burned base 
exposed by wind erosion. The dominant grasses, those that have 
withstood repeated burning, are Trachypogon plumosus, originally de- 
scribed from Cumana, Axonopus anccps, both coarse and hairy, giving 
a grayish cast to miles of the llanos, Paspalur.i Gardncrianam, and 
species of Aristida. There were many less abundant grasses, all 
suffering from the severe drought. These exceedingly dry llanos are 
flooded during the rainy season, the water, from the Orinoco far to 
the south, standing a foot or more deep. The surface soil is a fine silt. 
The land is so flat there is relatively little evidence of the results of 
water erosion, such as gullies and badlands, the water soaking into 
the coarse gravel. The best collecting was in the black mucky ground 
bordering the morichales, groves of Moriche palm ( Alauritia flexuosa) 
along the rivers. Here I found four grasses new to Venezuela, be- 
sides an undescribed species of Mesosetum. In a favorable season 
the San Tome region would be well worth exploring. 

After about a week here we left for the northeast. Some 60 kilo- 
meters east low mesas begin, badly gullied and deeply cut. There are 
broad sandy river bottoms, and two wide canyons of red rock or 
clay, sculptured like miniature Grand Canyons. Toward Maturin 
the trade winds are much less severe and the country is cultivated. 
East of Maturin I found a bamboo in flower which turns out to be 
Guadua paniculata Munro, described from Brazil, and known from 
but three collections. Northeast of Maturin the country is protected 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 




Fig. 65.— Dr. H. Pittier. 




Fig. 66. — Native hut with walls of Gynerium sagittatum and roof thatched 

with palms. 



66 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

by the coast range. At Caripito it is no longer llano, but cleared 
jungle and second-growth forest, the land cultivated and very weedy, 
less interesting than the llanos. 

Returning to San Tome, Miss Luces and I were taken by motor 
to Ciudad Bolivar on the Orinoco. The country became more and 
more desolate, with some thorn bush and cactus as we neared the 
river. Our school books tell of rich land "watered by rivers." The 
Orinoco, like the Sao Francisco of Brazil, does not water the land 
through which it flows. The land along the Orinoco, the deepest river 
in the world, was dry to the very brink. It was low water, the banks 
of fine silt rising 50 feet above the water, bare save for a few 
patches of a sedge, and some Reimar'ochloa brasiliensis and Eragrostis 
hypnoides — grasses. 

We returned to Caracas overland, about 600 kilometers, taking 
2 days over roads deep in loose sand and full of gullies. There were 
much thorny bush, tall cactuses, and palm barrens (Copernicia 
tcctonim). 

Venezuela was formerly a cattle country, with large export trade, 
but cattle raising has been to a great extent abandoned. Venezuela 
has very extensive oil fields. There are oil wells around Maracaibo 
and in the lake itself, and the whole east, between the Coast Range 
and the Orinoco, is rich in oil. The law requires the oil companies 
to employ three Venezuelans to one foreigner, and to provide 
the camps with good water, electric light, and sanitation. No wonder 
people left uncertain cattle raising to work for the oil companies, 
with water, schools, and some of the larger ones provided with 
hospitals. Venezuela has a small population, less than 5,000,000, in- 
cluding the Indians south of the Orinoco, so that the demand for 
workers at oil camps has almost depopulated the interior. The result 
is that a great deal of food has to be imported and living is exceed- 
ingly expensive. Both the oil companies and the federal government 
are interested in establishing farming and cattle raising on modern 
methods. 

In spite of the drought my visit was interesting and profitable, 
many little-known grasses being collected, 1 1 previously unknown for 
the country, and 1 undescribed. In my report to the Minister of Agri- 
culture I said that Venezuela needed a specialist in grasses and sug- 
gested that Miss Zoraida Luces, who had begun the study of grasses 
by herself, be sent to study grasses in the Grass Division of the 
United States National Herbarium for a year. The suggestion was 
favorably received, and Miss Luces reached Washington in Sep- 
tember and is now engaged in a work on the genera of grasses of 
Venezuela. 



AN OSSUARY AT THE INDIAN VILLAGE SITE OF 
PATAWOMEKE (POTOMAC) 

By T. D. STEWART 

Associate Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology 

U. S. National Museum 

During the latter part of the field season of 1939 an ossuary was 
discovered near the center of the historic Indian village site on 
Potomac Creek, in Stafford County, Va., known as Patawomeke. 
Circumstances prevented the exposure at that time of more than a 
third of the skeletal remains. Although these remains were not too 
well preserved, owing perhaps to the weight of the superimposed 
earth and its heavy clay consistency, the arrangement of the bones 
and the meager accompanying cultural material furnished important 
new information regarding local burial customs. The complete ex- 
amination of this ossuary, then, was the primary reason for spending 
another field season at this site. Secondarily, we wished to search the 
neighborhood for related sites. 

A trip to the site in May of 1940 revealed that the field in which 
the ossuary was situated had just been planted in corn. This circum- 
stance dictated the date for beginning operations there, namely, in 
the fall after the corn was cut. James Ashby, the owner of the farm, 
again kindly gave permission to excavate. Arrangements were made 
also for Karl Schmitt, Jr., and Chandler Rowe, graduate students 
of the department of anthropology, University of Chicago, to serve 
as assistants. 

We set up camp on August 20 and were immediately adopted by a 
kitten that had wandered away from the farmhouse and was living 
in the cornfield. "Ho cat," as he was called, besides furnishing enter- 
tainment and company, served us well by keeping the tents free of 
crickets and grasshoppers, a diet upon which he seemed to thrive. 

From this headquarters we made daily trips over a period of a 
week — until the corn was cut — to various points along the Rappahan- 
nock River in search of Indian sites showing relationships to Pata- 
womeke. Although we had the advantage of Mr. Bushnell's reports 
on this part of the river, the season was unfavorable for such inves- 
tigations ; many of the sites were under cultivation. Nevertheless, we 
became convinced that a Rappahannock type of pottery constitutes 
a minor element at Potomac Creek. 



68 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 67. — Detail of John White's drawing of a "tombe" 
or death house seen along the North Carolina coast in 
1585. Note how the extended position of the bodies corre- 
sponds to that of the skeletons found in the ossuary 
(fig. 69). 



*&&. 



■j,. 




Fig. 68. — Fragment of Indian skull containing mud dauber nest. Access to 
the nest was through the opening for the spinal cord as indicated by arrow. 
The presence of the nest in the skull proves that the latter, in the dried state, 
was exposed in the open before burial. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



69 




Fig. 69. — Three articulated skeletons exposed in the ossuary by the removal 
of adjacent and superimposed bones. Although these bodies were laid face 
down in the grave, it is believed from the unnatural position of the lower legs 
that they were originally on their backs in a death house. 



70 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Very few details have been recorded of the burial ceremonies of 
the Virginia tidewater Indians. Capt. John Smith mentions the 
exposure of bodies in a "Tombe, which is an arch made of mats, 
[where] they lay them orderly." Such a death house, as seen by the 
artist John White along the coast of North Carolina in 1585, is 
illustrated in figure 67. This "tombe" apparently was restricted to 
prominent individuals. How the bodies of this group were finally 
disposed of is uncertain, for Captain Smith distinguishes the grave 
pits as "for their ordinary burials." 

The work this season at Patawomeke has a bearing on these points. 
Of the approximately 100 skeletons encountered in the ossuary, 
the majority had become or were disarticulated before burial. A few — 
approximately a dozen adults — however, were observed to be fully 
articulated (see fig. 69). These articulated skeletons were found on 
the bottom or along the sides of the pit and hence may have been the 
first bodies received into the grave. Moreover, these articulated skele- 
tons all are possibly males and have their arms extended along their 
sides as do the bodies pictured in White's death house (fig. 67). 
Also, all of these skeletons have their lower legs flexed unnaturally 
forward, which would have been a practicable way of shortening an 
extended body resting on its back. 

There is evidence, on the other hand, that the disarticulated skele- 
tons were exposed for a considerable period before burial ; in several 
cases mud dauber nests were found in the skull (fig. 68) or among 
the bundled bones. This finding indicates that the period of exposure 
included at least one warm season. Incidentally, these mud dauber 
nests, which are surely over 300 years old, have been positively 
identified as to species (Sceliphron cacmcntarium (Drury)) by R. A. 
Cushman, of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture, through their typical form 
and the remains of the larvae found within the cells. 

Another large mass of charred bones was found this year, and 
at the opposite end of the pit from that of last year. These bones, 
which were clearly the remains of several individuals, including chil- 
dren, had been placed on the sloping side of the pit probably at an 
early stage of the filling. Among these bones were burned beads of 
various sizes and one fine pipe bowl. 

With the exception of this pipe and an occasional potsherd, the 
only grave goods with the skeletons were beads and pendants or 
gorgets. A small amount of copper found with several individuals 
suggests that this ossuary may date from the early historic period. 
Many other points of interest undoubtedly will appear when the col- 
lections are studied. 



IN SEARCH OF CORONADO'S "PROVINCE OF QUIVIRA" 

By WALDO R. WEDEL 
Assistant Curator, Division of Archeology, U. S. National Museum 

In the summer of 1541 the buffalo plains stretching hundreds of 
miles northeastward from Pecos were traversed for the first time by 
white men. Behind Coronado and his Conquistadores lay the dis- 
illusionments of the Seven Cities of Cibola; ahead, the fabled riches 
of Quivira. By the end of summer this dream, too, had faded. 
Instead of a great and wealthy kingdom, the Spaniards found them- 
selves in a land dotted with grass-house villages whose simple peace- 
ful inhabitants supported themselves by hunting and by cultivation 
of maize, beans, and melons. The land was "very fat and black," but 
of gold and silver there was none. In spite of the disappointing results 
of this and subsequent adventures, a belief in the riches of Quivira 
lingered in the Spanish mind. As late as 1696, soldiers in pursuit of 
fugitive puebloan groups at El Cuartelejo on the western plains found 
them in possession of copper and tin said to have been obtained by 
journeys eastward to the wealthy and civilized province of Quivira. 
The exact location of the province remained indefinite, but the name 
gradually shifted westward until it came to rest in eastern New 
Mexico. It is now generally believed that the natives of Quivira were 
the Wichita Indians ; the province, as of Coronado's time, has been 
variously located from Oklahoma northward. Since 1927 the presence 
of large village sites of apparent protohistoric age near the great 
bend of the Arkansas River in central Kansas has led local historians 
to renew their claims that here lay Coronado's Quivira. Archeological 
verification, however, has been lacking. 

Several promising sites occur along Cow Creek and Little River 
in Rice County, and to the east. Four of these have each a large 
depressed circle with mounded center. Locally termed "council 
circles," one which was partly excavated by the United States Na- 
tional Museum in 1940 included curved basins (fig. 71, right) 
with postholes, fireplaces, burnt roofing clay, refuse, and in one case, 
disarticulated human bones. Purpose of the structures indicated is 
unknown. Otherwise, there was no certain evidence of house sites, 
but numerous large storage pits and refuse mounds argue for a rela- 
tively permanent occupation. Charred corn and wild fruit pits, along 
with quantities of bison, antelope, and other bones show that sub- 

71 



72 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 





Fic. 70. — Restored pottery vessels from the Tobias village site, 
Rice County, Kans. 




Fig. 71. — Left, remains of a coiled basket preserved by charring, Tobias 
site ; right, curved basin, apparently the remains of an earth-covered structure 
of unidentified purpose. Tobias site. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



73 




Fig. 72. — Excavating a small mound on the Arkansas City Country Club 
property in Cowley County, Kans. From a cache pit below this mound came a 
pueblo sherd dated ca. 1525-1650. 




Fig. 73. — Petroglyphs of uncertain age at Spriggs Rocks near Little River, 
Rice County, Kans. 



74 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

sistence was based partly on horticulture, partly on hunting and 
gathering. Pottery of distinctive type — grit-tempered, often with 
paddle-marked surfaces and loop handles — was plentiful (fig. 70). 
Also abundant were small triangular flint arrowpoints, end scrapers, 
knives, drills, arrowshaft smoothers, grooved mauls, and mealing 
implements. Bonework included awls, needles, stemmed projectile 
points, fleshers, wedge-shaped paint "brushes," arrowshaft wrenches, 
and unidentified forms. There were well-turned L-shaped pipes of 
red sandstone, and finely chipped blades of chert. Outstanding finds 
include a coiled basket (fig. 71, left) preserved by charring, and 
the remains of a necklace of blue glass, bird bone, and turquoise 
beads. Far-flung trade contacts are evidenced by obsidian from Yel- 
lowstone or the Southwest, by turquoise and glazed-ware potsherds 
from New Mexico, by banded chert from aboriginal quarries near 
Maple City, Kans., and Hardy, Okla., and possibly by other items. 
There is some reason to believe that secondary burial of the dis- 
membered dead, possibly in special structures, was practiced. 

Glass, iron, and similar evidence of trade with white men was 
extremely scanty. Puebloan sherds from storage pits and middens 
have been identified as late Rio Grande glaze-ware types dating from 
1525 to 1650. A badly rusted mass of interlocking iron rings, identi- 
fied as chain mail, may or may not be attributable to Spanish contact. 

Excavations in the Walnut Valley near Arkansas City showed 
that similar remains exist here. There were no house or burial sites, 
but among the artifacts taken from storage pits were additional 
puebloan sherds (ca. 1 525-1650). Lack of time prevented more than 
a brief test at a large and very promising mound site on the river 
bluffs east of Arkansas City (fig. 72). Throughout, it should be 
noted, there was a gratifying willingness on the part of landowners 
and others to cooperate in the work. 

Despite their preliminary character, the investigations show that 
in very early historic days central Kansas from Rice County east 
to Marion County and south to Oklahoma was dominated by a semi- 
sedentary, partly horticultural people with a comparatively uniform 
and somewhat distinctive material culture. The marked scarcity of 
European trade goods, coupled with the rare but consistent occurrence 
of datable pueblo sherds, suggests that these sites may have been in- 
habited during the period of Spanish exploration in the sixteenth 
and early seventeenth centuries. Further detailed studies may 
strengthen the growing suspicion that they are of Wichita origin and 
possibly represent some of the Quivira villages seen by Coronado, 
Jumana, Bonilla, and Ohate. 



TRAILING EARLY MAN IN VIRGINIA 

By DAVID I. BUSHNELL, Jr. 

Collaborator in Anthropology, Smithsonian. Institution 

The search for tangible evidence of early man in Virginia led me 
to make several trips during the summer and fall of 1940 to the vicinity 
of the Peaks of Otter, in Bedford County, a few miles south of the 
James River. The visits proved both successful and interesting. 
Here, in a little valley along the northern base of Sharp Top, the 
lower of the peaks, were discovered traces of a remote settlement, 
and as it was partly on the property of the Hotel Mons it will be called 
the Mons site. The area has recently been crossed by the new 
Skyline Drive, and much of the ancient site was covered and graded 
during the construction of the roadway. 

The valley, a beautiful secluded spot through which flow small 
streams and with springs of clear, cold water, had been occupied 
many times during past centuries — from the early period when it 
was entered by wandering bands to whom are attributed the Folsom 
points and certain other types of artifacts found scattered over 
the surface. Countless centuries must have intervened between the 
coming of these primitive hunters and the arrival of the historic 
Cherokee who occupied a village near the peaks in late protohis- 
toric times, and whose word for mountain, Ottare, is believed to have 
been rendered Otter by the European colonists. 

Many forms of stone implements and weapons, bits of pottery, 
and fragments of steatite vessels have been collected on the site. 
It is easily conceived that the innumerable objects were made during 
distinct periods of occupancy, and that some pieces are much older than 
others. 

Two Folsom points, or rather parts of points, have been found 
on the Mons site mingled with the later material. One specimen is 
the concave base end of a point made of grayish chert. The second 
example is made of a very dark quartz schist, now altered to a 
light color. This is shown, natural size, in figure 78. Other pieces from 
the site are included in the illustration; all are made of dark or black 
stones now weathered to a light gray, and all may be equally old. 

Beautiful examples of Folsom points have been found in Bedford 
County away from the Mons site, but all have been encountered in 
fields or on hillsides, with no traces of camps or villages nearby. One 



7 6 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 74. — Peaks of Otter, Bedford County, Va., looking north. Sharp Top on 
left, 3,875 feet high. Flat Top on right, 4,001 feet high. 




Fig. 75. — On west side of valley of Little Stony Creek, about 2 miles south- 
east of Sharp Top. A large Folsom point made of red jasper was found near 
tree indicated by white arrow. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



71 




Fig. 76. — Part of Mons site in foreground, looking smith over new roadway 
showing north side of Sharp Top. 




Fig. 77. — Part of Mons site looking northeast, from north of new roadway. 



78 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



large point made of red jasper was discovered on the west side of 
the valley of Little Stony Creek, about 2 miles below the Mons site, 
and others of equal interest have been found at a greater distance 
from the peaks. 




Fig. 78. — Five specimens from the Mons site, all made of dark or black 
stones now altered to a very light color. Folsom point on left with missing 
parts indicated. Small flake-knife below. Natural size. 

Thus it is evident that the region surrounding the Peaks of Otter, 
where the valleys and mountainsides were covered with dense forests 
and where game was plentiful, had attracted the first nomadic hunters 
who entered the wilderness. Later, during succeeding centuries, other 
tribes came to occupy the region — tribes that differed in manners and 
ways of life. Stone implements made and used by the many occupants 
of the valley are now found where they had been lost or abandoned, 
but the identity of their makers remains unsolved. 



LATEST EXCAVATIONS AT LINDENMEIER SITE ADD 
TO INFORMATION ON THE FOLSOM COMPLEX 

By FRANK H. H. ROBERTS, Jr. 

Archcologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Evidence that Folsom man, one of the first American big-game 
hunters, made and used fine bone needles with eyes, and that three 
types of projectile points found in the western part of the Great 
Plains represent sequent stages in the occupation of the area was 
part of the information obtained by the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology-Smithsonian Institution expedition in northern Colorado dur- 
ing the 1940 field season. 

Excavations at the Lindenmeier site (fig. 79), an important 
archeological location because it once was a camping place for groups 
of Folsom people, were resumed June 3, continued through July and 
August, and were brought to a close on September 20. The summer's 
digging started at a portion of the site where work stopped the 
previous year (fig. 80) and the overburden, ranging from 3 to 6 
feet in depth, was removed from 2,125 square feet of the former 
habitation area. This exposed numerous concentrations of cultural 
material consisting of stone and bone implements and camp debris 
(fig. 81). Over 1,000 artifacts, the largest number obtained during 
any single season's excavation at the site, and numerous animal bones 
came from these assemblages. Included in the collection of artifacts 
are bone needles, mentioned above, bone awls, bone punches, bones 
with spatulate ends, stone projectile points, many of the flakes re- 
moved to form the facial grooves, scrapers of various kinds, knives, 
hand hammerstones, and stones used for smoothing wooden objects 
and, possibly, for dressing skins. One interesting occurrence was 
the finding of a channel flake that fits a portion of a point obtained 
during the first season's work. The fragments came from locations 
some 450 feet apart. 

The importance of the needles is that they demonstrate the 
presence of this type of implement at an earlier period in North 
America than previously supposed and also in their implication of 
the use of some kind of tailored clothing and foot gear. While there 
was the assumption that Folsom man relied on hides from the animals 
he hunted for protection against the rigorous climate of the closing- 
days of the last ice age, this is the first indication that he may have 
fashioned actual garments from that material. With such needles and 



8o 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 79. — Approaching thunderstorm at the Lindenmeier site, northern 
Colorado. Main portion of site lies between camp at the left and hill at the 
right. 




Fig. 80. — Looking south across the Lindenmeier site. The 1940 excavations 
were above the ravine bank near the right border of the photograph ; expe- 
dition camp at the left. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



^^ k rfp. ■si^meff&Sm 





'JkzsSi 






■^v^ 



3K 



Fig. 81. — A portion of the excavations. Workmen at the right are just 
beginning to remove the specimen-bearing stratum. 




Fig. 82. — Archeological objects and pieces of cut bison bones in situ. 4, a 
characteristically fluted Folsom point ; 5, the basal portion of a broken point ; 
6, a stone scraping tool. Portion of bison jaw lies between 4 and 0. 



82 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

sinew for thread a serviceable job of sewing was possible. The 
needles apparently were made from splint bones from deer or bison. 

The three types of projectile points are the characteristically fluted 
Folsom (fig. 82) ; a point that in its general outline resembles the 
Folsom but has only a thinned base formed by the removal of several 
short, narrow flakes instead of a single broad, long one as in the case 
of the Folsom ; and a triangular-bladed form with a long, broad tang. 
They occur in the preceding order with the Folsom at the bottom, 
the oldest level. The significance of this evidence is that it establishes 
the priority of the Folsom type. On the basis of typological studies 
it has been suggested that the thinned-base type was a preliminary 
stage in the development of the facial fluting typical of the Folsom 
points, but it now appears that it represents a break-down in the 
form. The type with the long, broad tang occurs in a distinct stratum 
that is definitely later in time than the Folsom horizon. Similar points 
have been found at several sites in western Nebraska and Kansas 
and have been regarded, by some investigators, as contemporary 
with the Folsom. This is now disproved. 

In addition to the above-described work, nine test trenches were 
dug in portions of the site not investigated previously. None of these 
revealed promising locations for further excavations, and the open- 
ings were not enlarged. Evidence obtained from many test pits, those 
put down in previous years as well as those of the current season, 
indicates that the area where the major digging was done was the 
main camping place on the old valley bottom. 

During the month of August the writer supervised student excava- 
tions at the University of New Mexico field session in the Chaco 
Canyon, N. Alex., and visited several sites in New Mexico and 
Arizona where reports indicated the possibility of relatively early 
occupancy. The most important of these is one located south of the 
town of San Jon, approximately 25 miles southeast from Tucumcari, 
in eastern New Mexico. There large numbers of cut and split animal 
bones, most of them in an advanced stage of fossilization, are 
weathering from deposits along the edge of the Staked Plains. As- 
sociated stone flakes and artifacts indicate a former hunting grounds 
or camping place. Projectile points from the assemblage suggest an 
earl)' Yuma type, and it is possible that valuable information on the 
proper place in the archeological picture of the area of that much-de- 
bated form could be obtained by careful excavation of the site. While 
the writer was absent from the Lindenmeier site, work continued 
under the supervision of Charles R. Scoggin. a student from the 
University of Colorado, who has been a member of the field party 
during all but one of the several seasons of excavation there. 



RECORDING CULTURE CHANGES AMONG THE 
CARRIER INDIANS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 

By JULIAN H. STEWARD 
Senior Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Persons who believe that anthropologists are strange, antiquarian 
scientists who prefer skeletons to living people and the dust and 
decay of past ages to things living and modern, may be puzzled 
that an anthropologist should deliberately choose to study an Indian 
tribe that had abandoned 90 percent of its native customs in favor 
of "civilized" ways of life. Yet studies of acculturated tribes have 
become a major field of research and fit neatly within the scope of 
the "science of man." Anthropology directs only part of its atten- 
tion to the past, which it sees as a background to the present. It 
views contemporary primitive peoples as very live groups, whose cul- 
tures, though rooted in history, are not relics of the past but are 
present realities that function and develop today in the ever-chang- 
ing medium of the modern world. The anthropologist studies these 
modern primitives to gain insight into social change and to test 
social theory. 

Particularly well suited for studies of culture change are the 
Carrier Indians of central British Columbia. It was known that the 
social organization of these Indians had been fundamentally altered 
twice in the past. In prehistoric times the Carrier had substituted a 
complex society copied from that of the coast Indians for their own 
simple organization. After the white man came, their social structure 
was revolutionized again through contact with civilization. By what 
processes were these changes effected? What relation had economic 
pursuits to social organization? In the present Carrier culture, what 
is Indian, what is White? The writer visited the Carrier during the 
summer of 1940 to gather information required to answer these 
questions. 

The Carrier country is still a vast wilderness of lakes and forest- 
covered mountains. Except for the Canadian National Railway that 
runs through it to the Pacific coast, a little precarious farming south 
of the railroad, and scattered mines in the "bush," it is unchanged 
by civilization. The Indian population continues to live mainly on 
the resources of forest and stream : Deer, bear, caribou, and moose, 
salmon and trout, some of the latter weighing up to 18 pounds, and 

83 



8 4 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 83. — A Carrier woman at Fort St. James carefully scrapes the flesh and 
hair from a moosehide before tanning it. 




Fig. 84. — A Carrier girl and two boys at Fort St. James face the camera with 
only slight misgivings. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



85 




Fig. 85. — Rocher Deboule Mountain, towering behind Hazelton, is charac- 
teristic of the mountain scenery along the lower Skeena River. 




- ■ ■' ".:.. 




, 



-Carrier Indians from Hagwilgate Village stand on this precarious 
scaffold to harpoon salmon in the torrent of the Bulkley River. 



86 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

a great number of fur-bearing animals, the most important of which 
is beaver. 

Most of the Carrier Indians live in small communities scattered 
along the lakes and rivers, but on the southern end of Stuart Lake 
they have a rancheria of several hundred persons which, with 
an equal number of whites, make up the village of Fort St. James. 
The "Fort," which is 42 miles north of the railroad at the end of an 
automobile road, is the last real outpost of civilization. Beyond it, one 
may travel for several hundred miles by boat along a chain of 
scenic lakes or, if hurried, he may even engage one of three sea 
planes that are stationed on Stuart Lake to serve the mines. 

Fort St. James is nearly ideal from the anthropologist's point of 
view. Several hotels provide comfortable accommodations, and stores 
and trading posts afford essential needs. The Indians are friendly 
and intelligent, most of them speaking English fluently, and many 
are excellent informants. An ideal informant was found in Chief 
Louis Billy Prince, grandson of the great Chief Kwah who died 100 
years ago, and acknowledged leader of the Stuart Lake Carrier. 
Physically vigorous, long of memory, and keen of mind at 76, his 
talents included not only a remarkably detailed knowledge of his 
own people but a reading knowledge of English, French, and the old 
Carrier syllabary taught him two generations ago by the missionary 
Father Morice. For 2 months the Chief answered questions about 
the past and present Carrier ways of living. When his information 
faltered, we always found another person who could fill gaps or 
verify statements. 

After the data supplied by Chief Louis Billy were analyzed, it was 
possible to reconstruct a coherent picture of the main social and 
economic changes during Carrier history. 

The Carrier Indians have always been hunters, trappers, and fish- 
ermen, living in reasonable security if not in affluence. They hunted 
with bows and arrows, nets, and traps, took salmon with weirs, and 
caught fur-bearing animals with a variety of ingenious devices. 
Originally, they had exploited their lands in some communal man- 
ner. Probably the members of a simple, democratic band hunted their 
territory together. But in late prehistoric times influence from the 
Pacific coast tribes swept away this early system and introduced 
in its place an organization of titled nobility, each with its lands like 
the baronial estates of Europe. By a system of clans with descent 
through the mother's side of the family, each wealthy aristocrat be- 
queathed his lands and title to his sister's son. It was not sufficient, 
however, merely to inherit riches and social status. In order to gain 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



87 




Fig. 87. — Tsimshian Indians at Kitwanga on the Skeena River keep their 
totem poles in fresh paint for the enjoyment of passengers on the Canadian 
National Railway who stop over to view them. 




-Grave stones at Hazelton reveal how totemism and Christianity 
have blended to form the modern Tsimshian religion. 



OO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

recognition as a full-fledged noble and to make good a title one had 
to give a large feast, called a potlatch, at which he lavishly bestowed 
presents on rival nobles. Like our own "social set," the Carrier 
aristocrats constantly jockeyed for rank by a succession of potlatches 
at which they sought to prove their superior wealth. The common 
people were merely auxiliary to this system. They were entitled to 
hunt on the land of certain noblemen, who were perhaps their own 
clansmen, but they were always liable to sizable levies when the 
nobleman needed goods to potlatch. 

The Carrier had changed from a system of bands to one of a 
stratified society based on wealth without any modifications of their 
economic basis of life. The first effect of the coming of the white man 
was an improved economic technology, but the social organization was 
not affected. The fur trade established in 1806 brought steel 
traps, guns, tools, and manufactured goods given in exchange 
for furs. The Carrier nobles became richer and their potlatches more 
pretentious. 

In the course of time, however, white influence directly and indi- 
rectly undermined the old Carrier society. The improved technology 
that at first produced greater wealth soon led to overexploitation of 
animal resources, with a diminution of wealth and consequent diffi- 
culty in potlatching. Meanwhile, the Catholic missionaries, who 
arrived in 1842, effected a remarkably thorough conversion of the 
Fort St. James people. Clan totems were overthrown, clans fell apart, 
and potlatching was regarded as a barbarism. The virtue of saving 
supplanted the glamour of giving presents. Men refused to will their 
hunting lands to their nephews and divided them equally among their 
own sons. Titles, formerly inseparable from lands, were confused 
by this new system of inheritance. Moreover, nobles, lacking wealth 
with which to potlatch, fell into disrepute. By the beginning of the 
present century nearly every Carrier had his own land and used it 
exclusively to support his own family. In 1926 trap lines were reg- 
istered with the British Columbia Provincial government. 

Today the Carrier Indians continue to live mainly from resources 
of the forests. As in days of old, they set out each fall with dog sleds 
or pack dogs to their trap lines. But with steel traps and modern 
rifles there is constant temptation to overexploit, a matter of no little 
concern to Provincial officials. In addition to furs, which are ex- 
changed at the trading posts for manufactured goods, the Carrier 
sell moccasins and bags of moose hide, prepared and tanned in the 
native manner (fig. 83). The salmon catch has greatly decreased be- 
cause the law forbids construction of fish weirs and because down- 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



89 




Fig. 89. — Air. Bransford becomes acquainted with one of the first Alaskans. 
The mummy box lies undisturbed in the background. 



pw.u.. f Tr ~' 




Fig. 90. — The mummy arrives safely at Ketchikan after flying 150 miles on 

the pontoon. 



90 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

stream canneries have reduced the annual runs. But fish are still taken 
with nets, now woven of machine thread, and with steel hooks and 
flies. Fishermen ply the lake in dugout canoes which are frequently 
powered by outboard gasoline motors. A few men are beginning to 
build planked boats after the white man's models. 

Except for their continued reliance on hunting and trapping, the 
Carrier are scarcely distinguishable in material culture from many 
of their white neighbors. Log cabins have replaced their ancient 
bark houses and are furnished with beds, tables, chairs, and stoves. 
Metal pots and pans are standard kitchen equipment, although 
excellent birchbark vessels are still made for home use as well as for 
trade. Clothing comes from the store. Moccasins are still popular, 
but rubbers are worn over them in wet weather. 

In social features the Carrier are little different from the white 
man. Native songs, dances, and folklore, though surviving to some 
extent in neighboring communities, have practically vanished. The 
Indians regularly attend the Catholic church. Each morning my in- 
formant walked 4 miles to mass and returned home before my 
arrival. The Carrier language is spoken by all Indians but the syllabary 
is known only to a few old men. Others read and write Carrier with 
English letters learned at school. 

Word having come of an Indian mummy that needed rescuing 
from an island west of Ketchikan, Alaska, I continued on to the 
coast. A brief visit was made to the Carrier and Tsimshian Indian 
villages and fishing stations (fig. 86) near Hazelton. The Tsimshian, 
living on the lower Skeena River, have a full-fledged totemic art 
that still may be seen on the totem poles at Kitwanga (fig. 87) and 
on the totemic grave stones (fig. 88) in the Hazelton cemetery. 

From Prince Rupert, the railroad terminus on the coast, I went 
by steamer to Ketchikan. Lloyd Bransford, of the United States 
Forest Service, who discovered the mummy site, kindly accompanied 
me on a trip to recover the burial materials. We chartered a seaplane 
and, in an hour and a half, flew the distance that would have re- 
quired several days by boat. We found several box burials (fig. 89) 
of the early historic period. One of the bodies was excellently pre- 
served, probably because of desiccation. It was an adult male, 
dressed in buckskin and wrapped in a woven cedar bark blanket, his 
hair braided into many small queues and daubed with red paint. 
Without disturbing him, we removed his box, a coffin of adz-hewn 
cedar planks inlaid with shell, to the plane. As it would not fit inside, 
it was lashed to a pontoon (fig. 90) where it rode dizzily back to 
Ketchikan. 



A FIELD COMPARISON OF NORTHWESTERN WITH 
SOUTHWESTERN INDIANS 

By JOHN P. HARRINGTON 

Senior Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

At the beginning of the calendar year I was engaged in field work 
on the Indians at Juneau, in southeastern Alaska, where the language 
was found to be surprisingly similar to that spoken by the Navajos, 
the largest tribe of Indians in the southwestern United States. The 
closeness of the resemblance extended both to the vocabulary and 
to the grammar, and is unique considering the great distance between 
the two localities — -Juneau is 1,200 miles north of Seattle, Wash., 
and the Navajo Indian Reservation is about as far south of Seattle. 
The Navajos, or at least that section of their ancestors which imposed 
the language on the rest, must have come from what is now Alaska 
or the adjacent part of what is now Canada only a few centuries 
ago ; otherwise there would be more difference in the Indian languages 
spoken. The Indians of the entire archipelago of which southeastern 
Alaska consists are known as "Tlingit." A hundred years ago they 
numbered some 10,000 souls, occupying all the islands of southeastern 
Alaska and subsisting largely on marine products, especially fish. 
About 400 words were collected in Alaska, almost identical with 
Navajo. 

It will be evident to the reader that Indians living in such very 
different habitats and talking the same language must apply the same 
words to different objects. This proved to be the case. The word 
that among the Navajo means "cactus" means in Alaska "crab- 
apple," a bush with spines about an inch long; the fundamental mean- 
ing of the word is evidently "spiny." To the Navajo, living in the 
desert, fish is little more than a word. In Alaska fish is the livelihood 
and chief food of the Indians. The same word for fish is used in 
both regions. 

The early spring proved to be the time when most animals and 
plants are advantageously collected in Alaska, and long experience 
has proved that the only safe way to get the Indian names of animals 
and plants is to collect the specimens with the help and interest of 
Indian informants and thus to get specimen and name at the same 
time. Figure 91 shows the author collecting a sea worm ; the picture 
does not show the Indian who was standing nearby and giving the 
Indian name for a specimen collected in situ. 

7 9 i 



9 2 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 91. — The author finds a sea worm and records the Indian name for it as 
given by the informant who accompanied him (not shown in the picture). 




Fig. 92. — View of Sitka (meaning "Baranov's oceanward side"), showins 
Edgecumbe Peak in the background. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



93 




Fig. 93. — Alaska beach strewn with driftwood. 




Fig. 94. — Baranov palace, headquarters of the former Russian 
governors, Sitka. 



94 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The location of "Ankau," one of the earliest of the Russian 
colonies in Alaska, has never been exactly known. It was my good 
fortune to locate it, through Indian information. It is on Ankau 
Inlet, which runs into Monti Bay, Alaska. 

The origin of the name "Sitka'' was discovered. It means "on the 
oceanward side of Baranov Island,'' and this is a good description of 
the location of the town. Shee, from which the first syllable of Sitka 
is corrupted, is the native Indian name of Baranov Island, -tka is a 
suffix meaning "on the oceanward side of." The town and its little 
islands are on the seaward side of the great Baranov Island and look 
out upon the great Pacific (fig. 92). 

One of the impressive sights in Alaska to one who has heard old 
Indians tell of the early condition of United States beaches is the 
driftwood still piled high and unmolested by seekers after firewood 
(fig. 93). These driftwood beaches have the primitive aspect. Even 
on the coast of Oregon and Washington, driftwood is now removed at 
once from the ocean beaches by local settlers who use it as firewood. 

Returning to Washington, D. C, in July, I left early in August 
for Gallup, N. Mex., for the purpose of checking the northern 
material with Navajo information. The Navajo language resembles 
the Tlingit language of Alaska word for word and syllable for syllable 
as much as peas resemble one another in the same pod. The w r ords 
and the accounts of the Alaska customs fascinated the old Navajos, 
and there was little in the information from the far north that they 
did not see through and add analysis to. Motion pictures taken in 
Alaska were shown to the Navajo Indians both at Window Rock 
and at Fort Defiance, Ariz., to the keen delight of the native audiences. 
The Navajo have a tradition that ages ago some of their people became 
separated from the rest and went north and are known in the Navajo 
language by a term which is well translated as the "Again-Navajo." 
The Alaskan and Canadian Indians who talk like Navajo are identified 
with these "Again-Navajo." The news has spread through the great 
Navajo Reservation that the "Again-Navajo" have been located and 
visited, and interest in the comparison of words and customs is keen 
among the Indians themselves. Good informants and interpreters 
were found in southeastern Alaska and especially on the Navajo 
Reservation, where not only the Alaska material but the grammar 
of the Navajo language with all its ethnological connotations was 
completely gone through. I returned from the Navajo Reservation 
to Washington, D. C, in the middle of November, and by the end 
of the calendar year more than half of the entire material had been 
elaborated into the form of a finished report. 



MUSEUM AND FIELD STUDIES OF IROQUOIS MASKS 
AND RITUALISM 

By WILLIAM N. FENTON 
Associate Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Early in May 1940 I returned to my Seneca friends on Allegheny 
River in southwestern New York to learn more about the grotesque 
wooden false-faces and the rituals of the fraternity known as "The 
Society of Faces," which, among the Seneca and their Onondaga 
and Cayuga confederates along Grand River in Ontario, semian- 
nually puts on the wooden masks and drives sickness from the com- 
munity. The masks and the rituals differ somewhat locally, and the 
problem was to establish, through a study of carving techniques 
and finished masks, local artistic styles, and then to arrange the 
masks in a series of types according to their form and function. 
There was the further intriguing problem of determining whether 
the native classification would confirm or differ from a classification 
based only on formal features of specimens already present in our 
museums. Consequently, field interviews were combined with a 
project of studying Iroquois masks and ceremonial equipment in 
nearby museums. 

At the New York State Museum in Albany, through the courtesy 
of the director, Dr. Charles C. Adams, and the kind cooperation of 
the State archeologist, Noah T. Clarke, the Morgan and large Con- 
verse collections were measured, annotated, and photographed. The 
small mask collection of the Montgomery County Historical Society 
at Fort Johnson was included. At Toronto we received many kind- 
nesses from Prof. T. F. Mcll wraith while examining the Boyle 
and Chiefswood collections from Grand River in the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Archaeology. At the Rochester Museum of Arts and 
Sciences Dr. Arthur C. Parker, while culling out the older Seneca 
masks for me, recalled from his field experience following 1905 at 
Cattaraugus some mask-making techniques that confirmed evidence 
I had noted in the older masks that they were burned out. We drove 
through the early historic Seneca town sites to the Bristol Hills, and 
our conversations lasted far into the night at "Rumpus Hill," my host's 
retreat above the head of Canandaigua Lake near the traditional 
homeland of the Seneca. A part of the enormous collections of the 
Museum of the American Indian was examined at the annex during 
one day, but the remainder merits another visit. 

95 



96 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 




Fig. 95. — Chauncey Johnny John, of Coldspring, 
exhibits a turtle rattle and typical Seneca mask with 
flare lips worn by the doorkeeper of the Society of 
Faces. 




Fig. 96. — George Buck, lower Cayuga of Grand River, points out the 
peculiar features of local art style : the bent nose and crooked mouth aug- 
mented by many wrinkles in likenesses of the first medicine man. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94O 



97 




Fig. 97. — Drawing the features of the face before carving. 




-Having roughed out the face, Tom Harris, of Grand River, hollow: 
the back with a curved adz. 



98 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

We already had a wealth of material for use in the field, and the 
200 masks we had seen were beginning to bother our sleep. The data 
included a selected series of criteria such as color, form of various 
facial features, presence of supplementary wrinkles and spines on 
the forehead, number of holes and method of attaching hair and head 
bands, and such evidence of use as oiling, ceremonial tobacco bags, 
and hints as to old carving techniques. Photographic prints were 
mounted with the notes for field use. 

Informants regarded these pictures with mixed feelings. They 
were at once interested, a little awed, and amused. Intentionally 
horrific portraits are both awful and funny, and laughing relieves the 
tension of fear. When a mask provides an excellent caricature of 
some local personality, it becomes a great joke that so-and-so re- 
sembles a False-face, and a friend passing on the road is hailed in to 
share it. Chauncey Johnny John, of Coldspring, and James Crow, 
of Newtown, mask makers to the Seneca for a generation, segregated 
the pictures into a dozen mask types based on the most variable 
feature, the shape of the mouth. This feature plus the general 
treatment of carving frequently enables an informed Iroquois to name 
the local group and often the maker of the mask. The most char- 
acteristic masks from the Senecas of Newtown on Cattaraugus Reser- 
vation vary between "spoon-mouthed'' and "straight-lipped," with 
smooth facial features broken up by a row of spines above the nose 
dividing wrinkled brows (fig. 95). Masks from the Onondaga of 
Grand River are more massive and have bent noses and crooked 
mouths augmented by many supplementary wrinkles (fig. 96). 

Observation coupled with photography is particularly rewarding 
in studies of material culture, of which mask making is a good ex- 
ample. At Coldspring, Chauncey Johnny John undertook to make a 
mask for me according to Seneca standards, and so I recorded the 
steps commencing with a standing basswood tree, selected for straight- 
ness, from which he took the block and carved the mask in a series 
of stages of roughing out the face, hollowing the back with adz and 
crooked knife, and drilling the perforations with a hot iron (fig. 97). 
Anciently, masks were carved on the living basswood tree and cleaved 
away with a tobacco invocation beseeching the tree for its life, after 
which, it is said, the wound healed over. But now T carvers prefer old 
pine barn beams. Similarly, we recorded the technique of manufactur- 
ing a folded hickory bark rattle. 

"While I was at Grand River during August, Tom Harris finally 
consented to demonstrate the carving of a crooked- face mask, although 
he said that it is not quite right for people to watch because there is 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I94.O 



<)>) 




Fig. 99. — The Raven leads the members of the cousin clans over the forests 
to sing across the fire from the "brother clans" of the sponsor. Photograph 
by R. B. Congdon, Salamanca. N. Y. 




Fig. 100. — Air. Hilton Hill, of Six Nations Agency, Mrs. Fenton, and Mrs. 
Hill before St. Paul's chapel of the Mohawks on the site of Brant's first 
settlement on Grand River. 



100 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

a belief that the carver may cut himself. Nevertheless. Harris is 
master of his tools and his strokes are sure so that within a few 
hours he had turned out two representative stages of the hadu'T mask 
for the National Museum (fig. 98). 

Not only did my Seneca friends assist me in photographing their 
masks, but they readily posed themselves in the crucial stages of the 
masked rituals. Before long I was requested to help buy meat — a pig 
head and side pork that has supplanted bear meat in feasts — to help 
my interpreter's sister sponsor the rare ceremony of "They are cutting 
through the forests," hadi'hadi'ya's, to renew her membership in 
the Medicine Company. This ceremony, which is first mentioned by 
Jesuit missionaries among the Huron, is still kept up by the various 
lodges of the Iroquois Medicine Company. Giant Raven, the messen- 
ger of the Society, had in a dream descended on the roof of the 
sponsor's city home, and a clairvoyant had divined that this ceremony 
would help her. So she distributed a sacred eight kernels of corn to 
the Raven of her four clans, who transferred half to the Raven of 
the cousin clans. The whole responsibility for conducting the cere- 
mony rests with the latter, who leads his gourd-shaking singers in 
through the woods from a neighboring house, and they enter and 
sit down across the fire from the brother clans of the sponsor (fig. 99) . 
This dual division permeates the whole ritual from mutual greet- 
ings, the tobacco-burning invocation to the supernaturals, tossing 
songs across the fire, passing the berry juice between periods, curing 
the sponsor, the round dance, the masker's entrance, to the terminal 
feast. Thanks to Hiram \Yatt and Chauncey Johnny John, the 
Ravens, my friend Richard Congdon of Salamanca, who helped 
with the photographs, and Sherman and Clara Redeye, my inter- 
preters, our files contain a complete record of the performance. 

Smithsonian exploration and field work has become almost a tra- 
dition among the Six Nations near Brantford on Grand River. Once 
more we reaped the benefits of Mr. Hewitt's fine relations with the 
Indians and Canadian government officials. To Maj. E. P. Randle, 
Superintendent of the Six Nations, and Chief Clerk Hilton Hill 
(fig. 100) we acknowledge the fine facilities of a schoolroom study and 
teacher's residence among the Lower Cayuga. Here, throughout 
August our family was part of the Iroquois community while Simeon 
Gibson patiently outlined the yearly cycle of ceremonies at Onondaga 
longhouse and dictated the principal texts which make up the 9-day 
Midwinter Festival of dream fulfillment at the Indian new year. These 
ceremonies involve some vexing problems of social organization — 
the existence of village bands, the function of moieties, the nature of 
residence after marriage, and the sorrorate. 



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